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' 17 h. 




Making of a Township 

Being an Account of the Early Settlement 
and Subsequent Development of 



1829 to 1917 

Based Upon Data Secured by Personal Interviews, from 

Numerous Communications and Various Other 

Reliable Sources of Information 

Concerning Local History 

Under fKe Editorial Supervision of 


Edgar BaldvJin Printing Compan>' 


Copyright 1917 
by Edgar M. Baldivin 

PEB -8 1918 

©CI.A4 922f)l 

^<^. j 


It would be presumptuous upon the part of any one person to claim 
the authorship of this narrative. "The Making of a Township" is the 
joint production of many. Without the generous co-operation of 
friends the story would, indeed, have been lacking in essential elements 
of accuracy and interest. Credit will be given in the proper place for 
the work of each contributor. 

Fairmount Township was literally hewn out of the wilderness. The 
forest, in its primitive purity, has given way to productive farms and 
splendid homes where modern conveniences abound. Measured in 
terms of days, months and years the record reaches back to but yester- 
day. Considered upon the basis of development and invention, it seems 
to cover centuries. 

For more than thirty years the writer has thought that this account 
should be prepared. Ten years ago he commenced to assemble data 
for this purpose. Not until January i, 191 7, however, did he abandon 
the hope that others who had lived through the pioneer period, and 
were therefore better equipped by knowledge and experience to handle 
the subject, would take the matter up. Now that this information ap- 
pears in permanent form, though the task be imperfectly performed, 
it is the hope of the editor that the book may in some measure preserve 
to posterity facts which otherwise might have been lost. 

E. M. B. 

Fairmount, Indiana, September 26, 1917. 









i ff 



From a drawing by Olive Rush mad2 after a careful study of the building 
and its former environments and conversations with oldest settlers 

of that neighborhood. 


In the preparation of this narrative two methods presented 
themselves for consideration. 

First. The many communications received and published in 
The Fairmount News might have been revised and edited and set 
out in the editor's own lang-uage. It appeared that the work thus 
done would very likely take on a form entirely too prosaic and 
assume a style obviously too tedious, thereby losing much of its 
refreshing- candor. 

Second. The plan of treatment finally adopted, which seemed 
more appropriate to an effort of this character, speaks for itself. 
The reproductions of letters in substantially the identical language 
used by the contributor gives to the book, we trust, a more original 
significance, establishing an intimate or cordial relationship, so to 
speak, between narrator and the reader. This method seemed to 
meet with the approval of competent judges and it was therefore 

Thanking you for your loyal support of this project, without 
which the volume could not have been added to your library, I am 

Yours sincerely, 

Edgar M. Baldwin. 

List of Illustrations. 


John Vetor 251 

John B. Hollingsworth 254 

Andrew Rhoads 258 

Ephraim Bartholomew 267 

James C. Thorn 269 

Alson M. Bell 271 

Modern Fairmount Home .' 272 

W. Hort Ribble • • • • 273 

Lieut. Col. Allen Parker 274 

Joseph W. Relfe 276 

Map of Fairmount Township 277 

Thomas J. Lucas 278 

David G. Lewis 281 

Roland Smith 293 

Last of Tanyard 294 

H. W. Winslow 303 

The Clodfelter Power House 306 

The Old Swimmin' Hole 307 

Joseph W. Baldwin 308 

Nathan W. Edwards 311 

Dr. Alpheus Henley 314 

Dr. David S. Elliott 316 

Hon. C. C. Lyons 319 

Mrs. Gladys (Lyons) Knight 319 

Dr. Carl D. Lucas 322 

Dr. J. W. Patterson 323 

Levi Scott 326 

John Selby : 327 

John Flanagan 328 

Robert A. Morris 329 

Gilbert LaRue 332 

Alvin B. Scott 334 

Xen H. Edwards 336 

Washington Street Looking East from Main Street 337 

Main Street, Looking South from Washington Street 338 

Nixon Rush 340 

Graduating Class of Fairmount Academy (1888) 341 

Garfield Cox 342 

Joel B. Wright 344 

Fairmount Academy Basketball Team (1915) 345 

Fairmount High School Basketball Team (191 5) 346 

List of Illustrations. 


Rev. W. D. Baker 347 

Rev. W. J. Seekins 348 

Ancil E. Ratliff 349 

Alvin Seale 356 

The Big Snow 35^ 

Back Creek .at Flood Tide 362 

Back Creek on a Rampage 3^4 

Hon. Edgar L. Goldthwait 382 

David Jones and Family 4^7 

In the Quaker Costumes of Their Grandmothers 435 


McCormick's Tavern on the Old State Road 

(By Olive Rush ) Frontispiece 

Blazing" the Way (Head piece by Olive Rush) 17 

Victor A. Selby 19 

Charles T. Parker 22 

Hon. John T. Strange 2)^ 

Me-shin-go-me-sia 35 

The Fankboner Graveyard 41 

Original Site of McCormick Tavern 42 

Old Coleman Homestead 45 

Gabrille Havens 46 

Daniel Winslow, Henry Winslow and Setli W'^inslow 49 

Back Creek Meeting-house 51 

Nathan Morris 53 

Second and Third Generations 55 

Mark Baldwin 56 

John T. Morris 59 

Asa T. Baldwin 64 

William G. Lewis 67 

Emeline Lewis 68 

Solomon Thomas 69 

John Smith 70 

Mary Ann Smith 70 

The Postoffice at Ai 71 

William S. Elliott 79 

Lydia Morris Arnold 82 

Aaron Newby 94 

Major B. V. Norton 96 

Members of the Wilson-Hill-Bog-ue-Baldwin Families 100 

T. B. McDonald ' 113 

William R. Woollen 121 

David Stanfield 126 

Elizabeth Stanfield 127 

Site of Benbow Cabin 128 

Cyrus W. Neal 129 

Jonathan Baldwin 135 

List of Illustrations. 


Hon. James M. Hundley 136 

First Frame Dwelling in Fairmount 137 

The Old Baldwin Homestead 138 

The Giant Hackberry 140 

Mrs. Angelina (Harvey) Pearson 148 

Herbert Pearson 1 50 

The Pool of Siloam 153 

Fac-simile of Scrip Issued by the Alarion & Mississinewa Rail- 
road Company 157 

Rev. Herbert S. Nickerson 160 

Daisy Barr 163 

The Elijah Ward Cabin 165 

William Hall 166 

Berean Bible Class of the Friends Sabbath School 168 

Mary Ann Taylor 179 

John R. Little 180 

Miss Stella Buller 190 

Eli J. Cox 193 

The Edmund Leach Homestead 196 

William J. Leach 199 

Claud Leach 200 

Jonathan P. Winslow 203 

Jane (Henley ) Winslow 203 

Palmer \A'inslow ,. 204 

Jonathan P. Winslow Homestead 205 

Nixon Winslow 206 

Levi Winslow 207 

The W. H. H. Reeder Homestead 22-j 

William Henry Harrison Reeder 228 

Robert B. Reeder 230 

Mr. and Mrs. O. M. Bevington and Famil\- 231 

Henry Simons 232 

Jesse E. W^ilson 238 

Aunt Mary Wilson 240 

vSamuel C. Wilson 241 

Lindsey and Jane (Davis) Wilson 244 

Mrs. Eunice (Pierce) Wilson 245 

Lin Wilson 247 

Nathan D. W. Elliott 249 

Clyde N. Wilson 250 

Jesse Webster XA'ilson 250 




IT IS NOT definitely known when the first white man set foot upon 
the soil of Fairmount Township. 

Until about 1823, according to best available authority, Indians were 
the sole inhabitants of Grant County. 

It may be stated, however, for the meditation of thoughtful people, 
and as a matter simply of speculation, that James Marquette, noted 
Jesuit missionary, visited the northern part of Indiana about the year 
1672 ; that within the same decade Joliet, intrepid French explorer, and 
LaSalle. with his band of adventurous spirits, passed through the region 
of the Kankakee swamps. 

AMiile it may be true that detachments from various expeditions, as 
sometimes happened with exploring parties, forayed into this section 
of the State, there appears to be no recognized authority bold enough 
to assert, as a fact, that any of these sturdy pathfinders penetrated the 
unbroken forest which in the first half of the nineteenth century covered 
this Township. 

Flushed with victory over General Harmar in October, 1790, 
Indians had begun to terrorize the frontier settlements in Northwest 
Territory. Gen. Arthur St. Clair, a native of Thurso, Caithness-shire, 
Scotland, educated at the University of Edinburg, distinguished him- 
self in the campaign which ended with the surrender of Cornwallis. 
(ieneral St. Clair was a delegate to the Continental Congress, serving 
l)art of the time as President of that body. He was the first Governor 
of the Northwest Territory. 


i8 The Making of a Tomnship. 

As Commander-in-Chief of the U. S. Army St. Clair, in 1791, 
headed an expedition sent against Miami Indians on the Wabash. His 
troops, numbering 1,800 men, met with a disastrous defeat at the hands 
of more than 2,000 warriors led by Little Turtle. Though exonerated 
by Congress. General St. Clair resigned his command. 

In 1792 St. Clair was superseded by General Wayne. On account of 
his many daring exploits he had come to be known by the people as 
Mad Anthony. He was a native of Waynesborough, Pennsylvania, and 
had served in the War of the Revolution. His dash and audacity as a 
commanding officer saved General Lafayette from annihilation in 1780 
while the gallant Frenchman was operating in Virginia. 

Major-General Scott, with about 1,600 mounted Kentucky Volun- 
teers, joined the troops of General Wayne on July 26, 1794, at Ft. 
Defiance. Two days later the combined forces began their movement 
on Indian towns situated along the Maumee. 

It may be remarked, in passing, that the reenforcements under Gen- 
eral Scott might have been the soldiers who. tradition tells us, blazed 
the trail afterwards known as the Ft. Wayne road, passing in a north- 
easterly direction beyond and east of East Branch school house, in Fair- 
mount Township. 

This trail led across one corner of Willis McCoy's farm, passing 
through the southeast corner of Thomas Winslow's place, thence along 
the road by John H. Flanagan's land and through John Selby's tract, 
crossing the Mississinewa at Wilson's ford. 

David Lewis, who came to this Township on November 18. 1834. 
always contended that General Wayne's troops left a quantity of sup- 
plies and equipment near this ford. 

Thomas J. Parker, another early pioneer (father of Ex-County 
Treasurer Joseph H. Parker and Attorney Charles T. Parker), who 
lived at one time in the vicinity of Lake Galatia, frequently in his 
reminiscent moods talked to members of his family and to his neigh- 
bors of the accuracy of this statement with reference to what was 
known in the early days as "the Anthony Wayne trail." 

Attorney Parker submits an interesting contribution to the litera- 
ture on this subject, upon which there has been a wide divergence of 

"In the years 1875 and 1876," Mr. Parker's statement reads, "my 
father. Thomas J. Parker, lived where the nortii side of what would be 
the east extension of Eighth Street intersects with the west bank of 
the prairie, east of the town of h^airmount. During the winter months 

Blacing the Way. 


he conducted a boot and shoe shop, making and mending boots for the' 
people of that vicinity. 

"Of evenings during the winter the neighbors would congregate 
there and pass the time in relating reminiscences and legends pertaining 
to that particular country, and especially with reference to the prairie 
part of it (which at that time was undrained, and during the greater 
part of the year was covered with water), this running for a consider- 
able distance from a southwest angling on up to what is now known as 
Lake Galatia. 

"On the brow of this prairie 
was a road following along the 
high bank, just above the prairie 
and meandering around with nu- 
merous crooks and turns, follow- 
ing the contours of the bank of 
the prairie. 

"On many occasions I have 
heard my father and the old set- 
tlers along this road tell about 
that being the road which An- 
thony Wayne and his soldiers 
had cut out in their march from 
Maumee and Ft. Defiance to the 
relief of the settlers at the old 
fort, which is now the site of the 
city of Ft. Wayne, at that time 
beseiged by the Indians. This 
was during the months of Oc- 
tober and November, 1794. 

"Among the old settlers living 
along the road at that time were 
Jacob McCoy, Major B. V. Nor- 
ton, John Selby and Milton Wins- 
low. This road, at that time — 


Who possesses an old-fashioned flint- 
lock gun barrel said to have been left 
behind by one of General Wayne's 
soldiers as the troops passed through 
Fairmount Township. 

in 1874 and 1875 — was always called the Wayne, or Ft. .Wayne road. 
In those days it was a common thing to pick up flint arrows and other 
stone implements, evidently having been used by the Indians of early 
times ; also evidences of implements of warfare of various kinds were 
found. One which I had the opportunity of inspecting recentlv was an 
old flint-lock mustket barrel which had a hole blown in one side. It was 
found near this road, and is now in the possession of our fellow-towns- 

20 The Making of a Tozwiship. 

man, A'ictor A. Selby. The supposition is that it was one of the cast- 
off guns of Anthony Wayne's soldiers. 

"A part of this road is still in use, following from the west bank of 
the Eighth Street road and angling round past the farm home of John 
H. Flanagan and John Selby, most of the other part of this road having 
been abandoned in straightening the lines along the different farms 
located on this thoroughfare." 

"It is a reasonable conclusion," writes Dr. Alpheus Henley, "that 
the first settlers who came to Grant County from the South fol- 
lowed the road that was previously cut out, so far as it ran in the 
direction they wished to go. 

"In talking with some of the first settlers, old Georgie Moore, 
Aquilla Moore's father, who settled where Abe Music lived, and Solo- 
mon Thomas, who settled a little farther north, I got the impression 
that Alexandria and Summitville were located on the old trail, and that 
Moore's, Thomas's and Henry Osborn's cabins were erected on the 
old road. 

"When I first became acquainted with the Henry Osborn settlement, 
about seventy years ago, Henry had a field fenced in north of his 
cabin, along the east side of the road to his northwest corner. At that 
point where his north line intersected with the road, there stood a sign 
post, a board on it pointing to the northeast and southwest, which read : 


"That post and sign were there some years later. 

"At that time the land east of the then traveled road, and north to 
where Davis now lives, was all in woods. Isaac Stanfield then lived on 
the Ink place and A^ernon Stanfield lived where Kaufman built his 
big barn. 

"The Wayne trail led off from the sign post in a northeast direction, 
striking the prairie near eighty rods east of the Ink residence, and fol- 
lowed the meanderings in and out of the prairie, keeping on dry 
ground, to the Timothy Kelley residence. Here it left the prairie and 
made a more direct angle to the Wilson crossing of the Mississinewa 

"Ft. W^ayne* was the place of entry of all Grant County land, con- 
sequently there was considerable travel over the Wayne road by land 

* By an Act of Congress, approved In- the President of the United States 
May 8, 1822, this office was established at Ft. Wayne. After the survey of the 
lands, President Monroe issued a proclamation for their sale, the minimum 
price being fixed at $1.25 per acre. The sale began on October 22, 1823. 

Biasing the Way. 21 

buyers until the Government land was all taken up, that being the most 
direct route to the Land Office. 

"In October, 1861, I drove a two-horse team from the then Kauf- 
man place, due east through the middle of the farm, some eighty rods to 
the prairie, where I came on to the old trail, which I followed to the 
Billy Karwin place, and on by Jacob McCoy's, John Lee's, Otho Selby's 
and Timothy Kelley's, where the road left the prairie and ran north 
a little ways, then direct to the river. After crossing the river the 
road ran a pretty angle northeast to Warren and Huntington. After 
getting a little way from the river the land was quite level and covered 
with a dense forest. The farms were small and not always close 

"My objective point was Huntington. My errand being accom- 
plished, as I now recollect, it was almost 3 o'clock in the afternoon, and 
night overtook me near Warren. I drove to my starting place that 
night, or rather between 2 and 3 a. m., and I came to the conclusion 
that was about the most dismal drive I ever made. 

"The old trail had not been changed much at that date, but ran on 
a direct angle." 

"You no doubt have heard of old Dave Conner,'' who established an 
Indian trading post on the river, some miles northwest of the present 
site of Marion," continues Dr. Henley. "Some time prior to the War 
of 181 2 Conner was doing business there. The military authority over 
that district enjoined Conner from selling the Indians any more ammu- 
nition or guns. This order so incensed the Indians that they gath- 
ered up in force around the block house and demanded ammunition. 
Upon refusal to comply with their terms they threatened to tear down 
the house, kill Dave and help themselves to what they wanted. Conner 
was true to his country, and in the face of death refused to accommo- 
date the Indians, who proceeded at once to carry out their threat by 
felling a small tree on the house that stood near the fort, up which a 
number of Indians climbed to the roof and commenced to make an 
opening in the top. When they had an opening sufficiently large to 
see what Conner was doing, Dave picked up a keg of powder and 
emptied it out on the counter, and with a piece of wood with fire on 
the end in one hand, told the Indians if they did not depart at once he 
would blow all of them beyond the happy hunting grounds. They took 
Dave at his word, knowing that he had always kept his word with 
them, and did not molest him again. 

""'This is undoubtedly the same man that Lieut.-Col. John B. Campbell 
refers to in his report on the Battle of the Mississinewa. 


Tlic Making of a Township. 


Whose important contribution to "The Making of a Township" helps to 

define the route of the Anthony Wayne trail. 

BIa:sing the Way. 23 

"Jep Sutton, one of Conner's clerks, was in the building with Con- 
ner at this particular time. He said when Dave picked up the stick 
with fire on it he fell down against the wall and closed his eyes, expect- 
ing every second to hear the crash that did not come. 

"Sutton stayed with Dave until the latter died. I never saw old 
Dave, as he was called, but I did see Sutton, who was a rough back- 
woodsman, and I judge felt more at home with the Indians than with 
white men. 

"Robert McClure and James Sweetser clerked for Conner at an 
early day, and learned the Indian language while selling them goods." 

Advancing from Ft. Defiance. General Wayne, on August 20, 
gained a decisive victory over the Indians and British, losing thirty- 
three killed and 100 wounded. Nine hundred Americans were act- 
ually engaged in this battle as against an estinijated superior force of 
2,000 of the enemy. 

September 14. 1794, General Wayne, with his troops, proceeded 
in the direction of deserted Miami villages at the junction of the St. 
Joseph's and St. Mary's Rivers, reaching that point October 17th. Here 
the site of Ft. Wayne, named by Col. John F. Hamtramck, was selected. 
The fort was completed on November 22d. 

General Wayne's complete pacification of the Indians was accom- 
plished. The Treaty of Greenville was made on August 3, 1795. The 
principal chiefs present when the treaty was signed were Tarhe, Buck- 
hongehelas. Black Hoof, Blue Jacket and Little Turtle. 

General Wayne continued to serve until 1796 as United States 
Commissioner in the Northwest Territory. His career ended shortly 
after his successful campaign against the Indians. He returned to 
Ft. Presque Isle (now Erie), Pennsylvania, where he died, December 
14, 1796. 

Little Turtle was a natural leader of men. Skillful and courageous, 
he was a fearless and persistent enemy of frontiersmen. He won 
many victories over the whites. It was not until he encountered "the 
man who never sleeps," as he once described General Wayne in a coun- 
cil of war, that he met his match. 

Little Turtle died at Ft. Wayne, July 14, 1812. A vast concourse 
of people attended his funeral. He was buried with the highest 
honors. The sword and medal presented to him by Gen. George 
Washington were placed in the coffin when his body was lowered into 
the grave. 




TECUM SEH, a Shawnee, perhaps the foremost man of his race, 
had in 1812 attained to a position of undisputed leadership. As 
warrior, statesman and orator, he was without a rival among his peo- 
ple. In all the country drained by the Mississippi his influence and 
power none questioned. His celebrated interview with Gen. William 
Henry Harrison, at Vincennes, which ended abruptly, convinced Gen- 
eral Harrison that he had met a foe entirely worthy of his constant 

Tecumseh had for many years devoted his great powers of logic 
and persuasion to the proposition that all tribes must confederate, 
work together for mutual advantage and to maintain intact, at all 
hazards, every foot of their choice hunting grounds. His whole policy 
centered on this one end. 

As a basic principle. Tecumseh held that the Great Spirit had given 
the tribes all these hunting grounds to keep in common, and that all 
treaties made with white men were null and void. With such diligence, 
resourcefulness and success did he propagate his doctrines that prac- 
tically all Indians yielded to his leadership and rallied enthusiastically 
to his support. 

The War of 181 2 presented the opportunity and British machina- 
tions supplied the pretext which Tecumseh and his warriors seized 
upon in their resistance to further encroachment upon their territory. 
The Treaty of Greenville was disregarded. Indians once more left their 
peaceful pursuits, gathered up their guns and tomahawks and renewed 
their depredations and massacres. 

It was during this period that the Battle of the Mississinewa was 
fought in Pleasant Township, on Grant County soil. The result of 
this battle was of supreme importance in its bearing upon the subse- 
quent development of Fairmount Township. 

The attention of thoughtful people is not attracted to that coun- 
try for permanent settlement where life is not secure or where the 
peaceable possession of ])roperty is not assured. Men do not need- 
lessly expose their own lives, much less the lives of their families, to 
pillage and rapine and nnu'dcr. 

It was not until fourteen years had elapsed after this battle had been 


Battle of the Mississiiiewa. 25 

fought that pioneers ceased to hesitate in forming their purpose and 
maturing their plans to gain homes in the new country. Gradually, 
satisfying themselves of ample protection in their property rights and 
of personal safety for themselves and their families, Fairmount Town- 
ship became the objective point of those hardy people from the South 
and from the East. 

In view of these facts, and without further explanation, it is not 
out of place to insert here a well-written account of the epoch-making 
Battle of the Mississinewa, prepared by Mr. Carl D. Hunt. This 
description, somewhat condensed, is taken from The India'napoiis 
Star, dated January 24, 1909. Details given in the article have been 
authenticated by competent critics who are famihar with ascertained 
facts relative to this engagement. 

"It is the dead of winter," the story runs. "In the face of a blinding 
snow, and suffering intensely from the bitter cold, a company of sol- 
diers is advancing into a wilderness broken in infrequent spots by a 
settler's cabin or a deserted camping ground. The men urge their 
stumbling horses forward, ever ready for the attack of the wary red- 
skins, whom they have come to subject to the white man's rule. 

"Imagine such a scene in Indiana but a short ninety-seven years 
ago, and once you have fixed in your mind the perils and hardships 
of that terrible march, the stage is set for the thrilling climax — the 
forgotten Battle of the Mississinewa. 

"The valor of Harrison's heroes at Tippecanoe in their great vic- 
tory over Tecumseh's hosts has been commemorated in song and story. 
But the heroism of the brave band of pioneer patriots who gave up their 
lives beside the Mississinewa that civilization might advance is an 
unknown story. Yet in all the annals of Indian warfare on Hoosier 
soil there was not a more picturesque struggle or one involving greater 
bravery and more privations upon the part of the soldiers than this 
Battle of the Mississinewa. It opened the way to Fort Wayne and 
Detroit on the north, and thus led to the final victory against the 
Indians of the Middle West. 

"The battle-ground is in the corner of Grant County, not far from 
the Wabash County line and near the old town of Jalapa, on the Mis- 
sissinewa River, along" the banks of which is scenery not to be sur- 
passed in Indiana. And it is not far, either, fromi the shaft which may 
some day remind future generations of the tragic story of Frances 
Slocum, the 'White Rose of the Miamis.' 

"During the boyhood of men now living there were many marks 

26 The Making of a Township. 

of the battle yet in evidence. Dr. T. R. Brady, of Wabash, lived near 
the scene of the battle, and as a boy used to go there in the summer 
time to gather plums from a grove of wild plum trees which marked the 
battle ground ; and E. P. McClure, of Marion, as a boy, picked bullets 
from the trees on the battle ground, and remembers well the scene as 
it was then, before most or all of the original trees went down 
before the ax of the white man. His father and the Indians of that 
part of the State were good friends and in this manner Mr. McClure 
was informed in detail as to the manner of the fighting that marked 
the battle and of its great importance in opening up what was then the 
Territory of Indiana. 

"The Indians of Indiana had been peaceable for many years — in 
fact, had been peaceable after their experiences with General Wayne in 
the neighborhood of what is now Ft. Wayne, and elsewhere. This 
peace had begun about six years before the Territory of Indiana was 
organized, in 1800. But when the War of 181 2 beset the people of the 
United States, British representatives, as a part of the plan of that war, 
proceeded to stir up the Indians against the whites, and it was as the 
result of this that Gen. William Henry Harrison, the first Governor of 
Indiana, as a Territory, found much trouble with the Indians on his 
hands. General Harrison had been successful in his treaty making 
with the Indians and was satisfied with the progress the wilderness of 
Indiana was making until about 1806, when he found that Tecumseh, 
a Shawnee, and his brother, known in history as "The Prophet," were 
causing trouble. The Indians organized against the encroachments of 
the white man. and finally General Harrison was forced to order them 
to disband. They refused, and it was then that he led an expedition 
against them, which ended in the Battle of Tippecanoe, on November 
7, 1811. 

"The Indians were scattered, but the beginning of the War of 1812, 
about a vear later, gave them new courage and a new opportunity for 
hostilities. As a result of their activities and the success of the Brit- 
ish in the Northwest, an order was issued from Washington that Gen- 
eral Harrison take charge of the forces in this part of the country, 
and this he did about a year after he had so signally distinguished 
himself at the Battle of Tippecanoe, making his headquarters at Piqua. 

"Tlie importance of the engagement of the Indians in the IMissis- 
sinewa region is shown in a letter then written l)y General Harrison 
to his superiors at Washington. Other expeditions had failed against 
the Indians in this territorv and General Harrison was determined that 

Battle of the Mississinezva. 27 

a decisive blow should be struck. This letter, dated November 15, 
1812, and addressed to the Secretary of War, was as follows : 

" 'I have received no information from General Hopkins, but there 
is no doubt of the complete failure of the mounted expedition under 
his command, and that mieasures must be immediately taken to prevent 
the evils which will otherwise flow from it. As soon as the informa- 
tion reached me I determined to direct an expedition against the 
Miami towns of the Mississinewa. The situation of this town as it 
regards my lines of operation, even if the hostility of the inhabitants 
was less equivocal, would render a measure of this kind highly proper, 
but from the circumstances of General Hopkins' failure, it has become 
indispensable. Relieved from the fears excited by the late invasion 
of their country, the Indians from the upper part of the Illinois River 
and to the south of Lake Michigan will direct all their efforts against 
Ft. Wayne and the convoys which are to follow the track of the left 
wing of the army. Mississinewa will be their rendezvous, where they 
will receive provisions and every assistance they may require for any 
hostile enterprise. From that place they can, by their runners, ascer- 
tain the period at which every convoy sets out from St. Mary's and with 
certainty intercept it previously to its arrival at Miamii Rapids ; but 
that place being broken up and the provisions destroyed there will be 
nothing to subsist any body of Indians nearer than the Pottawatomie 
towns upon the waters of the St. Joseph or Lake Michigan. The 
troops destined for the Mississinewa expedition are the dragoons, 
belonging to my army, with the addition of perhaps a single company 
of mounted volunteers. The dragoons will amount to about 600 men, 
but the greater part of them are to be entirely relied upon. The expe- 
dition will be commanded by Lieutenant-Colonel Campbell, of the 
Nineteenth Infantry. He has no military experience, but is brave, sen- 
sible and judicious, and will be ably seconded by the talents and expe- 
rience of Major Ball. I am confident that you will not hear of any 
retrograde movement upon the part of this detachment until the 
object upon which they are sent is accomplished.' 

"Leaving Greenville, Ohio. December 14. 181 2, the men pushed 
forward through the wilderness into Indiana. It was cold when they 
left Greenville, but on December i6th it became much colder, and great 
were the hardships of the trip. On the morning of the 17th, after a 
long and hard march, they came upon a village of Indians on the Mis- 
sissinewa River and surprised and routed them. They killed eight 
Indian warriors and took forty-eight prisoners, eight of whom were 
men and the rest women and children. Colonel Campbell left men to 

28 Tlie Makiiii^ of a Toiviiship. 

guard the prisoners, and, with horsemen, proceeded along the river, 
idestroying Indian towns and dissipating the suppHes the Indians had 
accumulated at this, their base of operations. 

"On the following morning the camp was attacked by Indians, 
but Colonel Campbell, well aware of the likelihood of this, had pre- 
pared for it, and the redskins were routed. Then, having accomplished 
the purposes for which he was sent out, the Indians being driven from 
the base of operations from which they had done so much to harass 
General Harrison and thwart his plans, and being short of supplies, 
the Colonel and his men turned homeward. The march back was one 
of the most severe in the history of the country. Eight of the soldiers 
had been killed in the engagements and forty-eight had been wounded, 
and of the latter seventeen had to be carried, thus making the progress 
of the trip very slow. Seeing that he would not have provisions, the 
Colonel sent word ahead for relief, but it did not come until they were 
within forty miles of Greenville, and many of the brave men of the 
expedition, footsore and almost frozen, had not had food for three 
days when the relief party met them. 

"That General Harrison was, indeed, well pleased with Colonel 
Campbell and his command, and was repaid for the confidence he had 
imposed in the young officer, is indicated in his report to James Mon- 
roe, Secretary of War, under date of January 3, 1813, in which he 
enclosed a detailed report by Colonel Campbell. In this General Har- 
rison spoke in the highest terms of the bravery of the men who com- 
posed the expedition. 

"General Harrison enclosed the report of the expedition which had 
been made to him by Colonel Campbell, under date of December 25, 
181 2. Colonel Campbell goes into detail regarding the privations 
suffered and the actual fighting. It is, -perhaps, the best account of 
Indian fighting in the Hoosier wilds on record. Imagine what the 
Hoosiers a hundred years from now will think of such an article ! 

"In the course of his report Colonel Campbell wrote : 'On the 
march I occasionally formed in the order of battle to accustom the 
troops to it. They formed with the utmost celerity and in good order. 
The first two days I marched forty miles. The third day I pushed 
the troops as much as they could bear, marched the whole night, 
although excessively cold, stopping twice to refresh and warm. This 
day and night we marched forty miles. Early in the morning of the 
17th I reached, undiscovered, an Indian town on the Mississinewa. 
inhabited by a mixture of Delawarcs and Miamis. The troops rushed 
into the town, killed eight warriors and took forty-two prisoners, eight 

Battle of the Mississinezi''a. 29 

of whom were warriors, tlie residue women and children. I ordered 
the town immediately to be burnt, a house or two excepted, in which I 
confined the prisoners ; and I ordered the cattle and other stock to be 
shot. I then left the infantry to guard the prisoners, and with Sim- 
ral's and Ball's dragoons advanced to some Miami villages a few miles 
lower down the Mississinewa, but foimd them evacuated by all but a 
sick squaw, whom we left in her house. I burnt on this excursion three 
considerable villages, took several horses and killed a great many cat- 
tle, and returned to the town I first burnt, where I had left the pris- 
oners, and encamped. My camp was in the usual form, but covered 
more ground than common. The infantry and riflemen were on 
the line. Captain Elliott's company on the right, Butler's in the center 
and Alexander's on the left. Major Ball's squadron occupied the right 
and one-half of the rear line. Between Ball's right and Simral's left 
there was an interval which had not been filled up, owing to the unusual 
extent of the ground the camp embraced, it having been laid off in 
my absence to the lower towns. I now began to deliberate on our 
future movements, whether to go on further, encumbered with pris- 
oners, the men much fatigued, and a great many severely frost-bitten ; 
horses suffering from want of forage, which was very partially relieved 
by the scanty supplies of corn obtained in the towns. I determined to 
convene the field officers and captains of the detachment to consult, 
and then to take such a course as my own judgment might approve. 
At 4 in the morning of the i8th I ordered to be beaten the reveille, and 
the officers convened at mv fire a short time afterward. 

" 'While we were in council and about an hour before day, my camp 
was most furiously attacked by a large party of Indians, preceded by and 
accompanied with a most hideous yell. This immediately broke up the 
council and every man ran to his post. The attack commenced upon 
that angle of the camp formed by the left of Captain Hopkins' troop 
and the right of Captain Garrard, but in a few seconds became general 
from the extremes of the right to the left of Ball's squadron. The 
enemy boldly advanced to within a few yards of the lines and seemed 
determined to rush in. The guards posted at the different redoubts 
returned to camp and dispersed among their several companies, this 
leaving me without a disposable force. Captain Smith, of the Ken- 
tucky Light Dragoons, who commanded at one of the redoubts, in a 
handsome military manner, kept his position until ordered in to fill up 
the interval in the rear line between the regiment and squadron. The 
redoubt at which Captain Pierce commanded was first attacked. The 
captain maintained his position until it was too late to get within the 

30 TJic Making of a Toimiship. 

lines. He received two balls through his body and was tomahawked. 
He died bravely and much lamented. The enemy then took possession 
of Captain Pierce's redoubt and poured in a tremendous fire upon the 
angle, to the right and left of which were posted Hopkins' and Gar- 
rard's troops. But the fire was as warmly returned ; not an inch of 
ofround was yielded. Every man, officer and soldier stood firm and 
animated and encouraged each other.' 

"The writer here continues at considerable length to detail the 
various maneuvers and formations for battle. Then he pays this 
tribute to his men : 

" 'Captain Butler, in a most gallant manner and highly worthy of 
the name he bears, formed his men immediately and in excellent order 
and marched them to the point to w^hich he was ordered. The alacrity 
with which they formed and moved was never excelled by any troops 
on earth. 

" 'The battle had gone on in the night. At this time daylight had 
begun to dawn. I then ordered Captain Trotter, whose troop 
had been ordered by Colonel Simral to mount for the pur- 
pose, to make a charge. The Captain cried out to his men to follow 
him and they were tilted off at full gallop. Captain Trotter's first 
lieutenant, with eighteen of the men, were on guard. Lieutenant 
Trotter, Cornet Dishman and the residue of the troop, together with 
Lieutenant Hobson and four men of Elmore's Troop, Dr. Aloore and a 
few other gentlemen, including Mr. Thomas Moore, my private secre- 
tary, advanced gallantly and charged a numerous body of the enem\. 
Major McDowell, with a small party, rushed into the midst of the 
enemy and exposed himself very much. I can not say too much for 
this gallant veteran. Captain Markle, with about fifteen of his Troop, 
and Lieutenant Warren's, also, made a daring charge upon the enemy. 
Captain Markle avenged the death of his relation. Lieutenant Waltz, 
upon an Lidian, with his own sword. Captain Trotter and his Troop, 
and Captain Markle and his little band, performed a most dangerous 
duty in the bravest manner. Captain Trotter mentions to me as 
worthy of particular notice Robert Mitchell, a wagoner, who had vol- 
unteered for the expedition, and Christian Wilman, Trumpeter to 
Colonel Simral's Regiment, who blew two charges and hewed down 
an Indian with his sword. William Montgomery, Sergeant Major of 
the Regiment of Kentucky Light Dragoons, was in charge and distin- 
guished himself as well as in the skirmish the day before. In this 
charge Captain Trotter was wounded slightly, Corporal Riddle shot 
through the body, David Stule wounded in the right thigh slightly and 

Battle of the Mississiiiezvn. ' 31 

the brave Piatt received his mortal wound, being shot through the 
body and hand. Fearing that Captain Trotter might be too hard pressed, 
I ordered Captain Johnson of the Kentucky Light Dragoons to advance 
with his Troop to support him. I found Johnson ready and Colonel 
Simral reports to me that all his other Captains, to-wit: Elmore, 
Young and Smith, were anxious to join in the charge. But I called 
for only one troop. The Colonel had the whole in excellent order. 
Captain Johnson did not join Trotter until the enemy was out of reach. 
He, however, picked up a straggler or two that Trotter had passed 
over. The cavalry returned and informed me that the enemy had fled 
precipitately. I have on this occasion to lament the loss of several brave 
men and a great many wounded. Among the former are Captain 
Pierce, of the Ohio Volunteers, and Lieutenant Waltz, of Markle's 
Troop. From the enclosed list you will see names and numbers of the 
killed and wounded, eight being killed and forty-eight wounded, two 
of whom are since dead. The enemy paid dearly for their temerity. 
From the trails through the snow and those found dead we could not 
have killed less than thirty, which, with those killed the day before, 
amounts to thirty-eight. The enemy did not take a scalp. The Indian 
who killed Captain Pierce attempted to scalp him, but was killed. Major 
Ball informs me that he can say with confidence that there never were 
officers and soldiers who displayed more cool, firm and soldierly con- 
duct than those of his squadron.' 

"This concludes the principal account of the fighting written by the 

commanding officer. He then generously proceeds to give unstinted 

praise to his various officers, making personal mention of the deeds 

of each and also complimenting the valorous conduct of many privates. 

"Colonel Campbell wrote of his return march : 

" T have now, my dear sir, detailed to you the particulars of an 
engagement bravely fought, and victory gloriously won, after contend- 
ing most warmly for at least an hour. From the length of our line 
simultaneously attacked by them, I am persuaded there could not have 
been less than three hundred of the enemy. They fought most bravely. 
My strength on the morning of the action was about five hundred and 
ninety rank and file, a considerable portion of whom, amounting to at 
least forty or fifty, were almost rendered unfit for duty by the severity 
of the weather. Some were so badly frost-bitten as to be scarcely able 
to walk. There never was severer service performed by any troops, 
and yet there is not a murmur. Reports made to me yesterday morning 
inform me of three hundred who are so severely frost-bitten as to be 
entirely unfit for duty. On my march back I was compelled to move 


The Making of a Toiciislu['. 

slowly on account of the wounded, seventeen of whom we had to carry 
on litters. I kept the troops always ready to meet an attack, which I 
daily and nightly expected, until I reached this place. I fortified my 

camp every night by a breastwork, 
which kept us very busily engaged. 
The scarcity of axes was now most 
sensibly felt. I have informed you 
how I advanced into the enemy's 
country. My return was nutch in 
the same manner. I determined 
to be always ready, to avoid sur- 
prises and falling into ambus- 
cades. I assure you the respon- 
sibility attached to this command 
I most seriously felt. Being young 
in service, and inexperienced, I 
felt great diffidence in accepting 
this command. I, however, hope 
my conduct will meet your appro- 
bation. I will hasten to join you, 
but it will take the troops some 
time to recruit and heal. Some 
will lose their toes; others' feet 
are so swollen as not to be able 
to put on their shoes. The night march was most severe on them.' 

"The brilliant young Colonel, in the concluding paragraph of his 
report, gives us an estimate of the importance of the Ilattle of the 

" T have learned, since my return, that General Hopkins had re- 
turned to Vincennes, after burning some Indian villages and driving 
them, supposed to be three hundred in number, up the Wabash. This 
still made my situation more perilous, and I shall not be surprised to 
learn that Tecumseh commanded in the action against me. Let him be 
wlu) he may, he was a gallant fellow and maneuvered well. Conner 
thinks it was Little Thunder (nephew to the Little Turtle) from his 
loud voice, which he knew. He heard him ordering his men in the 
Miami language to rush on. ihal llic\ would soon retreat. 1 think, sir, 
the Kentucky Cavalry will scarcel\- be in a situation to render you nmch 
more service. Their losses in horses are considerable and one hundred 
and thirty-eight frost-bitten severely. They are fine fellows with a few 
exceptions, and as 1)ra\e as an\- men in the world. Captain I'rince is 


Battle of the Mississiiiezoa. 33 

here very sick, and was unable to get on with us ; this was to me a 
great loss. 

" 'I am. sir. very respectfully, etc., 

" 'John B. Campbeix, 
" 'Lieut.-Col. Nineteenth U. S. Reg.' 

"The valiant Campbell, for whom General Harrison predicted such 
a bright future, was promoted in the following year for his success in 
the Mississinewa expedition. In April, 1814, he was commissioned a 
Colonel in the Eleventh Infantry, but was fatally wounded in the battle 
of Chippewa, on July 5th, of that year, and died August 29th, fol- 

And these are the men and such are the deeds wliich prompted Sen- 
ator John T. Strange, of Grant County, in January, 1909, to introduce 
a bill in the State Legislature for an appropriation to commemorate 
their achievements. 

However much historians may differ as to the importance of the 
battle, there can be no question about the heroism displayed by Colonel 
Campbell's valiant band in an action which assured peace and safety 
for the pioneers on what was then the Western frontier. 



Wh&reas, It has been almost one century ago since the Battle of the 
Mississinewa was fought, and 

Whereas, Up to this time no action has ever been taken to purchase 
the ground upon which the battle occurred, or to erect a monument to 
commemorate the heroism of those engaged on behalf of the United 
States in said battle, or to commemorate the importance of the success- 
ful termination of said battle in the settlement of the great North- 
west ; and 

Whereas, At this time it is deemed fitting and proper for the great 
State of Indiana to recognize in some suitable manner the vast im- 
portance of this event to the people of Indiana, and to the great North- 
west ; therefore, 

I. Be it enacted by the General Assembly of the State of Indiana, 
That there is hereby appropriated out of any funds in the State Treas- 
ury not otherwise appropriated, the sum of $10,000 for the purchase of 

■"'This measure failed to pass. 


TJie Making of a Tozvnsliip. 

the Mississinewa Battle Ground and the erection thereon of a suitable 
monument in Grant County. Indiana, to commemorate the suffering, 
services and heroism of those engaged there in battle on the 17th and 
1 8th days of December, 181 2, and to perpetuate the importance of the 

2. Three Trustees shall be appointed by the Governor, whose duty 
it shall be to carry out the provisions of this act, and said Trustees 
shall serve without compensation. 

3. That said Trustees shall keep an accurate account of all dis- 
bursements and make a full report thereof and of the execution of their 
said trust to the Governor not later than January i, 19 10. 



IN JUNE, 1861, Hon. Elijah P. Hackleinan, a pioneer resident of 
Wabash County, upon request of John B. Dillon, author of Dillon's 
History of Indiana, visited the scene of the Battle of the Mississi- 
newa. Mr. Hackleman made care- 
ful measurements of the ground 
and gathered considerable impor- 
tant information relative to this 
engagement. He obtained many 
facts from Me-shin-go-me-sia and 
William B. Richards, both of 
whom, it is stated, ])articipated in 
the battle. Richards later moved 
to Liberty Township, where he 
lived until his death. 

Ale-shin-go-me-sia was born 
near the mouth of Josina Creek, in 
Wabash County, not very far from 
where the battle was fought. 
The year of his birth is given as 
about 1782." He died December 
16, 1879. There is a sharp differ- 
ence of opinion prevalent regarding his participation in the Battle 
of the Mississinewa. This battle was fought on December 18. 1812. 
Me-shin-go-me-sia, if the year of his birth be correctly given, was then 
thirty years old. In order to properly qualify as chief of his tribe, an 
Indian must possess qualities which elevate a man somewhat in the 
esteem and confidence of his race. He must have stability, and skill, 
and brayery as a warrior. He must be able to inspire his followers and 
by personal example to stimulate courage. It is not very likely, there- 
fore, that an Indian old enough to fight who skulked away at a time 
like that, when fearlessness, the most important attribute of all, was im- 
perative, would ever be accepted or even tolerated as Chief of the proud 
Miamis. If, on the other hand, the year of his birth, as given, be in- 
correct, Me-shin-go-me-sia may have been a child when the battle was 
fought, and therefore might have been carried awav with other chil- 
dren to a place of safety. 


"^ King mans' Atlas, Page 16. 


36 The Making of a Tozmiship. 

Me-shin-go-me-sia was the eldest of ten children. When his father, 
Me-to-cin-yah, passed away, Me-shin-go-me-sia became Chief of the 
Miamis. He managed the affairs of his people with wisdom ; his pru- 
dence in business matters was recognized. He adopted the dress of the 
whites, but continued to use the Indian language ; he spoke English 
fairly well. In all his habits he was strictly temperate. His conduct 
was manly and he was upright in his dealings. In his later years he 
joined the Baptist Church and lived a consistent Christian life. He was 
married about the year 181 5.''' No husband was ever more devoted or 
attentive to his' wife. She was stricken with blindness before her death, 
and he was constantly by her side, ministering to her every need. At 
his death he owned 160 acres of good land. He enjoyed the respect of 
all who knew him. 

"Me-shin-go-me-sia was a remarkable man," stated E. P. McClure, 
who knew him well. Mr. McClure's father, the late Samuel McClure, 
.was intimately acquainted with the old chief. Samuel McClure settled 
on the Indian reserve in 1827, where he built one of the first cabins 
erected in Wabash County. He was implicitly trusted by the Indians. 
So highly was he esteemed that they gave him the name Che-cum-wah, 
meaning twin brother. "My father went to Washington City with 
Me-shin-go-me-sia several times on treaty matters. I recall, as a boy," 
remarked E. P. McClure, "that Indians made father's house their home 
when they came to Marion. The Miamis lived seven miles northwest 
of Marion, and this was their trading point. I used to get pies and 
cakes from mother's pantry for them to eat. They liked delicacies of 
this sort. I remember they used to wrap their blankets about them, 
eight or ten in a room, and lie down on the floor, their feet to the fire- 
place. That is the way they wanted to sleep, and father always let 
them have their wish about it. One day Sas-a-quas, sometimes called 
Sassafras, brought a gray pony to town and made me a present of it. 
I was a very proud boy. It was the first pony I ever owned. Sas-a- 
quas used to make bows and arrows for me. I have heard that the 
Miamis practiced polygamy. 1 have mingled with them a great deal, 
but I never knew of but two cases where the Miamis had plural wives. 
Shap-an-do-siah and Sas-a-quas each had two wives. I do not believe 
that ]\Ie-shin-go-me-sia took part in the Battle of Mississinewa. He 
was a peaceable man. I have heard my father in conversation with him 
many times on a wide variety of subjects, and not once do I recollect 
of hearing Me-shin-go-me-sia say anything about participating- in that 
fight. My understanding has always been, and I am firmly of the opin- 

* Kingiiiaiis' .Itlas. 

Chief of the Miamis. 37 

ion, that he was not in that engagement. It is my impression that Me- 
shin-go-me-sia, with several squaws and their children, were over on 
Wildcat when the Battle of the Mississinewa was fought." 

"I have been slower in making reply to your favor of the 13th inst. 
than I would have been excepting my inability to find data to bear me 
out in thinking that Me-shin-go-me-sia was a boy six years old, among 
other children, with women and men too old to accompany the war- 
riors of the tribe who had gone north to do battle," writes Maj. George 
W. Steele, of Marion. "The latter returned in time, as we know, to 
give Colonel Campbell and his command all of the fighting he could 

"Of course Me-shin-go-me-sia was a young hero at any rate, and 
in due time a chief who proved to be the last of his tribe. 

"As a boy, in 1849, was at their village at a round-up and separation 
of their ponies, which had become so numerous as to disturb our pioneer 
settlers, and were sold at public sale in surrounding towns, Marion, of 
course, among them." 

The letter of Major Steele was prompted by an inquiry made in a 
communication by the writer addressed to him relative to the participa- 
tion of Me-shin-go-me-sia in the Battle of the Mississinewa. Major 
Steele was a leading factor in the effort made looking to the purchase 
of the ground on which this battle was fought. It was planned to 
acquire this land with a view of converting it into a park, as wa& 
done in the case of the site of the Battle of Tippecanoe, located near 
Lafayette. The project failed for lack of proper interest on the part of 
men in position to make their co-operation effective. 

A letter to Dr. Thomas R. Brady, of Wabash, who at one time rep- 
resented Wabash County in the Indiana State Senate, elicited the fol- 
lowing response : 

Wabash, Indiana, January 31, 191 7. 
Edgar M. Baldwin, Fairmount, Indiana. 

Dear Sir: — My father, Dr. Thomas R. Brady, received a letter from 
you recently asking for information concerning an Indian, Me-shin-go- 
me-sia, I think, and we are sorry that we have been so negligent in 
answering it. 

Father has been very sick for some time and is unable to write a 
word, or I am sure you would have had a prompt reply. 

He says : "I knew the Indian all my life. He was temperate and 
was a good citizen. He urged his people to work and be industrious. 
I have always understood he was not engaged in the Battle of the 

38 The Making of a Toii'iis/iip. 

If he were able I am sure he could give you other and better infor- 
mation, and I am sorry I can give no more. 

Hoping this may be of some little assistance, I wish to remain, 

Yours sincerelv, 

Jennie A. Bkauy. 

Dr. Brady, at the time the communication was written, was one 
of few men then living who knew Me-shin-go-me-sia intimately. 
It seems almost a hopeless task to connect the old chief with the engage- 
ment at Alississinewa. The safer plan, therefore, seems to be to sub- 
mit such evidence as may be adduced and suggest that the reader use 
his own judgment in reaching a conclusion. 

Referring to the matter, Hon. Edgar L. Goldthwait. for many years 
editor of The Marion Chronicle, says in a letter to the writer, under 
date of January 5, 1917: 

"Relating to your inquiry of the old Indian's part in the battle: It 
is said that he spoke of it often to his friends. In one of the histories 
he pictured it. He was a boy ; his duty was to look after the horses, 
to be ready when retreat was sounded." 

Richard Dillon, of Fairmount, in a letter dated January 27, 1917, 
offers this interesting bit of information : 

"Phineas Henley came to Indiana in 1837 and settled on forty acres 
now a part of the farm owned by Alice Thomas. 

"The writer, a grandson of Phineas Henlev, has often heard him 
speak of being acquainted with Me-shin-go-me-sia, and of hearing him 
tell about the Battle of the Mississinewa, stating that he was twelve 
years old at the time, and was hid in the woods behind a log, where he 
could hear the bullets whiz over him." 

In a letter written on August 26, 1909, to Hon. John T. Strange, 
of Marion, Indiana, Mrs. John Flitcraft,* who lived at the time the- 
communication was written at Macy, Indiana, says : 

"Me-shin-go-me-sia told my father that he was fourteen years old 
at the time of the battle and held four ponies during the fight and then 
he lun and lun and lun and hid in sycamore log long time." 

It is exceedingly difficult, owing to the well-known diffidence of 
the Indian, to obtain from him information which he sees fit to with- 
hold from the white man. It is said that few Indians care to discuss 

* Mrs. Flitcraft is tlic daugliter of William L. ImcIcIs. William L. Fields 
lived in the iieighhorhocKl of the hattlefield for over twenty-two years, and was 
well acquainted all through that section. His father built the old Conner mill 
and helped run it for years. Mis daughter speaks of ^Ir. Fields as possessing 
a fine memorv. 

Chief of the Miamis. 


in any way a battle in which he has been defeated. It may be stated, 
however, that Me-shin-go-me-sia was a man of considerable ability, 
firm, but not obstinate. His grave may be seen in the Indian burying 
ground hear Jalapa. 



IT WAS some time in the late fall or early winter that a family of 
eight arrived at a place about four miles from where Fairmount 
now stands and erected a booth by the side of a large fallen tree, under 
which and in the wagon that conveyed them there, they proceeded to 
make the best of the situation with the true pioneer spirit. 

Their neighbors were few and far between in the then dense wilder- 
ness. The word soon became circulated for miles around amongst the 
scattered inhabitants that a family had moved in their midst and were 
living in the open forest. This aroused the neighborly chivalry. Run- 
ners were sent out all through that section to notify people that a fam- 
ily had moved in and were needing help. 

No time must be lost in getting the exposed family under shelter. 
Accordingly a day was named. At the appointed time a dozen or more 
stout-hearted woodsmen met at the camp, elected their foreman and pro- 
ceeded to business. Some felled the trees that stood plentifully near by. 
They were dragged in by a team as soon as felled. Four of the best 
ax men each took a corner of the building to notch and fit the corners 
together. This was considered a position of honor, requiring practice 
and a mechanical eye and steady nerve. Then two men must select a 
good oak tree, fell it. cut the blocks and rive the boards to cover the 

When the noon hour had arrived they had the side walls to the 
cabin about done, for they did not meet there to play. Those first 
cabins were but one story, about eight logs high to the eve. The family 
was short of table supplies, and at dinner did not have cups to go 
around. Two and three must drink from one cup, use the same knife 
and fork and plate, and make a ta1)le of a chip. 

Some of the men killed a deer on the way there and brought that 
along, which materially helped the dinner menu. By night they had the 
cabin up and covered, a place cut out for door and fireplace, which no 
doubt was soon occupied. 

When I left Fairmount there was one man living in Marion who 
helped erect that cabin. That family proved to be good, honest, loyal 
citizens, but are all gone now. I have been on the place many times, 
but I think the original cabin was gone. This incident came before me 
today. I had not thought of it for a long time. So I sat down and 


Tlic First Settlers. 



Situated on a knoll about six mihs northeast of Fairmount, near the old 
State road. In the foreground is Robert McCormick's monument. The 
inscription, which is not plain in the picture, reads as follows: "Robert 
McCormick. Died August 9, 1836, aged 57 years, i mo. 9 da." On Mrs. 
McCormick's tombstone appears the following words: "Ann, wife of John 
Fankboner, former wife of R. McCormick, died Jan. 23, 1880, aged 92 

4 mo. 7 da." 



The Making of a Toiciiship. 

penciled it off in a hurry. It may interest yon as a fraction of the his- 
tory that was once one of the stage scenes in the making of Fairmount 

The walls of the cabin being up, the work of making the house com- 
fortable was not near complete. An opening must be cut out for a door 
and fireplace and two small windows. Then the open spaces between 
the logs in the body of the house must be filled with chink and clay mor- 
tar to keep out the wind, snow and rain. 

It will not be conducive to health to live on the ground in that damp 
countrv. There are no saw mills in the new countrv. and no. roads one 

The little pile of rock in the foreground indicates the location of the his- 
toric McCormick cabin, often in the first settlement of the new country the 
first stopping place of the pioneer who came to seek a home in the wilder- 
ness. This cabin was the center of hospitality in the early days. 

could haul a load over. Consequently one must use sucli material as 
one has. Necessity is the mother of invention, it is said. They go into 
the woods, select three straight logs eight or ten inches in diameter, in 
lencth the width of the building on the inside, and with an ax make one 
side as true as possible, place one at each end on inside and one in 
the middle on which to rest the floor, whicii is to be made by selecting 
small, straight trees that will split easily, cutting sections half the 
length of floor, splitting them through the center and making the flat 

The First Settlers. 43 

side as smooth as possible with the tools they may have, flattening the 
rounded ends so that they will lay evenly on the three sleepers, or 
joists, meeting in the middle, scalping the edges of the flooring so that 
the\- will come close together as may be. 

The floor being down, a fireplace and chinine\- must l)e l)uilded. 
There are no brick kilns or stone cjuarries awaiting them in the wilder- 
ness. What can the poor family do? Again they must appeal to the 
forest for material. They split out some boards three by ten inches 
wide, six feet long and three feet long, according to the size they wanted 
the fireplace, with which they would make a three-sided box by notch- 
ing together at the corners, the loose ends to be nailed or fastened to 
each side of the opening for the fireplace and carried up to the mantle 
log. where thev commence narrowing in for the chimney flue by split- 
ting out pieces similar in size to plastering lath, but a little heavier, of 
the proper length to build a flue two by three feet, and plastering this 
lattice work on inside and out with clay mortar. 

The fireplace must be lined with a stiff cla\- mortar about one foot 
thick, brought in to the edge of the wall and carried up to the lattice 
work of chimney flue to prevent the wood catching fire. Then, with 
split boards driven in the ground at front and sides of hearth place and 
filled with good clay well packed down, the family is ready to cook their 
first meal at home, if the\' have a skillet, boiler and coffee pot. 

There was another way they had of getting out floor boards in 
those primitive days, when a man had some money and wished to build 
an extra fine log house. It was to employ two men with a whip saw 
to cut his boards. The saw was not quite so long as a cross-cut saw, 
with teeth set like a carpenter's rip saw. The log to be cut was placed 
on a platform of logs, some six feet from the ground, with one strong 
man below and one above, to work the saw up and down. This was 
slow work and took strong men to do the motor work. Charles Hin- 
shaw, who settled on the Nate Wilson farm, did such work. I saw him 
operating his mill once. 
' Afelboitrne, Florida, Deeeinber 26, 1916. A. Henley. 

(Editor's Note. — It may be helpful, at this point, to consider care- 
fully the pen picture so skilfully drawn of that struggling pioneer fam- 
ily in their efforts to gain a foothold and a home in the new country. 
How aptly it portrays the hardships of people who came here in the 
early days. How suitable as an introductory word to the fundamental 
purpose of this narrative. Expressed in words so simple and yet so 

44 The Making of a Tozvnship. 

comprehensive and so full of meaning, the little story stands out in front 
of you like a thing apart.) 

In the fall of 1826. about the month of September," Robert Mc- 
Cormick came from Fayette County, Indiana. 

On August 15. 1829, he entered land and built his cabin soon after 
near the crossing of the Ft. Wayne, Muncie and Indianapolis State 
road, on the farm later owned by J. and M. E. Wilson, situated one- 
half mile south of Wilson's ford. 

McCormick moved his family to their new home in October, 1829. 
His cabin became known far and near as McCormick's Tavern. As the 
State road in those days was the principal highway through this section 
of Indiana, the tavern enjoyed a good trade. 

Near the site of this old tavern is Bethel Graveyard, the quiet spot 
where lie buried the early settlers of this neighborhood, including Dan- 
iel and Mary Coleman, the donors of the land, and Isaac Sudduth, who 
served in the War of the Revolution, and died at the Coleman home at 
the age of ninety-nine years. Mrs. Rachel Coleman Haynes, who lives 
at the Coleman homestead, takes great pleasure in bringing to mind 
the scenes about the old tavern house in the days when the girls wore 
poke bonnets and shawls and skirts of great fullness. Her father, 
Daniel Coleman, a son of Thomas Coleman, served for sixteen years 
as Justice of the Peace in pioneer days. Mrs. Haynes was married, 
August 26, 1868, to Francis Marion Haynes. t 

*This information is supplied by Mrs. Gabrille Havens, whose parents, 
tlie Clarks, were neighbors and intimate friends of the McCormicks. The offi- 
cial records show that McCormick entered land on August 15, 1829. This was 
two years before Grant County was organized and three years after his arrival. 
The exphuiation is offered that there was no need for haste in that early day, 
since settlers were few and far between. Emigration had not commenced at 
this date to any considerable extent, and there was hence no likelihood of con- 
tention over property rights among pioneers who then peopled this sparsely 
settled wilderness. The discrepancy in the dates, therefore, is accounted for. 
McCormick simply deferred the long and difficult and often dangerous jour- 
ney through the swamps and the forest to Ft. Wayne, where the land office 
was situated, to enter land. 

fPrancis Marion Haynes, farmer, who lives in the extreme northeast cor- 
ner of Fairmount Township, was born in Franklin County, Indiana, August 
22, 1842. His paternal grandfather came from England and on his mother's 
side of the house he is a descendant of Silas Andrews, of New York State. 
His parents were Solomon and Chloe (Andrews) Haynes. On December 6, 
1864. lie enlisted in the Second Indiana Battery and served with this command 
until July 3, 1865, participating in several hard-fought battles, among them the 
engagement at Nashville, Tenn. At the end of the Civil War he returned home, 
and in 1866 came to Grant County. In politics he has always affiliated with the 
Republican party, and for many years he has supported every movement to 
make Fairmount Township and Grant County dry. He is a member of the 
Methodist Protestant Church at Fowlerton. 

The First Settlers. 



Robert McCormick came from New York State to Indiana. He 
was born in Pennsylvania in 1779. He was the father of seven chil- 
dren, namely, Jacob, John, Katie, Eliza, Enos, Lewis and Jane. Mc- 
Cormick was of medium size, dressed plainly, was sober, industrious, 
thrifty, and exceedingly kind to his neighbors. He was helpful to 
others and popular with all. He kept tavern from 1826 until 1836, the 
year of his death. The funeral services, held at his tavern, were 
attended by a large number of people. The cause of his death was 
fever, the insidious disease which carried away, prematurely, so many 
pioneers. He was sick but a short time. McCormick was a member of 
the Baptist Church. In politics he was a Whig. At the time of his 
death he owned a section of land. This land was not all comprised in 
one body. It lay in several different localities within and adjacent to 
the boundary lines of what is now Fairmount Township. South Jones- 
boro is situated on part of an eighty-acre tract once owned by Mc- 

In 1829, according to official records, the first settlers came to Fair- 
mount Township to make their permanent home. 

On June 10, of that year, Josiah Dille purchased from the Govern- 
ment the south fraction of Section 10. James H. Clark, about 1834, 
bought this land of Dille. Josiah Dille was a brother to James Dille. 
who at one time lived in Fairmount. Josiah was a younger half- 
brother to Ichabod Dille, who was many years his senior. Josiah lived 
for about five vears where he first bought land, then moved to what 


TJw Making of a To^nnisliip. 

was known as the Dille neighborhood, two miles north of Jonesboro, 
on the river. In later years he moved West, with his family, where he 
died. As he was not given to writing letters, it is not definitely known 
which State he finally settled in, and there appears to be no information 
regarding his family now in possession of Grant County relatives. 

Mrs. Gabrille Havens was born in Bradford county, Penns)dvania, 
near Luther's Mills, on February 25, 1820. She was the daughter of 

James H. and Susan B. Clark. 
There were nine children in the 
Clark family, namely, Polly, Ga- 
brille, Rebecca, Visula, Weltha 
Ann, Emma Carline, Cynthia Ma- 
riah, Simon B., and James M. 
The father moved to Fairmount 
Township on February 3, 1838. 
Mrs. Havens was therefore eight- 
een years of age when she arrived. 
The Clark family came in two 
wagons, one drawn by horses and 
the other by an ox team. It re- 
quired three days to complete the 
journey from Darke County, 
Ohio. Mrs. Havens has been of 
material assistance in connecting 
up past events with the present. 
At this writing (January 16, 
191 7), she is spending the winter 
with her granddaughter, Mrs. 


Frank McCombs, of Hartford City, Indiana. Although in her ninety- 
seventh year, her mind is as keen and active, apparently, as ever, and, 
barring unforeseen circumstances, she bids fair to live to see her one 
hundredth anniversary. Mrs. Havens has read the Bible through 
seventy times, besides the reading here and there at random in the Good 
Book. She completed the seventieth reading of the Scripture in the 
year 191 5. The first President she remembers hearing her folks talk 
about when she was a girl at home was Andrew Jackson, when old 
Hickory was making his campaign in 1832, although, being always an 
omniverous reader, she was familiar with the name of the first Pres- 
ident, and heard much of George Washington. 




Stories Grandfather Tells. 
(By Mark Baldwin.) 

H, MARVELOUS tales can my grandfather tell 

Of wonderful times and the things that befell 
When he was a boy, and roamed the wild wood, 
Enjoying his life as a boy only could ; 
With vigor and health, and with pioneer blood 
Flowing strong in his veins, he swam the swift flood, 
Or hunted the sly, little, impudent beasts 
That peopled the forests, and stole for their feasts 
The corn from the crib, or took from the soil 
The grain, making useless the pioneer's toil. 

And I think to myself, then, how grand it must be 

To live in a hut in the forest so free 

From the vain, pompous ways of the life of today, 

From the pace we are living at present. But say. 

When grandfather tells of the woodticks and lice, 

Of the fleas and the chiggers, the rats and the mice. 

The fever and ague, I don't think Fd lose 

My freedom from these to have been in his shoes. 

We have observed that Robert McCormick and Josiah Dille came to 
Fairmount Township and settled over on the old State road. The cen- 
ter of pioneer activity is now changed. The scene shifts to a location 
a few miles to the west. The way is opened for settlement along Back 

The earliest settlers of the Township are descendants of those ideal- 
ists, and seekers after freedom, religious enthusiasts, and adventurers 
that left England in the seventeenth century for the new country of 
Pennsylvania and its neighboring states. Of the causes that led to 
their unrest after two or three generations, and exodus to Virginia 
and Maryland and almost immediately on to North Carolina, and the 
subsequent moving to the Middle West, there is an interesting account 
in "Southern Quakerism and Slavery," by Rufus M. Jones. No doubt 
all through the search for a place where absolute freedom of con- 
science could be exercised, a desire for larger and richer lands was an- 
other impelling motive, as it was perhaps the only one that had carried 


48 The iMakiui::: of a Tonmship. 

them South. This Southern experience turned out a bitter one in 
many ways, famiHes of gentle blood being exposed to the rigors of 
mountain pioneering. It is small wonder if many of the more lax held 
slaves, and if, after conscience had bade them free them, they pushed 
out again for a new country, their fortunes crippled, but hearts resolute 
and purpose high. Yet, though they carried little away from the 
South in wagons through the dense wilderness, they ever kept in their 
hearts a tender regard for the Old State, which they had, for a brief 
period, helped to build. The counties of Guilford and Randolph were 
seats of advanced thinking in the early years of the nineteenth century ; 
the first college in North Carolina was established there and there was 
a keen awakening even in those early days to the evils of slavery, war 
and intemperance. 

Back Creek rises in Madison County, entering Fairmount Town- 
ship in Section 6, and has a general northerly course, bearing a little to 
the east, entering Mill Township a little west of the half-mile corner on 
the north side of Section 17, emptying into the Mississinewa River at a 
point northeast of Jonesboro. The upper portion of the stream was, in 
182^, very flat and rather marshy. It was cut wider and deeper about 
1856. This was the first improvement of any extent done in the 
county. It is worthy of note that this work was carried on by private 
enterprise. The lasting benefits far exceeded expectations, both as to 
land drained and made tillable and as to the. public welfare generally. 
This locality had been a series of beaver ponds. A channel was opened 
and a crude system of drainage introduced. This enabled farmers to 
raise grain and grass on soil where cattle had mired during the first 
settlement along the creek. The higher land and ground farther north 
were first choice for farming. 

Joseph Winslow,* on December 28. 1829, entered the northwest 
quarter of Section 17, the farm now owned by Ancil Winslow. 

* Joseph Winslow was by occupation a farmer and miller. He was born In 
Randolph County, North Carolina, in 1777. He came to Fairmount Township, 
with his family, in a four-horse wagon. He had been successful in the South. 
He brought with him to the new country $2/600 in cash, which was a considera- 
ble sum of money for that day. He entered land for himself and assisted his 
sons and daughters, svipplying each with funds to enter a quarter-section at 
$1.25 per acre. He founded Friends meeting at Back Creek, in 183 1, services 
being held at his home prior to this date. In 1841 the log meeting house gave 
way to the brick structure. For many years Joseph Winslow sat at the head 
of the meeting. He rarely ever spoke at the services, excepting at business ses- 
sions. He held to the Quaker idea of silent supplication to his Master, praying 
as his conscience directed. He was a liberal supporter of educational movements 
and figured prominently in all worthy enterprises which promised to advance the 
best interests of his neighborhoo<l. One son, John, settled on Blue River, near 
Carthage, in Rush County. Daniel WSnslow, a son, and Aaron Hill and Solo-, 
mon Knight, sons-in-law, settled in Mill Township. Joseph Winslow died 
October 27, 1859, aged 8r years, 9 months and 22 days. 

Locating on Back Creek. 


On the same date Matthew Winslow, son of Joseph, entered the west 
half of the northeast quarter of Section 17, the farm now partly owned 
by John A. Jones and partly by John Devine. 

Reading- from left to right the men shown in the above picture are Daniel 
Winslow, Henry Winslow and Seth Winslow. They are sons of Joseph 
Winslow, who entered land along Back Creek on Deceml^er 28, 1829. Jo- 
seph Winslow founded the Society of Friends in Fairmount Township. 
For a short time after the first setilement, according to Levi Winslow, son 
of Henry Winslow, Back Creek was known as Winslow Creek. Joseph 
Winslow, who was a plain, unassuming man, protested against the idea of 
•calling this stream after his family for the reason that it appeared to him 
like exalting his own relatives over others equally entitled to consideration. 
Out of deference to his wishes, and upon his earnest solicitation, the name 
Winslow was dropped and it was called Back Creek, after a stream by that 
name in North Carolina, his old home. It has ever since been known as 
P>ack Creek. The sturdy men whose likenesses are shown above bore well 
their part in the primitive days of the Township. 

50 TJ\e Making of a Touniship. 

Seth Winslow, another son of Joseph, on the same date entered the 
east half of the northwest quarter of Section 20. This farm was later 
owned by Mrs. Ruth Winslow Elliott, a daughter. 

Henry Winslow, another son, settled on Section 17. 

Exum Newby, on December 28, 1829, entered the southwest quarter 
of Section 17. This land is now owned by the heirs of Lewis Fank- 

These men came from Randolph County, North Carolina. They 
formed the nucleus for a settlement which grew in numbers and pros- 
pered. They cherished high ideals. They possessed rugged characters 
and robust physiques. They were hopeful of the future. They were 
cheerful and they were helpful. They were made of the kind of mate- 
rial that did not hesitate to brave hardships and to surmount obstacles. 
They "toiled, and suffered and died that we might inherit the promise." 

Among others who came in the early part of the thirties and entered 
land were : 

Charles Baldwin, August 4, 1830. 
Solomon Thomas, August 9, 1830. 
Iredell Rush, March 16, 183 1. 
John Benbow, November 30, 183 1. 
Nathan Morris, April 9, 1832. 
Thomas Morris. April 9, 1832. 
Thomas Harvey, October 10, 1832. 
Jesse Harvey, October 10, 1832. 
Henry Osborn, August 2-/, 1833. 
Thomas Baldwin, October 7, 1833. 
Daniel Baldwin, December 16, 1833. 
Benjamin Benbow, December 16, 1833. 

A majority of these men entered land on l>ack Creek. Most of 
them came from North Carolina. All but two were of pious Quaker 
ancestry, and adhered strictly to the doctrines and discipline of the 
Quaker faith. 

It may be remarked, by way of digression, that when the writer 
began his research for material for this narrative, he encountered a 
fact which seemed to him i)articularly significant. Nathan Morris, 
one of the pioneers whose name has been mentioned, was the father 
of twenty-two children. Me was twice married. His first wife was 
the mother of fifteen children, and his second wife gave l)irth to seven. 
Carrying the inquiry a little farther, it was learned that the eldest 

Locating on Back Creek. 


daughter, then Hviiig, at the age of eighty-two, was the mother of nine, 
seven of whom survived to marriageable age. The seven sons and 
daughters, cohectively, were parents of seven children, six sons and 
one daughter. At this rate of retrogression, numerically, if it be inde- 
finitely maintained, Nathan Morris, father of the original family of 
twenty-two, should he return within two or three generations, would 
find his progeny practically extinct. 


(From a picture taken by Oz B. Fankboner. ) 

Back Creek Monthly Meeting of Friends was opened and held, agreeably to 
the direction of New Garden Quarterly Meeting, on July 21, 1838. The 
membership had increased gradually from a small beginning, when meet- 
ings for worship were held from 1829 to 1831 at the cabin of Joseph Wins- 
low. The building later erected for meeting purposes had proved to be 
inadequate for the accommodation of the membership. 

On March 16, 1839, Friends nominated to make some arrangement in 
procuring lumber for a new meeting house reported to the monthly meet- 
ing that they had made "some engagements" for plank to the amount of 
about $100. Matthew Winslow, Thomas Hill, David Hiatt and Aaron fiill 
were appointed to have the matter in charge and report as occasion 

On May 18, 1839, Aaron Hill, David Stanfield, Asia Peacock, Lewis Jones, 
Charles Baldwin, Jesse E. Wilson and Henry Winslow were appointed to 
make out a ratio of apportionment among the membership for the pur- 
pose of raising money to build the meeting house. This committee, on June 
15, 1839, reported as follows: 

Solomon Knight, Matthew Winslow. Exum Newby, Nathan Morris and 
Aaron Hill, 4^- 

Jonathan Wilcuts, Joseph Winslow, Charles Baldwin, Daniel Baldwin, 
Timothy Kelley, Iredell Rush, David Stanfield, Thomas Harvey and Ama- 
ziah Beeson, 3. 

52 Tlie Making of a Toumship. 

Lewis Jones, Seth Winslow, Evan Hinshavv, Thomas Winslovv, Thomas 
Baldwin, Henry Winslow and Asia Peacock, 2. 

James Scott and Dugan Rush, i^. 

Micajah Newby. Lindsey Baldwin, William Osborn, Charles Hinshaw, 
Thomas Hill, William Peacock, Daniel Frazier, Benjamin Benbow, Mahlon 
Neal and Job Jackson, i^. 

Peter Rich, William Stanfield, Jesse E. Wilson, David S. Stanfield, Henry 
Winslow, Jr., John Haisley, Ira Haisley, Jonathan Jones, Nathan Hammer, 
Elias Baldwin, Joseph W. Baldwin, Henry Harvey and Isaac Stanfield, i. 

John Rich, Allen Wright, Nathan D. Wilson, John Lee, Charles Stan- 
field and John Peacock, ^. 

The ratio of apportionment having been agreed upon, the meeting pro- 
ceeded at once to name Joseph Winslow, Exum Newby, Iredell Rush, Jona- 
than Wilcuts, David Hiatt, David Stanfield, Obadiah Jones, Charles Bald- 
win, Thomas Hill and Aaron Hill as a committee to devise a plan for the 
building of the meeting house "on the present lot of land." 

On July 20, 1839, this committee reported as follows: 

"We, the committee to propose a plan for a house, agree to propose the 
following: The house 40x80, to be built of brick, the wall 18 inches thick, 
12 feet from floor to floor, to sink 18 inches below the surface of the ground 
and to be set on a stone foundation; three gallery seats to raise 9 inches 
each, the back part starting from the center and to raise 2 feet 3 inches; 
eleven 24-light windows in each apartment, glasses 8x10; three double 
doors in each apartment 4 feet in width, 7 feet in height, the house to be 
immediately east of the old one, with which the meeting unites and refers 
the subject to Back Creek Preparative Meeting." 

The brick structure shown in the picture was constructed according to 
these specifications, and as nearly as it could be ascertained was ready for 
meeting purposes in June, 1841. In 1899 this house was torn down and the 
present church was erected at a location near the site of the old meeting 

Locating on Back Creek. 


It is when we are confronted by these extraordinary facts that one 
is disposed to share with CoL Theodore Roosevelt his views regarding 
the far-reaching possibiHties of race suicide and the apparent indiffer- 
ence of the present generation rel- 
ative thereto. 

After the year 1833 the coun- 
try was settled up rapidly. 

In 1835 Dugan Rush, Thomas 
Ratliff, William Payne, Clarkson 
Wilcuts, Timothy Kelley, Elijah 
Lucas, Lewis Moorman, James S. 
Wilson. Bingham Simons, Nathan 
Dicks, John Weston, Charles 
Hinshaw, Solomon Parsons, 
Franklin Davis, John Lee, Jr.. 
John Lee, Sr., and Jonathan Wil- 
cuts entered land. 

In 1836 came Henry Harv^ey, 
Thomas Winslow, Thomas Edger- 
ton, William Osborn, Eli Moor- 
man, Charles Smith, Otho Selby, 
Wm. H. H. Reeder, Lewis Har- 
rison, Harvey Davis, Jabez 
Moore, John Fankboner, William 
Leach, Jonathan Reeder, David 
Stanfield, Moses Benbow, Lan- 


Who was born in North Carolina in 
1808. He moved with his parents to 
Wayne County, Indiana, in 1818, and 
from Wayne County to Fairmount 
Township in 1832, three years after 
caster Bell, Carter Hasting, Joel marriage. In 1865 he moved to Mar- 
Hollingswortl,, WiUian, Harvey, f.^U^ Cou,ny, Jowa, -^^-t.led^.ear 

David Bates and Lewis Jones. in Iowa he located in Jewell County, 

In tR'2'7 PhiTippQ FTpnlPv Pptpr Kansas, and died at his home near 
m i»37 t^nmeas Jnenley, l^etei g^^^.^. q^^.^ j,^ ^gg^ j^^ ^^^ ^ minister 

Rich, David Lewis, Morris Payne, in the Society of Friends from his 

TnQpnh AA/pctnn <^r Ama^iQli young manhood. He was liberal in 
josepli Weston, ^r., Amaziah j^^^ dealings with neighbors, and it is 

Beeson, John Baldwin, Thomas said that no needy person ever left 

his door empty handed. With all his 

Osborn, James W. Davis and 
Henry Simons entered land. 

In 1838 Nathan Davis came to 
cast his fortunes with the peo- 
ple of the new country, and in 
1839 Charles Beeson followed. 

natural generosity he prospered, and 
this fact again bears out the assertion 
often made that those who are the 
most thoughtful in their kindness to 
others are frequently the most blessed 
in their material fortunes. 

Of these patient pioneers let the words of the poet speak- 

54 The Making of a Township. 

The world can easily spare the man 

Who pauses a moment here or there 
To make a promise or form a plan, 

Or to pluck some flower that may be fair ; 
But the world has use for the man who gives 

His best for the joys that he wins away — 
The world with a welcoming cheer receives 

The determined man who has come to stay. 

There are few rewards for the pioneer 

Whose thoughts are only of sudden gains, 
Who camps for a day on the far frontier. 

Then journeys backward across the plains ; 
But wood and valley and plain and slope 

Yield their best to him who has blazed his way 
To the scene on which he has set his hope, 

Who, having arrived, is there to stay. 

Mr. T. B. McDonald, of Lovilia, Iowa, lived in Fairmount Town- 
ship at a time when he witnessed many changes and improvements. It 
was during the period of the transition of this community from the 
rude agricultural implements of early pioneers and their primitive 
methods to a day when new devices were being gradually introduced 
for the better planting, cultivation and harvesting of crops. 

The writer inserts at this place the comment of Mr. McDonald, 
which is prompted by his personal knowledge of affairs when he lived 
on his father's farm, located two miles southwest of Fairmount. 

"The first thing the early settler did was to prepare a shelter for 
his family," writes Mr. McDonald. "He next cleared as much ground 
as was possible, on which to plant corn. This was the most important 
crop to be grown. With a crop of corn they had food for both man and 
beast. Wheat and oats were not thought of until considerable land had 
been cleared. Flax and buckwheat were the important products, how- 
ever — one to make clothing and the other for food. With buckwheat 
cakes and maple syrup one could do fine. 

"When wheat, oats and meadows were planted it took time and 
labor to harvest them. The wheat and oats were cut with a sickle or 
cradle. In fact, both were used, the sickle to get the grain around the 
stumps and places where the cradle could not be used. 

"The grain was bound by hand and threshed either by flail or 
tramped out with horses or oxen. If a farmer had considerable grain, 
as soon as it was stacked he would prepare a threshing floor by leveling 

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TJic Mak'nii^ of a Toii'iiship. 

a piece of ground, making' it as smooth and hard as possible. This 
floor would be in a circle. The grain would be placed qn the floor 
and then two horses or oxen walked around this circle till the grain 
would all be out of the head. Then the straw was removed and an- 
other la3^er of grain placed on the floor 'as before. That would be 
repeated till all the grain had been taken from the straw. 

"The next thing was to clear the chaff from the grain. This was 
done with a fanning mill, if one could be procured. The chaff, being 
the lightest, would blow away, thus leaving the grain practically clean. 

'^The next improvement was what was called the chaff piler, being 


Scientist, was born in Eliis, Kansas, 
June 8, 1889. His paternal grandpar- 
ents were Micah and Sarah (Alorris) 
Baldwin and his maternal grandpar- 
ents were Nixon and Louisa fWins- 
low ) Rush. He is the son of Edgar 
A[. and Myra (Rusli) Baldwin. He 
was educated in the common schools 
of Fairmount, graduated from Fair- 
mount Academy, in 1909, received from 
Earhiam College, in 1912, the degree 
of Bachelor of Science, and later took 
a post-graduate course in the Univer- 
sity of Chicago. He is the owner of 
640 acres of land located in Georgia, 
near Albany, which comprises a part 
of the plantation belonging to the Al- 
l)any Farming Company, consisting of 
3,000 acres. This plantation was for- 
merly owned by Ben Hill, the noted 
Confederate statesman of Civil War 
times. Mr. Baldwin is a member of 
the American Association for Ad- 
vancement of Science and the Ameri- 
can Forestry Association. In his 
early boyhood he wrote many clever 
verses which clearly indicated his 
poetic bent of mind. Two of these 
productions appear in this chapter. 

a cylinder and a concave. This was run by horse power. Then came 
the separator, which pressed the grain and cleaned it. 

"The next great improvement was the reaper. The first one that 
I remember was at Carter Hasting's. It was drawn by six horses. The 
grain was raked off the machine by liand. My recollection now is that 
the machine was owned Ijy jack Winslow, but 1 am not certain. ( )nc 
thing that I do remember is that people came a long distance to see the 
machine work." 

Locatiiii^ oil Back Creek. 57 

(By Mark Baldwin.) 

Old, uncared for, 'most forgotten. 

Overgrown with weeds and grass. 
Scarcely noticed, little thought of 

By the people as they pass, 

Is an ancient Quaker graveyard, 

With its stones in quaint array. 
Sculptured o'er with hopes eternal 

Of the resurrection day. 

Yet beneath this sod are resting, 

Folded in their last, long sleep. 
Men who toiled that we might prosper, 

Men who sowed that we might reap 

Their glory not in martial deeds. 

Quiet, simple lives they led. 
They built their faith on vital creeds. 

Not on ruins of the dead. 



f ORN, OATS, wheat and flax were staple products of the pioneer 
farm. Flax was raised for its qualities available in making arti- 
cles of wearing apparel for both men and women. 

There are three prime necessities of life, namely, clothing, food 
and shelter. These necessities are common to civilized mankind. In 
this connection it will be of interest to the reader to know how pioneers 
provided themselves with clothing. The following excellent descrip- 
tion of the manner in which flax was converted into garments for 
women and into clothing for men will be found appropriate. This de- 
scription is from the pen of John T. Morris,* than whom there was no 
one of that early period better fitted by education and personal obser- 
vation to tell the story : 

"During the first years, of the settlement it was common for the peo- 
ple to produce nearly everything they consumed. Indeed, this was 
necessary, as most of the settlers were in limited circumstances — only 
able to command money enough to enter a small tract of land at $1.25 
per acre. I suppose about eighty acres was an average entry for those 
who settled on the land at once. Some men who had the money to do so 
would take up larger bodies of land and hold it for speculation. 

"So the situation demanded economy. The people manufactured 
most of their wearing cloths from the raw material. It was common 
for each family to cultivate a small plat of ground in flax, from which 
to manufacture their summer clothing and such other articles as towels, 
table linen, etc. 

"The flax seed was sown early in May, and by some time in July it 
was ripe enough to pull. When flax was grown for fiber it was always 
pulled by hand — pulled out of the ground and spread in swathes on the 
ground where it grew, and left to cure, after which it was taken up, 
bound into bundles and put under shelter to remain until the fall rains 
commenced. It was then taken to some grass plot and unbound and 
again spread in swathes and left to take the rain and sunshine. 

* John T. Morris, at the time this article was being prepared, lived at Car- 
thage, Indiana. Mr. Mbrris was born near Fountain City, Indiana, November 
22, 1821. With his parents, Aaron and Anna (Thomas) Morris, he moved to 
Grant County in March, 1830. He taught a number of terms of school and in 
numerous ways contributed liberally of his time, his talent and his energy to 
building for the present generation. Earl Morris, Clerk and Treasurer of Fair- 
mount, is a grandson of John T. Morris. Mr. Morris died at his home in 
Carthage on May 3, 1914, in his 93rd year. 


Clothing, Food and Sliclfcr. 


"This process was called 'rotting the flax.' This was necessary in 
order that the fiber might the more readily separate from the woody 
portion of the stalks, and at the 
same time the woody part of the 
stalks was rendered more brittle, 
hence more easily worked out 
from the fiber. When the action 
of the weather had sufficiently rot- 
ted the flax, it was again taken 
up, bound into bundles and put 
under shelter to await the 
farmer's pleasure to break and 
scutch it. 

"The first machine in this 
process was called a 'flax brake.' 
This was made entirely from 
wood — not even a nail used in its 
construction. The flax was first 
put through the 'flax brake,' then 
to the scutching board. By the 
use of this and the scutching knife 
the schives were worked out from 
the fiber. 

"After this the flax fiber was 
Jianded over to the women to JOHN T. MORRIS 

complete the work of making it Pioneer Fairmount Township school 

;.,4-^ „i^<-u ^^ i;.,^ 1 ;^i +u^ teacher and early friend of colored peo- 

nito cloth, or hnen, which they p,^ q^ April id. 1843, Mr. Morris 

did bv the use of different ma- boarded a flatboat on the Mississinewa 

chines, the first of which was the S'''' "'""h ?f ■ 1^' '17.1 Cemetery at 

Marion, and staid with the boat, as he 

hatchel, an instrument used to says, in his antobiography, "until I land- 
comb out the coarse from the fine ^^^ i" ^'^^ O'"'^^"^ J""^ ''^ following." 
fiber. This machine was made by using a board seven inches wide and 
two feet long, in the center of which about thirty-six spikes were made 
fast in a space five by six inches. These spikes, or teeth, if you please, 
were about five inches long, made smooth and sharp at the point. This 
combing done, the fiber was ready for the 'little spinning wheel.' 

"The reel was now brought into recjuisition, as it was always used 
in connection with the wheel. Reeled, spooled, warped and drawn 
through the sley, or put in the loom, the process of weaving was now 
in order. A nice fabric for men's pants and shirts was made by using 
cotton thread for the warp, filled in with flax thread. Trousers made 

6o The Making of a Tozvnship. 

from this, after it was nicely bleached, were fit for Sunday, and, in- 
deed, your humble servant has worn such trousers when he went to see 
his 'best girl.' In those frontier times the women did the cutting and 
making, as well as spinning and weaving. It was some years after the 
first settlement was made before a fashionable tailor was in demand." 

The Township originally was heavily timbered. There was an 
abundance of spice-wood, walnut, hickory, beech, cherry, sugar, ash, 
oak, sycamore, poplar, hackberry, etc. 

The dense forest served as a refuge and feeding ground for all 
kinds of wild game, which was abundant in the early thirties. Bear, 
deer, porcupines, wild cats, raccoons, squirrels, 'possums, turkeys and 
quail were plentiful. The supply of meats was unlimited. The hunter 
and trapper had his choice "without money and without price." 

Having referred to the manner of procuring necessary articles of 
clothing, the reader is again indebted to the late John T. Morris for 
the following well written description of methods employed by the pio- 
neer in securing his food. 

"In 1830," he says, "Martin Boots owned and was operating a corn 
mill, located a short distance above the mouth of Boots Creek. 

"At the same time Jesse Adamson was running another such mill, 
on Griffin's Creek, about half a mile above the mouth of the creek. 

"For a few years the settlers were dependent upon these corn mills 
to get their corn ground into meal. The water wheels were so made 
that thev were liable to freeze up in tlie winter, and remain so for some 
time, and in that case the people would run short of bread stuff, and 
have to fall back on Irish potatoes and lye hominy as a substitute for' 
bread. Corn bread was the rule and flour bread was the exception. 

"Sometimes the neighbors would make up a team and go forty 
miles up the Mississinewa River, to what was known as Lewelling's 
Mill, and bring down a load of flour. Then, for a time, the settlers 
would have biscuits occasionally on Sunday morning. 

"The diet throughout the community was plain and simple. Meat 
was had the easiest way of anything that entered into a living. Game 
was plentiful. There were but few groceries bought. Each* family 
made their own sugar and molasses from the mai^le trees. A few peo- 
ple used coffee, but a substitute for store tea could be found within a 
few rods of every man's house — spice-wood. 

"So far as hogs were concerned, when left on the range they were 
almost no expense, as they would live and do well all the year. During 
the fall and early winter they got fat on the mast. Acorns and hickory 
nuts were in such abundance that a large aniDunl of this mast was still 

Clothing, Food and Shelter. 6i 

on the ground when winter came on. This would become covered with 
leaves, and maybe with snow, and be preserved, so that hogs could find 
it and feed on it all winter. There was, however, one trouble with the 
hogs. They would become as wild as deer on being left at large in the 
woods, where they would scarcely see any person. 

"Those who had hogs on the range tried to keep them located by 
going out occasionally and finding their bed, which the hogs moved as 
occasion required. As the mast became scarce in their beat, they would 
move over into new territory. 

"But the excitement was on when the men went out to butcher their 
meat. After deciding whose hogs should be killed first, a few neigh- 
bors would be on the way early, with dogs, guns and horses, prepared 
for the chase. They aimed to surprise the hogs in their bed. (A good 
snow was a prerecjuisite to this wild hog slaughter.) Arriving" at the 
bed, the hogs were routed and the dogs turned loose. A hog was soon 
caught and held till the men came up and stuck it. This one was left 
to die while the dogs caught another. And, so the chase went on until 
all were killed, or as many as were wanted. 

"Of course the dead hogs were somewhat scattered, but at least one 
horse was provided with harness, single tree and loose chain, in order 
to drag the hogs together at some suitable place where thev could get 
to them with a wood sled and haul them in where the dressing" was to be 
done. In this manner of hog killing guns were not brought into requisi- 
tion only as the hogs would rally and make a stand to fight, as was 
sometimes the case." 

Mr. Morris has told how our ancestors hunted deer, and the reader 
is again indebted to him for this first-hand information : 

"In those early times game was so plenty that it afforded both sport 
and profit to those who engaged in hunting. In the summer, hunters 
would go out on night expeditions on the river. They would equip a 
canoe for this purpose by placing a blind on the prow of the canoe. This 
was formed by using a few short boards. One was put down flat, cross- 
wise. Immediately behind this was boarded up some twenty inches or 
more. The board planked down was for a candle to stand upon. The 
upright back was to break the light of the candle from shining upon the 
men. Their craft being ready, the next thing was to start up the river. 

"This was called 'fire hunting." It was their purpose to start early 
enough in the day to work their craft several miles up the river before 
nightfall. At that time the hunting was wont to commence. So they 
would stop and light their candle and turn about. The deer did not 
frequent the river nuich onl}- at night. 

62 The Making of a Towitsliip. 

"It was supposed that there were two things that caused the deer 
to go to the river. One was the need of water and the other was they 
fed upon a moss which was found growing in the water upon the rocks. 
This was called 'deer moss,' and was found only where the water was 
shallow. Those hunters' asserted that they had seen the deer go down 
with their mouths into the water after the moss. Whatever may have 
been the inducement, the deer were largely found in the river at night. 

"On starting down the river, one man would be seated in the stern 
of the canoe, paddle in hand. He made but little effort to give the craft 
headway, except to shape its course. The other man stood behind the 
blind, gun in hand, and far enough back so the candle would not shine 
upon him. By this arrangement the men were completely hid behind 
the blind. The hunters said that the deer would appear to be wholly 
oblivious to everything except the candle. They would stand and gaze 
at the candle until the canoe would approach within a few yards of 
them. It was also stated that a man could see a deer eighty rods or 
more from the light of a candle placed upon the blind. 

"When the man that was on the lookout saw a deer, he would 
simply point towards it and the man who was working the canoe shaped 
its course accordingly, carefully avoiding noise, till the craft approached 
to within easy shooting distance before the old musket was turned loose. 

"An old army musket was the style of gun used in this manner of 
hunting. They were wont to have the gun well charged with buckshot, 
as it was a random shot, not beirig able to see any sights. I remember 
to have seen one of these night expeditions on its return, in charge of 
Thomas Branson and Reuben Overman, with the canoe fairly loaded 
down with deer, lying on their backs with their legs up. 

"It was claimed that the hotter the weather and the worse the flies 
the more the deer would be found in the river at night." 

The coming of the pioneer for permanent settlement created the 
necessity for homes. The dwelling places took the form of log cabins. 
There could be no homes without shelter. As the cabins multiplied in 
number and the work of clearing the forest progressed, timber began 
to disappear. 

Log rollings and house raisings were of frequent occurrence. Neigh- 
bors were, indeed, neighborly. Co-operation in the building of homes 
was the rule. The spirit of mutual helpfulness extended to quilting 
bees, corn huskings, spinning and weaving. 

The main diversion for the boys was town ball and liull pen. while 
jumping the rope, hide and seek, and "William-a-trim-a-toe" were a 
few of the games in w^hich both boys and girls participated. 

Clothing, Food and Shelter. 63 

Eye witnesses have touched upon the means of obtaining- clothing 
and food. It is now appropriate to describe the methods of our ances- 
tors in providing- shelter and preparing- food for their families. Again 
we rely upon authority which cannot be called into question. 

The following is from the pen of Asa T. Baldwin,* residing, when 
these lines were written, at 23 11 South Meridian Street, Marion, Indi- 
ana. Being one of the few men then living who learned how this was 
done by his own personal experience, this detailed account will be read 
with interest : 

"The log cabin was made by cutting poles or logs 16 to 24 feet in 
length and notching the ends with an ax by men selected to carry up 
the four corners of the building, so that they would fit closely together 
and make a solid wall not easily thrown down. The open spaces between 
the logs were chinked with wood and daubed with mud or mortar to 
keep out the wind, rain and snow. 

"The roof was covered with clapboards, or strakes, as the Yankees 
call them. These were split three or four feet long with a frow, and 
put on as evenly as possible, lapping them and breaking the joints so as 
not to leak. They were held on by weights called ridge-poles, secured 
in their places by large wooden pins, as nails were too scarce and high- 
priced in those days for the average settler to think of affording such 
an expensive plan as that of nailing the boards on. The stick-and-clay 
chimney was built a little higher than the comb of the roof and well 
lined with mud from top to bottom, to prevent getting on fire. The 
large, open fireplaces had jambs and hearths made of clay, sprinkled 
with water and thoroughly pounded with a maul to make them firm 
and solid when dry. The cooking arrangements were nothing like they 
are now. Tin reflectors were sometimes used for baking- and roasting-. 
Ovens made of a clay mortar were common. They were built on a 
platform of heavy plank placed on four posts about three feet high and 
quite large, so that several loaves and a dozen or more pies could be 
baked at once. Johnny cakes were baked on smooth boards at the sides 
of the jambs, and venison was dried in the flue of the chimney. There 
were no large, convenient cook stoves and ranges with numerous ves- 
sels to go along with them. 

"Corn bread or wheat bread was frequently baked in a skillet bv 
placing live coals of fire under the skillet and on the lid. Pork was 

* Asa T. Baldwin was a native of Fairmount Township. He was born 
March 16, 1835, in a cabin which stood at the northeast corner of Mill and Jef- 
ferson Streets, in Fairmount. Mr. Baldwin taught several terms of school in 
his young manhood. 


TJic Making of a Tozvnship. 

boiled with cabbage or beans in a kettle, hung', in the absence of an iron 
crane, on a wooden hook over the fire. Squashes and potatoes were 
often roasted by covering them with hot ashes in the fireplace. As a 
matter of economy, pewter plates were used by the early settlers, since 


Who taught several terms of school in 
Fairmount Township from 1854 to 
1864. His parents were Thomas and 
Lydia (Thomas) Baldwin. Thomas 
Baldwin entered land in Fairmount 
Township on October 7, 1833, less than 
two weeks after his marriage, at New 
Garden, in Wayne County, September 
26, 1833. They traveled by wagon 
Iiitched to three horses. On the fourth 
day of their journey the wagon broke 
down. They had reached the Mdssis- 
sinewa River before the accident hap- 
pened. Next morning their goods were 
loaded on an Indian pirogue, which had 
lieen hired for the purpose. The boat 
was pushed out into the middle of the 
stream to float with the current. The 
landing was made that same evening at 
a point near the old McCormick Tav- 
ern, and thence they proceeded to their 
destination in the forest. Thomas Bald- 
win taught four terms of school near 
where William A. Beasley now lives. 
Asa Baldwin died at his home in Marion 
on October 13, 1913. Lydia Baldwin 
died May 21, 1899, at the age of eighty- 
four years. Thomas Baldwin died 
May 25, 1899, aged eighty-six. This 
e couple were Iniried in one grave in the I. O. O. F. Cemetery at 
after a doul)le funeral, held on May 27, 1899, having lived together 
m sixty-five years. 

more th; 

they were not easily broken. Glass timiblers were out of the question, 
hence gourds were in frequent demand for drinking vessels. 

"Many a cabin had not a single sawed plank in it. The floors werg 
made with heavy puncheons, split out of logs and hewed as smoothly as 
possible with a broad-axe, and the loft was floored with boards similar 
to those on the roof. The joists were the straightest poles that could be 
found in the forest, and sometimes the bark was peeled off so as to 
make them have a clean, beautiful appearance. 

"The doors were hung on wooden hinges, and, when closed, were 
fastened by a simple latch, which could be lifted by a string from the 
outside, so a neighbor could open the door on hearing the welcome 
'Come in !' At night the door could be locked, if desired, by pulling 
the string through on the inside. 

Clofliing, Food and Shelter. 65 

"Sometimes double cabins were constructed so as to have two rooms 
and a sort of open porch between them, but generally there was at first 
only one room, which served for many purposes. It was not an uncom- 
mon thing for a room of this kind to be occupied by a man and his 
wife, with eight or ten children, and sometimes nineteen, and they 
seemed to be perfectly happy." 

Such were the camps that were built in the forest, and that served 
as shelter to the newcomers until such time as materials could be pro- 
cured and leisure found to build better houses. No doubt the convic- 
tion, springing from a lively faith and hope that these cabins were only 
camps that soon would give place to better comfort, helped to give the 
dash of frolic and romance that most unmistakably spices up the tales 
of pioneer days. 




IT WAS at the hospitable McCormick Tavern that David Lewis" 
and family stopped over night when they arrived in Fairmonnt 
Township, on November i8, 1834. This family came from Franklin 
County, Indiana. Their household goods were loaded in a two-horse 
wagon, drawn by a couple of bobtailed horses owned by a man named 
Johnson. They were seven days on the road, the same distance now 
being covered b}- automobile in as man}- hours. The route was by way 
of Connersville and Muncie. 

An accident befell the Lewis family as they were traveling along 
on their journey between Muncie and Granville that caused a delay of 
one day. An axletree broke, and it was necessary to make a new one 
before they could proceed. The delay occurred close by the cabin of a 
man named Wilson. Wilson owned an old black sow. A bear had 
viciously attacked the hog" and lacerated it, but was driven off, and the 
wounds were now about healed. 

The next morning after their arrival at the McCormick Tavern 
they moved into a cabin owned bv Charles Baldwin, and later Vv'ent to 
the McCormick farm to reside. 

While living there the bread stuff gave out. Lewis went to a man 
b\- the name of Griffin, who owned a mill over on the river, to buy 
meal. Mr. Griffin asked Lewis if he had the money to buy with. 
Lewis told him he had. He was then informed that he would have to 
go down below Lafayette to get his meal, as they had plenty to sell 
there for money, Mr. Griffin being unable to sell him meal on account 
of so many settlers in the neighborhood depending on him who had no 
money and would suffer for want of food if he could not supply them. 

In the spring of 1837, David Lewis. Henry .Osborn, Thomas Osborn 
and John Weston hired a boat made of poplar logs, started from Wil- 
son's ford down the Mississinewa River, theu on into the Wabash 
River, four miles below Lafayette, and bought twenty-eight bushels of 
meal, loaded the meal in the boat, pulled up stream, arriving home after 
an absence of fourteen days, during which time they endured many 

* David Lewis was Ijoni in Hawkins County. Tennessee. April 28, 1804 
He came with his parents to J'ranklin County, Indiana, and tliere lie w-as mar- 
ried to Miss Nancv George, a first cousin to Daniel Boone. 


Arni'ol at McConiiick's Taicni. 


moods Lewis had many thrilling stories to 

In his remmiscent 

tell of his boyhood days. Being a cousin of Davy Crockett, one story, 

especially interesting to the children, was his visit with his father to 

the home of his uncle, John Crockett, during the absence of his cousin. 

Daw had run away from home to escape a whipping from his father 

and the schoolmaster. 

Came to Fairmount Township with 
his parents, David and Nancy (George) 
Lewis. He \vas Iwrn in Franklin 
County, Indiana, May 13, 1825. He 
was nine years old wlien he came to 
this Township. William G. Lewis 
taught eighteen terms of school, 
served as Justice of the Peace and was 
for thirty-five years a minister in the. 
Methodist Episcopal Church, later be- 
coming connected with the Methodist 
Protestant Church, serving for fifteen 
years as local minister in this denomi- 
nation. During his work in the min- 
istry Mr. Lewis performed the mar- 
riage ceremony for more than a thou - 
sand couples. In early life he was a 
Whig, joining the Republican party 
when that organization was first 
formed. He was the original local 
advocate and agitator from a public 
platform of the abolition of the liquor 
traffic. As a young man of twenty- 
five, in the old Sugar Grove Methodist 
Episcopal Church, which stood on the 
land now owned by Daniel Johnson, 
Mr. Lewis made his first address at- 
tacking the. liquor business. He was 
kind and hospitable, generous to a 
fault, aggressive in the right as he 
saw it, dealing justly by his fellow- 
man, living a modest life, full of use- 
fulness and good deeds, leaving the world better for his having lived 
He died January 13, 1907. Funeral services were conducted in the 
gregational Church, Fairmount, the Masonic order being in charge, 
remains were interred in Park Cemetery. 

m It. 

In the same year, and after the eventful journey, down the Wabash, 
Lewis went to Ft. Wayne and entered land located southeast of Fair- 
mount. He became a pioneer resident of that community. He 
and his wife were charter members of the first Methodist Episcopal 
Church, of Fairmount Township, Lewis being chosen class leader. 

His home was one of hospitality, where many ministers found a wel- 
come. He was a man of medium size, and, like other pioneers of that 
day, a man of great endurance, plain of dress, and a Whig in politics. 


The Making of a Toumship. 

His children were Wesley B., William G., Mary, James AW. Alorijan 
O., Evelyn, John S. P., Sarah, Rebecca J. and Elizabeth. 

During the first years of his residence in Fairmount Township, 
David Lewis was ever ready to assist the new comers in selecting: the 
best piece of land and securing the same of the Government for their 

future home. On several occa- 
sions he took them into his own 
home until a cabin could be built 
on their land. Being a thorough 
woodsman, he assisted the survey- 
ors many times in establishing the 
lines which became some of the 
permanent roads of today in Fair- 
mount Township. His death oc- 
curred November 13, 1855, at the 
age of eighty years. 

For a few years after he set- 
tled here, Solomon Thomas owned 
what was known as the Lake Gala- 
tia farm. In 1835 he sold this 
land and entered a tract about 
three miles southeast of Fair- 
mount, the farm now owned by 
David L. Payne. 

Here a postoffice, called AI, 
was established by Thomas, and 
he became postmaster. In that 
day the postage rate was twenty- 
five cents for a letter going out of 
the State and twelve and one-half 
cents for a letter addressed to a 
person within the limits of In- 
diana. The person receiving the 
letter paid the postage. 

Previous to the opening of the 
postoffice at AI, mail was re- 
ceived and sent out from McCor- 
mick's Tavern. This was known 
as Greenberry Postoffice. Upon 
the death of McCormick and the beginning of a settlement at Jones- 
boro, in 1837. Greenberry Postoffice was discontinued, and moved to 


Wife of William G. Lewis, and a 
daughter of Henry Osborn, who en- 
tered land southeast of Fairmount, 
near the Lewis home, August 27, 
1833. Mrs. Lewis was born Janu- 
ary 12, 1835, in Fairmount Town- 
ship. She was the first of a family 
of six children, others being Louisa. 
Jonathan, William P., Zimri C. and 
Rachel .\nn. Althougli in poor 
health, enfeebled by the infirmities 
of old age, this noble woman in the 
latter months of her life, was men- 
tally bright and alert, enjoyed com- 
pany when strength permitted, and 
eagerly related interesting stories 
and incidents about first settlers 
and described the trials and joys of 
frontier life in the wilderness. 

Arrival at McCorinick's TaTcrn. 


Tonesboro. Joseph Jones, whose wife was a daughter of Robert Mc- 
Corniick ; John Heavilin, Robert Wilson and a man named Furry were 
among the postmasters who handled mail at Greenberry. 

Somewhat later, and before the town of Fairniount was laid out. 
Grant Postoffice was established in a frame house built by William 
Hall, in 1856. at the southwest corner of Adams and Main Streets. 
Here William Hall served as the first postmaster of the town. 

The first public improvement recalled by the late William G. Lewis 
was a horse mill, erected about the year 1840 by Solomon Thomas. This 
mill was headquarters for farmers who wanted their corn ground. 
In that day it was a stroke of enterprise which was highly commended 
by the pioneer and liberally patronized. 

A farmer would go on horse- 
back to the mill with his corn, and 
bv hitching- his horse to the beam, 
together with Thomas's horse, the 
pioneer could get a grist ground 
out "in less than half a day." 
'Tt was a fine makeshift," com- 
ments ]\Ir. Lewis in his reminis- 
cences, now in possession of 
Trustee David G. Lewis, his 

The first election held in the 
Township was that at the McCor- 
mick Tavern, soon after the or- 
ganization of the County, in 1831. 
Charles Baldwin served as in- 
spector. Ichabod Dille was the 
first Justice of the Peace. Elijah 
Lucas served next, and after him 
came Solomon Parsons. 

Solomon Thomas was born in South Carolina in 1796. He entered 
land in Fairmount Township, August 9, 1830. The accompanying 
picture was copied from a tintype made of Thomas during the period 
of his residence in Iowa. This tint3-pe w^as loaned by William R. Lewis, 
a great-grandson. The picture shows Thomas wearing a beard. Fair- 
mount people remember him as a smooth-faced man. 

Solomon aild Anna (Morris) Thomas were parents of Mary Ann, 
Hannah, Edna, Sophronia, Isaac, Martha, Anna, Solomon, Jr., Nelson, 
John, Nathan and Rachel. 'Tn physique," remarks a well known man 



The Makiui!^ of a Toi<.'nslup. 

know from the fact that he had a 
(hversity of knowledge in general 

He had 


Who for many years lived on the farm 
south of Fairmount at present owned b\ 
his grandson, Curtis W. Smith. John 
Smith was the son of Judge Caleli 
Smith, prominent in the early days of 
Grant County. John and Mary Ann 
(Thomas) Smith were the first young 
couple to secure a marriage license in 
Grant County. The wedding occurred 
in 1831 at the cabin home of the bride 
near Lake Galatia. John Smith died 
September 30, 1888, aged seventy-nine 
years, nine months and eight days. 

who was intimately acquainted 
with liim, "Solomon Thomas was 
rather corpulent. lie would weigh 
near 200 pounds, was five feet, 
eight or nine inches tall, with a 
large, well proportioned head, 
nearly hald, with an abundance of 
good, natural ability. I do not 
know where he grew to manhood 
or his facilities for an education. 
That he had some education I 

nowledge of medicine and 

above the average pioneer 

did some practice in Grant County, 
but when he saw there was much 
he did not know he gave up the 
practice. It could not be said of 
Solomon Thomas that he was not 
industrious and progressive, for 
he opened up a good farm in the 
wilderness and erected the first 
horse mill to grind corn in the 
Township. He loved to be in the 
woods with his gun, and was a 
good shot. He kept his large fam- 
il}- supplied with wild meat while 


Daughter of Solomon Thomas and the 
wife of John Smith. Mrs. Smith died 
February 16, 1890, at her home south of 
Fairmount, aged seventy-six years, seven 
months and seventeen davs. 

Arni'al at McConnick's Tavern. 


it was in the country. He was honest, kind, sympathetic, generous, 
ready to assist when called' upon, and active in promoting the best inter- 
ests in the organization of the new country. He was religiously 
inclined, being a member of the United Brethren Church from choice. 
He was a good conversationalist and enjoyed the visits of his neigh- 
bors. In dress, he was very plain, wearing home-made, brown jeans 
blouse and pants, with knit cap of same color while it was customary 
Tor the women to spin and weave and make the cloth for home con- 
sumption. He was a man without pride or ostentation. He was tem- 
perate in his habits, detesting profanity, but always used home-grown 
tobacco. He was classed among the good citizens of the country." 
He served as County Commissioner at one time from the First Dis- 
trict. He died in Fairmount at the age of seventy-seven vears and was 
buried at Back Creek (irave\ard. 


Above is a picture of the caliin owned and occupied by Solomon Thomas and 
family at the time mail was received and distributed by Thomas while serving 
as postmaster in the early part of the '40's. The cabin, no longer in existence, 
was located on the farm now owned by David L. Payne, who lives about three 
miles southeast of Fairmount. At this cabin Samuel C. Wilson, when a boy, got 
mail for his father, John Wilson, and other members of his father's family and 
for other neighbors. Wilson formerly received mail at Summit, but when the 
postoffice at AI was opened the Wilson family found it more convenient to go 
to the Thomas cabin for their letters. Not a great distance from AI, Thomas 
built a horse mill, and a little farther away, some years later, the United Breth- 
ren denomination built old Cnion Church and laid out a gravevard. 



THE ROADS were the most serious handicap to the early settlers 
in getting their surplus grain to market," remarks T. B. McDonald. 
"Some time in the early '50's the Wabash & Erie Canal was constructed. 
This canal followed the course of the Wabash River for many miles. 
At this time the settlers along Back Creek had succeeded in clearing 
considerable land, and raised grain in excess of their needs. This they 
would haul in wagons to some point on the canal, usually Wabash 
town or Lagro, where a market could be found. This was the begin- 
ning of better times ; but the ^yagon-road problem continued to be fore- 
most, as only a short time in the year was it possible to haul any kind 
of a load. 

'Tt was then that a few public-spirited men conceived the idea of 
building a plank road from Jonesboro to Wabash town by the way of 
Marion and Jalapa. This road was constructed by first leveling the 
roadway, then placing heavy oak planks two or three inches thick and 
fourteen feet long, which were laid across the road. This was a great 
improvement and worked fine when the road was new% but it was not 
long till it was found that this kind of road was not practical, as the 
boards could not be fastened in place. The effect of the sun would 
cause the boards to warp and get out of place. Hauling of heavy 
loads would occasionally break a plank or drag many planks out of 
place. The toll collected would not keep up the road repairs, say 
nothing of paying a dividend to the owners of the road. It was over 
this road that the farmers of Fairmount Township hauled their grain 
to market. 

"No doubt the good old farmers along Back Creek saw where their 
neighbors failed, for they at once commenced to build a gravel road 
from Jonesboro to the Madison County line. This road is good to this 
day. It was practical, as time has shown. The plank road was replaced 
by the gravel road. So it was that the Mack Creek farmer had a good 
road to market until the railroads came and brought the market to 
his very door. 

"We have told how the farmers got their grain to market. Now 
we will tell how the hogs were disposed of. In those days the hog was 
a sturdy animal, capable of going a long distance, as wc have previously 
stated. They were fattened on mast in the fall of the year and finished 


Building Roads. 73 

on corn. Hogs were marketed once a year, as a rule. I doubt there 
being a public scale in Grant County as late as 1854. Buyers went to 
the farmers and bought their hogs by the head. A time and a place 
were set for the same. After all the hogs had l^een delivered at the 
agreed point, then they were driven to the nearest shipping point. Some- 
times there would be as many as five hundred hogs in a drove. It is 
■ ny impression that Cincinnati was the market up to 1856, when Ander- 
son became the market. It was no little task to drive so many hogs 
thirty miles. The weaker ones gave out and were hauled in the wagons 
that always followed the drove." 

As the forest was cleared and acreage for crop purposes enlarged, 
the efforts of early settlers were quickened, and the making of farms 
progressed rapidly. As the yield of farm products increased from year 
to year, pioneers began to think about better facilities for reaching the 
markets with their surplus grain and live stock. 

The first important step taken after corduroy roads had outlived 
their usefulness was the formation of an organization for the purpose 
of building a gravel road extending from Jonesboro to the Madison 
County line, to connect the settlement with markets at Wabash and 
Lagro. The Jonesboro & Fairmount Turnpike Company was the out- 
growth of a strong sentiment, then practically unanimous, for improve- 
ments in this direction. 

The old records of this company show that the shares were sold at 
twenty-five dollars each. The first officers of the new organization 
were Henry Winslow, President, and Thomas Baldwin, Secretary. 
Certificate No. i was issued on December 21, i860, to Solomon T. 
Dailey, who bought two shares of stock. 

Other shares were taken as follows : 

Shares Shares 

Ahira Baldwin 4 Seth Winslow 2 

Santford Baldwin 2 Exum Morris 2 

Thomas Baldwin ' 6 Nathan Morris 6 

Thomas Winslow 2 Thomas W. Newby 4 

John Winslow 2 Isaiah Pemberton 3 

William R. Pierce 12 Daniel Winslow 6 

Micajah B. Winslow 4 E. M. Tracy i 

Nathan Hill 2 Thomas Harye\- 2 

Benoni Hill 6 Henry Winslow 4 

Aaron Hill 8 Jesse Dillon 10 

Joseph W. Hill 4 Noah Harris 8 


Tlic Making of a Toiimship. 


Thomas Knight 2 

Joseph Knight 4 

John RusseH 6 

Allen Winslow 2 

JMicajah Wilson 2 

Harvey & Wilson 12 

David Smithson 4 

William Cox i 

Jesse E. Wilson 9 

John T. Morris i 

Levi W^inslow 2 

Margaret Puckett 10 

Wright & Brother 2 

Morris Payne i 

G. H. Puckett 2 

Eli Neal i 

Lindsey Wilson 2 

Evan Benbow 4 

Henry Wilson i 

Samuel C. Wilson i 

Barkley Hockett 4 

Henry Winslow, Jr % 

Francis Lytle 4 

David Stan field i 

Eli and Adeline 


Josiah Bradway 3 

James Lytle 4 

Nathan D. Wilson 4 

Jonathan P. Winslow 4 

Elizabeth Rush . 

James R. Smith 

Samuel H. Pierce 

Noah Brooks 

Jesse Reece .' 

Jonathan Baldwin 6 

Carter Hasting 4 

Calvin Bookout 4 

William R. Wright 2 

Samuel Dillon 11 

Henry Harvey 4 

Micah Baldwin 4 

William Hall i 

Samuel Jay i 

Abraham Music i 

David Jones i 

William Macy 6 

Jacob Becht 2 

Thomas Knight 2 

David W inslow 4 

Haisley 32 

The office of Secretary was abolished and William R. Pierce was 
chosen to serve in the dual capacity of President and Secretary. He 
was succeeded by Jesse E. Wilson, who was elected President and Sec- 
retary and was serving as such on August 24, 1862. He continued m 
this position until August 5, 1881, a period of nearly nineteen years. 
Upon the death of Jesse E. Wilson the stockholders, on June 21, 1883, 
elected Joseph W. Hill, Jonathan P. Winslow and Daniel Wi;-..-^lo\v. 
Directors. On July 30, 1883, the Directors met and named Jonathan 
P. Winslow, President, Joseph W. Hill, Treasurer, and Jonathan P. 
Winslow, Secretary. 

The position of an officer of the Jonesboro & Fairmount Turni)ike 
Company was not regarded lightly. Tt was considered one of real 
responsibility and importance. This fact is evidenced by the action 
taken at a meeting of the i'.oard of Directors held in July, 1883. The 
records show the following : 

Building Roads. 75 

"State of Indiana, Grant County, ss. : 

"We, Joseph W. Hill, Jonathan P. Winslovv and Daniel Winslow, 
do truly affirm that we will support the Constitution of the United 
States and the Constitution of the State of Indiana, and that we will 
discharge the duties as Directors of the Joneshoro & Fairmount Turn- 
pike Company according to law. to the best of our ability, for which 
we shall answer under the pains and penalties of perjurw 

"Witness our hands and seals. 

"Joseph W. Hill, 
"Jonathan P. Winslow, 
"Daniel Winslow. 

"Subscribed and sworn to before me this 30th day of Jul\-. 1883. 

"Alfred Barnard, 
"Justice of the Peace." 

On August I, 1883, Jonathan P. W^inslow purchased of Daniel Wil- 
son, administrator of the estate of Jesse E. Wilson, thirty-eight shares 
of stock. At about the same date eleven shares of stock were assigned 
to Nixon Rush, Jr. 

Jonathan P. Winslow continued to serve as President and Secretary 
of the Company until July 17, 1886, when he was succeeded by Chris- 
topher Hill. 

On May 14. 1892, Jonathan P. Winslow was again elected Presi- 
dent. Z. M. Gossett was chosen Secretary. On July 12, 1892, forty- 
one shares were assigned to Dr. A. Henley. 

For the month ending August i, 1892, the receipts for toll were 
as follows : Gate No. i, $30.00 ; Gate No. 2, $52.66 ; Gate No. 3, $42.21. 
September, 1892, the receipts reached high-water mark. The report of 
receipts on October i, for the preceding month, was as follows: Gate 
No. I, $50.05; Gate No. 2, $98.62, and Gate No. 3, $39.72, making a 
total for the month of $188.39. 

On April 27, 1893, one hundred and twenty shares were assigned 
to Sullivan T. Waite. 

In 1899 the Interurban line connecting Marion and Anderson had 
been completed and was in operation. It was doubtless partly due to 
this new and more convenient means of travel and jjartly to the fact 
that other gravel roads had lieen constructed that the income from tolls 
became almost negligible. 

The records show that on September 9, 1899, ^^""^ receipts for two 
months, Julv and August combined, amounted to but $25.25. At this 
date Sullivan T. Waite was President and Adeline Wright, Secretary. 

The Joneshoro & Fairmount turnpike was taken over by the county 

76 Tlie Making of a Toii'iiship. 

on January 9, 190). at which time the officers of the company g'avc a 
quit-claim deed for the property to the County Commissioners. There 
are now no toll roads in Fairmotmt Township. 

The construction of the Jonesboro & I'^airniount turnpike marked 
the beginning' of an era of rapid deveU)i)ment along" various lines of 
progress vitally important. It was, perhaps, the first gravel road 
built in Grant County. It enabled farmers more easily and more cheaply 
to get their products to market. It perceptibly increased the value of 
land. Perhaps no two things happened which worked more to the 
material advantage of pioneers than the drainage of farms and the 
building of gravel roads. The records show who blazed the way for 
better transportation facilities. 

And thus we see that this pioneer road, as a profitable private busi- 
ness enterprise, under pressure of modern ingenuity and advancement, 
W'ent the w'ay of the pioneer ccmmi cracker, the pioneer tanner and the 
pioneer boot and shoe maker. These institutions all served their ]nn-- 
pose admirably in their day and generation. It is fitting that we of the 
present, in our moments of meditation, rejoice with hearts full of pride 
and gratitude that the persistent toil and uncomplaining sacrifice of 
men who have passed on before contributed so generously to a condi- 
tion which has made life more pleasant and placed the possibilities of 
enduring" happiness within the reach of all. 

"Any one riding over Fairmount Township at the present day will 
note the very level surface of the land," writes Dr. A. Henley, under 
date of Melbourne, Florida, April 14, 1917. 'Tt does not look nearly 
so level now as it did to the first settlers, before the forest trees and 
underbrush were cut away and the fallen timber removed that ob- 
structed the natural drainage of the sloughs. 

'T think one would be safe in saying that fifty per cent, of the landed 
surface was w^et land, covered with water a portion of the year — too 
wet to cultivate until late in the spring" — and was an uncertain proposi- 
tion even then. For this reason the first comers selected land some- 
what rolling, land that had the best natural outlet for the surface water, 
erected their cabins, cut out roads on the ridges and the driest ground 
and as direct from one neighbor to another as was practicable. 

"They had the soil to bring abundant crops to please the appetite 
of man if they could get the surface water off. That was the leading 
(luestion that agitated the minds of the people. A few farmers cut 
open ditches, which proved unsatisfactory, as the ditch would soon fill 
up by the stock passing over it. Then, again, the open ditch was a 
nuisance and obstruction when cut through a field, and also a waste 

Building Roads. yy 

of good land. Consequently, some of the more progressive farmers 
conceived the idea of making a blind ditch of split timber by cutting a 
narrow, deep channel, placing the oak timber in the bottom in different 
ways to suit the individual fancy, give a free channel for the water to 
flow beneath the timber, and filled the ditch to the top surface with the 
excavated dirt and clay. This scheme was a success and gave satisfac- 
tion so long as the timber remained sound and kept its place, which was 
not a great while. 

"In the early seventies good timber began to be very valuable for 
export, so much so that other material was sought for to substitute 
wood as ditch timber. About this time a firm in Indianapolis, Chand- 
ler & Taylor, devised a machine that would press out of wet clay a tube 
from two to six inches in diameter, which was cut as it came from the 
machine into one foot lengths. The power used was a team of horses 
hitched at the end of a long sweep which was securely bolted to the top 
of the mill post, the team going round the mill, pressing out a length 
of the tube at every revolution of the machine, which was cut into 
proper lengths bv the operator. Then the tile were placed on racks 
under a long shed to dry, and when sufficiently dry were removed to a 
round kiln, after the manner of pottery, to be burned to a dark red 

"Thus the land owner was provided with an indestructible material 
for drainage purposes, if he could be convinced of the utility of the 

"William S. Elliott was the first man to bring one of those machines 
into the Township and risk money in what was to most of the people a 
doubtful enterprise. Many people were incredulous. Mr. Elliott had 
to overcome all kinds of foolish objections to his new system of drain- 
age. The very idea of paying out a lot of good money for material to 
bury in the ground for ditches had never been done, and it was a pre- 
posterous thing to do. 

"Another objection was raised. The cost would be prohibitive. It 
would never pay interest, and the water could not get into the tiling any 
way. To overcome these and many other objections, Mr. Elliott, at 
first, let out many thousands of rods of tile on trial, with the under- 
standing that if they failed to do the work he claimed for them they 
could have them free of cost. 

"At first the farmers would lay the tile with the ends a little distance 
apart, fearful that the water would not get into them, and then cover 
the tile with straw to keep out the dirt while the ditch was being filled. 
No one believed the water could get through the sides of the tiling until 

yS The Making of a To-a'iiship. 

Tohn Selbv, with his ing^enioiis turn of mind, determined to test that 
question by completely sealing- one end of a tile and set it with the 
sealed end down in a tub of water not quite to the top of the tile. After 
twelve hours the water in the tile was on a level with the water in the 

"This, becoming- generally known, the straw business was aban- 
doned and the tile laid close end to end. It was soon observed that a tile 
ditch would run as full of water soon after a heavy rain as an\ timber 

"The utility of the tile ditch was established, and Mr. Elliott's faith 
in putting out hundreds of dollars worth of tiling on trial was fully 
rewarded, as he did not lose a dollar in the end. Wide-awake farmers 
.soon began to see that tiling their land, instead of being a financial 
burden, was a paying investment. They replaced their wooden ditches 
with tile, cleared and ditched more wet land, adding in excess of 
twenty-five per cent, to the acreage of tillable land in the Township. 
It was like putting a new and permanent foundation under an old 
building, making it safe and durable for all time. 

"It will be remembered with a shudder by many that up to about 
this date chills, shaking ague, congestive fevers, dysentery, cholera 
morbus, cholera infantum, typhoid fever, and all malarial diseases were 
prevalent. Any one was liable to be prostrated from July to November. 
When the ponds and stagnant water were drained off and the surface 
water line lowered from two to three feet by means of the tile drain- 
age, those malarious diseases first enumerated disappeared from the 
country and are not the factor to reckon with that they formerly were. 

"To what or to whom shall we give credit for this great change and 
for this immunity from disease? Has not the tile drainage system been 
the real foundation upon which the prosperity of the Township rests ^ 
Who, then, is more deserving of gratitude as a benefactor of his race 
than he who introduced the tile system of drainage into the Township ? 

"Mr. Elliott did not use the horse-power mill, as described above, 
but devised a gearing out of an old portable machine which had been 
used for running a threshing machine in an early day. To this he 
attached steam power to the opposite end of the pinion shaft with the 
master wheel fastened in a saddle on the top of the mill post, and 
by driving the master wheel and also the mill with the little pinion he 
had adequate power, and just the proper speed for successful work. 

"This was the first steam-power tile mill in Indiana. .Mr. Taylor, 
of the firm at Indianapolis that made the mill, came over to sec the 
manner of attaching steam power to his niachine, after which his firni 

Biiildiiii:; Roo(^s. 


made no more horse-power mills. Tile mills and motor power went on 
improving until now a tile two feet in diameter can be made as easily as 
the six-inch tile in the first place." 

William S. Elliott is a native of Grant County. He was born Jan- 
uary 28, 1844, at the Elliott cabin, which then stood on the present site 
of the Mess Hall of the National 
Military Home. His grandpar- 
ents, Isaac and Rachel (Over- 
man) Elliott, with two children, 
came originally from Virginia, 
settled in Wayne County, Indiana, 
and in 1822 traveled in wagons t(^ 
a point near the Mississinewa 
River, where they entered land 
since taken over by the Govern- 
ment and now included within thr 
grounds forming the Soldiers' 
Home property. 

William S. Elliott as a boy at- 
tended till' ])ul)lic schools, as well 
as the schot)ls conducted by the 
Society of Eriends in that day. 
His ancestors for many genera- 
tions were Quakers. He engaged 
in agricultural pursuits in his boy- 
hood, until August, 1862, when lie 
volunteered his services to his 
country. He enlisted in Company 
C, Eighty-ninth Indiana Regiment 
of Infantry, at eighteen years of age. This comjKiny was in the latter 
part of the war in command of Capt. J. E. Jones, lately deceased. The 
term of service for which Mr. Elliott had volunteered was three years. 
The regiment was captured by the Confederates while guarding a rail- 
road bridge at Mumfordsville, Kentucky, before he had been out six 
weeks. In a short time he was paroled and sent home, under instruc- 
tions not to take up arms against the Confederacy until properly ex- 

In six weeks this exchange was arranged b\- the authorities and 
Elliott again joined his command at Indianapolis. After some time of 
hard drilling the command was ordered to Memphis, Tennessee. Here 
he did post duty while the Union Army was sent on to Vicksburg. In 


8o The Makiii!^- of a Toiimship. 

the weeks followin;;- he did much important service, being promoted for 
his fidelity and efficiency. 

With twelve men he was detailed to escort a dozen captured Con- 
federate officers to Johnson's Island, in Lake Erie, near Sandusky, 
Ohio. The prisoners were taken in a separate car set aside for the 
purpose. At Centralia, Illinois, and Bellefontaine, Ohio, the prisoners 
attracted numbers of Southern sympathizers, several offering" pistols to 
the prisoners. As one of the guards on duty at Centralia Elliott, with 
gun and bayonet, pressed the crowd back from the car. 

At another time, after the surrender of Vicksburg, July lo, 1863, he 
was detailed with others to guard' iron safes containing $2,000,000 sent 
by the Government on the "City of Aladison" from Memphis to Vicks- 
burg to pay off Union troops. 

In October, 1864. Elliott was with his command in Missouri, then 
under General Pleasanton, in pursuit of the Confederate General Price. 
Captain Jones had responded to a detail to guard a water tank twelve 
miles west of Sedalia. General Pleasanton reminded Captain Jones 
that it would be a dangerous undertaking, telling him that he and his 
entire command might be killed or captured. 

"You may have all the men you require for this work," remarked 
General Pleasanton, "but they must be picked men. You now realize 
the dangerous character of the duty you are about, to perform. Are 
you ready ?" 

Captain Jones hesitated. 

"Why do you hesitate?" asked the General. 

"I am not hesitating because of the hazardous character of the mis- 
sion," replied Jones. "I was simply wondering, General, if you would 
allow me to take ni}- own company with me." 

The General agreed to the suggestion. So Captain Jones, with 
Company C, made up principally of Fairmount Township and Grant 
County men, went to the water tank and held this important source of 
water supply until relieved. 

After more than three years' service, mostly with the Sixteenth 
Army Corps, Mr. Elliott was mustered out on July 26, 1865. at Mobile, 
Alabama. Returning home he was married in September, 1865, to 
Miss Ruth Wilson, daughter of Jesse E. Wilson. She died in 1867. 
Later he married Miss Alice Radley, daughter of Samuel and Mary 
(Bull) Radlew by whom he is the father of eleven children, all living. 
Mr. Elliott has been uniformly successful in his various pursuits, and 
has retired with a competency ample to insure the comfort of himself 
and wife. Tie has been and is now useful in the church and enter- 

Building Roads. 8i 


prising in his work for educational and civic progress. lie has for 
several years devoted considerable time and attention to the welfare of 
White's Institute, located in Wabash County, of which institution he is 
at present trustee. In all his activities he has been a conspicuous fac- 
tor. As soldier, as farmer, as church man, as promoter of educational 
and civic welfare, Mr. Elliott is not only a many-sided man, with a 
broad experience and a thorough understanding of public affairs, but he 
is a type of the useful citizen of whom there are entirely too few in the 
average American community. 



(By Mrs. Lydia Morris Arnold.) 

BEING the wife of a contractor and builder, changing from one 
State to another, one job to another, it will be hard for me to con- 
centrate my mind in order to give anything accurate of happenings of 

early days. In writing of my 
early childhood and what I re- 
member, will say that I was born 
in 1844, ori the farm called the 
Sammy Dillon place, in a two- 
story hewn log house with a fire- 
place in the west end. There 
was a road on the east. Daniel 
Baldwin joined on the south. 
Then north of us the houses on 
the main road were on the east 
side of the road. 

First was Jesse Dillon, then 
Charles Baldwin. He had a log 
cabin in the south corner of his 
orchard, where Samuel Jones 
lived awhile. His wife was Jane 
Jones, a gifted minister of the 
Friends Church. Then Charles 
Baldwin lived next, and Matthew 
Winslow and Aaron Hill. 

West of the road were farms 
on Back Creek, with the houses up 
on the hill west of the creek. 
First, going south and across the creek from Aaron Hill's farm were 
Solomon Knight and Joseph Winslow, then south was the road turning- 
east across the bridge, then the old meeting house and school house, 
and the Newby farm south. We cross the creek to go up to Racliel 
Newby's, then we cross the road running west to Oak Ridge. Going 
on south we crossed the road, then passed the Seth Winslow farm, then 
Iredell Rush's, then Jesse Wilson's, and next Nathan Wilson's farm, 
west of the town. 



Glimpses of Pioneer Life. 83 

Most of the houses first built in Fairmount were one-story, about 
thirty feet square, then shedded off back for a kitchen. They had a 
fireplace in the large room and one or two bed rooms. Some put a bed 
in the kitchen. 

Two stores were built, one on the east side of Main Street, and one 
on the west. Joseph W. Baldwin had his goods on the east, Isaac Stan- 
field on the west. These two buildings were a little larger, with gable 
facing street and a small attic. They had the store in the big room. 

A saw-mill was built south of the road running west to Little Ridge. 
James Cammack, who owned the mill, lived in the house west of Stan- 
field's store. 

The first meeting house was built on the vacant ground north of 
Cammack's. It was a small frame, and was also used for school pur- 
poses. Father and David Stanfield helped to lay out the ground for 
the house. 

Father bought the first clock and cook stove in the Township. The 
clock was a wooden clock. It had these letters on the door, "Time is 
Money." The stove was what they called a step stove. 

I went to school at Back Creek before Fairmount was prepared with 
school facilities. The school house was west of the meeting house. It 
was a square frame about thirty feet, with a door in the north and one 
in the south, two windows in east, two in west, one on each side of the 
door in south, a blackboard on north and east and west as far as the 
windows. There were two posts in the middle of the room, on each side 
of the big box stove, heated by wood, and they were big sticks at that. 
The teachers were paid by the scholar, so the larger the attendance the 
bigger his wages. 

The first teacher I went to was William Neal. He had no bell, and 
when he called us in he beat on the side of the house and shouted : 

"Books! Books! Books!" 

And away we scampered for our seats. There we spent about fif- 
teen minutes with our books, in the manner they called "studying out 
loud." What would one of our modern students think to be ushered 
into such a babel as that? 

I can shut my eyes and fancy I hear them spelling : 

"Baker, shady, lady." 

"Ab, eb, ib. ob, ub." 

"The old oaken bucket, the iron bound bucket, the moss covered 
bucket that hung in the well." 

"Twinkle, twinkle, little star." 

'■'Twice one are two." 

84 The Making of a Tozi'iiship. 

"Indiana is bounded on the north by Lake Michigan, State of Mich- 
igan, on the east by Ohio, south by Kentucky and west by IlHnois." 

"Silence ! Silence !" by the teacher. 

"First class in spelling." 

And so forth, on until noon. 

We ate our lunch in silence, and then we were given an hour of play. 
Our games were "black man," "town ball," "three-cornered cat," "base," 
"drop the handkerchief," "little lame dog," "pussy wants a corner," and 
on stormy days we had "cross questions and crooked answers," "smiles," 
"thumbs up," and many other simple games. 

They used the Elementary Spellers and McGuffey's Readers, Tol- 
bert's Arithmetic, Olney's Geography, Thompson's Higher Arithmetic, 
Brown's Grammar and Walker's Dictionary. A teacher, in order to 
pass examination, must be able to make a good writing pen out of a 
goose quill and "do sums up to the rule of three." 

The girls wore flannel dresses and big aprons in winter, heavy cot- 
ton in summer. The boys wore a cloth called jeans in winter and tow 
or flax in summer. In the middle of the week we went to meeting. 
Often, now, when I hear the "whinney" of a horse, it brings to my 
remembrance those times as I sat in meeting (as it was sometimes very 
quiet in doors), the restless neighing of the horses anxious to return to 
their mates. The women rode often with a child on behind and one 
in her lap, the men most always walking. 

About the first one to arrive would be Solomon Knight, walking, 
his wife, Betsy, riding. He would lead the horse up to where they 
had a wide slab leaning up to a tree, with a deep notch cut to hold it 
secure, and two pegs driven in the ground down south of tlie tree. 
Those who came across the creek got off here, and those on the north 
on a big stump, with places cut on one side for steps. On the south 
was a big log with notches for steps. They were generally on time, and 
when one we all called Uncle Josie Winslow came, w^e knew it was time 
for our teacher to say : 

"Prepare for meeting." 

That meant for us to put away our books and march, the girls first, 
two and two, the boys next. The teacher led the way, and at the door 
he let us all pass, the girls on the west of the aisle and the boys east. 
The teacher sat back of us, as the seats were arranged a little on the 
incline. He would be able to see over us. We had to be decorous, sure, 
for there were the old people in the gallery looking down on us and 
the teacher behind us. 

The gallery had three scats on each side of the aisle. Josie Winslow 

Glimpses of Pioneer Life. 85 

was first and then Nathan Morris, David Stanfield, Solomon Knight and 
John Carey. Next row, Jesse Harvey, WilHam Osborn, Aaron Hill, 
old Thomas Harvey, Lindsey Baldwin and Thomas Winslow. Now, I 
will leave the next bench for comers and goers. 

On the west, first, was Eunice Baldwin, as Charles was now dead. 
After Eunice Baldwin there were Sallie Knight and Anna Harvey. 
When a woman minister came with her companion they moved over and 
gave place for them. (When men came on the other side two men 
moved down for them to the next seat.) On the second seat on the 
west was Rachel Newby, Miriam Morris, Lydia Carey and Anna Wins- 
low. I will not locate others (too tedious). 

The preaching was generally spoken without a text, but occasionally 
a text was given. When prayer was offered we all stood up and turned 
our backs towards the gallery. 

Nathan Morris was not much for changing his dress and address. 
He wore his hair cut the style he wore when a young man. It was cut 
square across the forehead, then slanting down to his ears, down a 
little, then it was a little longer in back. His collar was attached to his 
shirt. In winter he wore a black tie, in summer a white one. His vest 
was buttoned up within about four inches of his chin, coat in the shad 
style, pants made with a flap buttoned up about two inches of the 
pockets on each side, and his suspenders were knit of yarn. They were 
called galluses. His hat was a beaver. Aunt Polly Henley made his 
"meeting clothes," as she was a fine needle woman. She was a sister 
of Betsy Rush and Martha Winslow, and mother of Dr. Alpheus Hen- 
ley, grandmother of Angelina (Harvey) Pearson. Father never did 
receive money for his services as a minister. He said if he was faithful 
the necessary things would be forthcoming. His crops would grow and 
the stock increase and flourish. He had a good, roomy house, large 
barn and cribs, a cattle pen for drovers to put their cattle in, and a 
hog-tight pen for the hog drovers to put their hogs in. We had one 
large room with a fireplace and a large, brick hearth to let people stay 
in on stormy nights. 

Travel was by wagon. There were no railroads. The boats came 
up the Wabash River, north, over forty miles away, and south the Ohio 
River made Cincinnati a great trading point. So the cattle, sheep and 
bogs were driven to those points. 

Father's place was one of the stopping points on the route. The 
wagons were the old stiff-tongued affairs, with wooden axles, the 
wheels fastened on with linchpins, and the bed looked more like a boat 
on wheels than anything I can think of. The harness was the chain 

86 The Making of a Toimiship. 

style, with high hames, and the teamsters often had a set of what they 
called hame bells, so when they were coming we were well aware of it. 
If the tar-bucket was forgotten, what a squeaking noise we could hear, 
nearly a mile away, on a clear day in winter ! They nearly always hung 
the tar-bucket on the hind axle. A hole was made in the lid for 
the tar-paddle. A leather whang was used to fasten the lid to the 
bucket to secure it. If there was more than one span of horses the 
driver rode one of the horses at the tongue. Oxen were used for log- 
ging and other heavy work. One Indian often came to town driving 
a team of oxen with a set of chain harness on, he sitting in the wagon 
guiding them with lines. 

In the winter they made wooden sleds from the timber of a crooked 
tree, split and hewn for runners, with cross-pieces mortised in, plank 
laid on and straw and comforters. We packed in sardine fashion, as 
happy as larks in June. 

There were the spelling schools, quilting bees, log rollings and quilt- 
ings combined, wool pickings, apple cuttings, and sometimes writing 
schools. To tell how these social gatherings were conducted would 
be too lengthy. Will mention the wool picking event. 

They took their turns in the neighborhood and invited all to "come 
and help with the wool." Now. this was a gala time, and a good, old- 
fashioned dinner was spread. The teacher was invited to come after 
school for supper. The wool, having been washed and dried, it was 
brought in and spread out in the center of a large room. Then each 
put on her big apron. And such a hubbub all around the room, exchang- 
ing the last news, and each busy with the wool. There were burrs, 
Spanish needles and trash to be extracted. Then it was tied in sheets 
or old blankets to be taken to the woolen mill at Jonesboro, in my time, 
but earlier it was made into rolls at home with hand-cards about four- 
teen inches in width, with wire teeth, and handles like curr\-combs. 
They combed the wool until it was in smooth layers, then with forward 
and backward movements formed it into rolls ready for spinning. 

One day I found grandmother's cards and asked mother to teach me 
how to make rolls. You ought to have seen some of my awkward 
movements before I got anything like a roll. The rolls made at the 
carding machine are over two feet long. They were in bunches of from 
fifty to a hundred. Then they were put in layers on the sheets the 
wool was brought to mill in, then rolled up very tight and pinned with 
thorns. My brother earned his ''first big money," as he thought, by 
gathering thorns to sell to the proprietor of the mill at so much a dozen. 
Most everyone raised sheep, and the women spun and wove cloth for 
their clothing and blankets, knit their own hosiery, and the men's, too. 

Glimpses of Pioneer Life. 87 

The farmers raised flax. It was pulled up by the roots, cured and 
put through the flax-brake. The coarse fiber was called tow, which 
was used for ropes, kite strings, twine, and to spin into carpet warp. 
The fine fiber was done up in twists and laid away, to be spun into 
thread for sewing and weaving into bedding, towels, tablecloths, shirts, 
dresses, pants and other useful things. Grandmother made a substan- 
tial button out of flax thread. It looked a little like a crocheted button 
of this time. 

For weaving, there was the spool-holder, warping-bars, loom, quill- 
wheel, winding-blades, shuttle-quills, spools and yard-string. To try 
to describe all the attachments pertaining to a loom would be a task. 

The spinning of wool was done on a big wheel, on a bench of three 
legs, two at back end, one longer in front. They spun the thread and 
wound it on a broach on a spindle. When full it was wound on a reel. 
One hundred and twenty rounds made a cut. The skein consisted of 
four cuts. Each cut was tied or cross-threaded. The girls often tried 
to see who could make the most in a day. Sister Sarah could get her 
twenty-four cuts. 

In spinning flax they used a little wheel with a distaff, on which 
the flax was held while spinning. The thread was so stout it could not 
be broken. They used to cut it. I will not describe a flax-wheel, as 
you can examine some old book or painting and see the way they look 
at the little wheel. 

One woman east of the Mississinewa River raised the silk worms 
and made silk thread. It was very good, stout thread. People raised 
most of what they used, both eatables and wearing apparel. All the 
sewing was hand work, and they borrowed patterns one of another, 
so there was no kick on high cost of living. 

Hog killing time was a neighborhood affair, as they helped one 
another. There was an old colored man, Robert Brazelton, who was 
adapted to such occasions. He could knock a hog in the head and 
stick it with ease. The hogs were scalded, scraped, and then hung upon 
a long pole. A chip was put in the hog's mouth. Father was an adept 
in drawing them. The entrails were carried to a long table for women 
to extract the fat. They thoroughly washed out the inside. There 
were generally about eight to twenty hogs slaughtered at a killing, as 
the meat was cured and the farmers sold some to help run the expenses 
in summer. By the time the last hog was hung the first was ready 
for cutting up and salting away in the smoke-house to cure ready for 
smoking. They hung the joints on wooden hooks made of forked 
limbs of hickory. They used corn cobs or hickory wood to smoke with. 

88 The Making of a Tozmiship. 

The women cut np the fat leaf lard and entrail fat. It was cooked down 
to make lard. 

In making sausages there were no grinders, so it was all chopped 
by hand on a big chopping block. They made head cheese, pickled 
pigs feet, and hung the ribs before the fire and roasted them. Oh, 
they w^ere fine ! 

Corn-planting time was a busy month. First, they plowed the 
ground, then run a single-shovel plow the longest way of the field, then 
they mustered all the help available to get the corn in one run, the sin- 
gle plow the other way of the field forming check rows. Following 
him was a dropper, putting four grains in each hill, followed "by one 
with a hoe, covering it. Sometimes we made a bee of it. Then a lot 
of us girls would drop and the boys with hoes covered. Then we got 
a good dinner and supper, sure. The cultivating was mostly by the hoe. 
Some run the single plow a few times through it. 

When the corn was ripe they snapped it, hauled it into the barn, 
or crib, to be husked at leisure. Sometimes they had a husking bee. It 
was an interesting sight, with those tin lanterns hanging here and there 
and the busy men and boys at their work. Women prepared them a 
treat of doughnuts, apples, pie and some coffee. 

When they wanted to take the grist to mill a few sacks of corn were 
brought to the house after supper. All hands set to and did the shell- 
ing by hand. It was taken to the water mill, ground between two 
stones, and was sifted at home in a round-wire sieve. The corn bread 
and pones were fine. 

Sugar and molasses were made of the sap of the sugar maple. They 
,cut a downward-stroked notch in the south side of the tree, bored a 
hole so as to run into the notch, inserted a spile to let the sap run into 
a trough made of a log split and hewn out for a receptacle for the sap. 
They built a place to boil it by putting clay and rocks around the big- 
iron kettles, put wood in the north end, as it was mostly south wind in 
spring. Father would build a shed, put in some straw and a few com- 
forters, so we could take turns watching the kettles. The first sap 
was used to make sugar. The last end of sap time it was made into 

One night sister Millie, Charlotte Peacock and I helped father 
"sugar off." We slept until he was ready for putting it into crocks to 
cool and stir. The more we stirred it the whiter it got. Sometimes it 
was as light as coffee A sugar we get nowadays. This was our "com- 
pany" sugar. Some was darker for common use. Then we molded 
some into cakes and stacked it awav. 

Glimpses of Pioneer Life. 89 

Father waked us up to feast on wax. We put it on plates to cool. 
Soon we had our fun, pulling and eating. Then father told us to lie 
down until he was ready for us. So Millie said, "Shadrach, Meshach 
and Aebednego," or, "Get up, eat wax, and to bed we go." 

Most of the farmers raised ducks and geese. The duck feathers 
were used to make pillows and the goose feathers to make feather beds. 
There was a good market for feathers when not wanted for home use. 

They raised broom-corn, made their own brooms, and for scrubbing, 
sweeping the yard and barn floor they made a split broom by taking a 
pole of hickory wood and shaving it down within three or four inches 
of one end and then turn the splits over that stub, tie it and trim off 
even. It made a stout, serviceable broom. 

They did their plowing for wheat as soon after haying as possible, 
then harrowed it. Those who had no harrow used a brush as drag. 
They sowed the wheat broadcast by hand, then brushed it in. To har- 
vest the wheat, those who had no cradle used a sickle in cutting it. 
Then it was tied into bundles and put up in shocks ready for the barn. 

When ready to thresh, they swept the floor (and here was where 
the splint broom came into good play). They used a flail. Some 
tramped it out with horses. Father had a fanning-mill. Some used 
the fire bellows. Some took it out on a windy day, spread it on a 
wagon cover or sheets and passed it from one vessel to another to get 
the chaff out. It was taken to the old water mill to be made into flour. 
The miller took his toll. 

The farthest back that I can remember is when old Sorrel and Char- 
ley ran away while one of my brothers was eating a lunch before he 
started to Jonesboro with his wheat. He had been hauling 
rails for father to lay fence. The people laid the first row 
in the "right time of the moon." He took two planks, put them 
on the running gears of the wagon and piled his sacks of 
wheat thereon. The other brother and Millie were on the wagon when 
the horses started. They ran against a plum tree in the front 
yard, turned over wheat and all, with sister underneath. She was hurt. 
I was two years and a half old, but it was indelibly stamped on my 

The lanterns they used were made of tin, with oblong holes punched 
outward to emit the light. They used candles placed in a tin socket. 
Those who didn't have a lantern took the scaly bark of the hickory tree, 
tied it with a tow string and lighted it at the fire. There were no matches. 
People covered up live coals of fire with ashes to start fires. If the 
coals went dead on them, over to the nearest neighbor they would go 

90 The Making of a Toztmship. 

to "borrow fire." Smokers carried a tin box lined witb ashes to keep 
coals for a pipe lighter. 

Fairmount was a temperance town. I never saw a drunk man until 
I was eighteen years old, and that was at a colored camp-meeting. A 
young man from Marion was lying on his face dead drunk. It had a 
disgusting look to me. 

People made their own soap. They saved the ashes and put them 
in an ash hopper, poured water on and it ran through into a trough 
similar to a sugar trough, boiled the lye down to where it would eat a 
feather, then put in old meat trimmings, old grease and such, and boil 
it until it roped from the paddle In washing, they used wide, flat pad- 
dles, soaped the clothes in strong suds made of this soap, and then laid 
them on a block, or slab, to be "paddled out." When I was past seven 
years of age they got to using a pounding barrel, as barrels were made 
by Jackson Reel and other men around there. This barrel was about 
a third full of water. The clothes were soaped and put in. Then a 
wooden pestle was used to extract the dirt. Then they were boiled, 
rinsed, starched and hung out to dry on a line made of tow. The starch 
was made by scraping potatoes, then washed. The part that settled 
made a good starch when cooked. 

Blacksmiths in those days could make irons. These were heated in 
front of the fire in the fireplace. Most of these fireplaces had what 
they called a crane-iron attached, with different lengths of hooks .to 
hang kettles on to boil dinners, cook pumpkins and other things. 
Grandmother Benbow had a reflector. It was a bright tin frame with 
slanting shelves toward the fire and used to roast sweet potatoes, 
scjuashes and meats, and to bake the Johnnie cakes and other things. 

They made chairs, baskets, wooden spoons, bowls, churns and 
wooden tubs. On each side was left an extension of the staves to 
make openings for handhold. William Wellington made us a good 
wood washboard with a kind of plane he brought with him from Eng- 
land. He made our bedsteads and did other carpenter work. He was 
a well-read man and he brought his Advent books with him, and many 
other books. My brother-in-law, Micah Baldwin, did have some of 
his books when I was young. "Religious Emblems and Allegories" 
and "Daniel and the Prophets" were among them. 

Now, I will write some of my recollections of father Nathan 
Morris. He was born in Guilford County, North Carolina, Tenth 
month 8, 1806. He was the son of Thomas and Sarah Morris. He 
moved, with his widowed mother, to Wayne County, Indiana, when a 
young man. Some time after his mother's death he married the eldest 

Glimpses of Pioneer Life. 91 

daughter of John and Charity Benbow. After their eldest child, 
Sarah, was born they moved to Grant County. He entered eighty acres 
just north of Daniel Baldwin. After building a one-room log cabin, in 
the middle of the claim, he cleared out a garden and corn patch and 
set out an orchard. This was the old one (on the forty acres Allen 
Dillon bought of father afterwards). He lived in that cabin some 
years, until he built a large two-story house, which had a splendid 
brick fireplace and wide' hearth. In this house I was born. 

Father planted a fine orchard west of this house — apples, pears, 
peaches, cherries. West of the house, inside of the picket fence, he 
planted some plum trees for shade for his string of bee hives. 

The garden was on the south. There were roses on each side of 
the gate and currant bushes in the back of the garden. 

Now, father had a hobby for planting orchards, and every time I 
write of a change in farms just think there he was looking after fruit 
supplies, for no one had better fruit than he had. He lived in the two- 
story house and continued adding a room or two until it was quite a 
roomy place. (It was burned down after we left there.) 

My father sold the north forty to Sammy Dillon and the south 
forty to Allen Dillon, and moved to a farm near Marion, in the spring 
of 1852. 

In 1857 father traded this farm for the old Charles Baldwin farm, 
near Back Creek meeting house. Charles and Eunice Baldwin lived 
in the west end of this house. There were three orchards, as father 
bought three other farms. Grandmother had half of the west one, near 
the road. So I went to school at the old stamping ground. 

The turnpike was made while we lived there. Father had a share 
of stock in the road when he left. He sold his share to Jonathan P. 
Winslow in time of the war. 

In the spring of 1869 we went to Iowa by way of the old covered 

In September we went back to Indiana. I went to normal at 
Back Creek and boarded at William Pierce's, then stayed in Fairmount 
with sister Sarah that winter. Father lived in the little town at Oak 
Ridge, as his farm was occupied until March. Father attended Oak 
Ridge meeting. His farm joined the meeting-house yard on the north. 
The next spring I took the school for the summer and stayed at home. 
The next winter I stayed with Sarah, as Micah had moved into the 
Jonathan Baldwin hotel. 

In the spring, father took a notion he would go back to Iowa. He 
had interests there. We went bv train this time. 

92 The Making of a Toiwiship. 

Father died in 1880. He walked over three miles to meeting, 
preached as usual, returned home, and in a few days he passed away, 
and was laid to rest in the Oak Creek Graveyard, near Burr Oak. 
Jewell County, Kansas. He had preached fifty-one years. He was 
liheral in every good cause. I have seen a cart load of eatables, cloth- 
ing" and things go out of the house and cellar at one time, and in his 
rounds among the poor, if he saw children too thinly clad would go to 
the store and buy cloth for us to make u]), telling us the size and sex, 
so we could fit them. My mother died in the fall of 1850. and father 
later married Abigail Peacock, widow of John Peacock. 

Father Morris had three brothers and five sisters. Elizabeth mar- 
ried a man by the name of Moorman. I forget his name, for he died 
about twenty years before I was born. Aaron married one of the 
Thomas girls. Hannah and Anna were twins. Hannah married John 
Lee and Anna married Solomon Thomas. Caleb married Polly Con- 
ner, Mary married Benjamin Benbow, father married Miriam Ben- 
bow, Thomas married Nellie Osborn, and Celia married Henry Carter. 

Aunt Hannah Lee and Aunt Anna Thomas looked as near alike as' 
two peas. There was such a strong, sisterly tie between them that 
they never were widely separated. The only way I could tell them 
apart was by the horses they rode. When one of them was sick the 
other would say, "Now, get the horse ready, for I know sister is sick." 
It never did fail. 

Solomon Thomas and John Lee moved to Iowa when I was small, 
so I don't know mtich about them except that L^ncle John lived to be 
over one hundred years old. Uncle Solomon married the second time. 
Father and I visited him and his last wife in southern Iowa, in 1862, 
and after that he moved back to Fairmount. When I was back on a 
visit I went to see him. Solomon was living at the tollgate. He was 
getting quite old, but was able to look after the collection of toll. 

Now, I will tell of a few persons around Fairmount. There was 
one Bob Level, who was quite eccentric. When he came to town he 
always got off a pun or two. One day he came into Henry Harvey's 
store and said : 

"Henry, I want a set of knitting-needles. Be sure not to put in the 
seam-stitch needle, for no difference how big' a hurry I am in, the old 
woman savs. 'wait till I get to the seam-stitch needle, then I will help 

Another lime Bob said the flies were so bad out to his house they 
moved out on the porch. "I drove all the flies into the house but one. 
I killed it, then we ate dinner with pleasure." 

Glimpses of Pioneer Life. 93 

When father went to Iowa the first time, Bob came to town one 
day. He said : 

"Now that Uncle Nathan has gone we won't know when to sow 
wheat or plant our other crops or nothing. We are all broke up." 
Well, father was always considered quite a weather prophet, and hardly 
ever missed it. He was a close observer and people had faith in his 

There was Joseph Knight. He was a regular bookworm. Often 
he would go in from his morning work to prepare for meeting, get his 
book, and forget the matter until the rest were ready to start and he 
was reminded of it . So, after meeting had begun here he would come 
in. One time, when he was clerk of the meeting, he did not come until 
late. He had the clerk's book under his arm and his hat in his hand. 
But he got there before the business had begun. One night we were 
at jMartha Winslow's for supper. After supper the young folks pro- 
posed we all go to Fairmount to geography school, as we had them often 
in those days. This school was taught by Alpheus Weaver. Well, 
Joseph had forgotten his overcoat, cold as it was. So he picked up a 
buffalo robe off the lounge (one Jack Winslow brought home from 
the Territory now Kansas). This he wrapped around him and said he 
was ready. We marched two and two down the turnpike on through 
town, the end of the robe going clip-clip on the frozen sidewalk, on 
into the meeting house (for then we used the meeting house as an 
educational center). He never took it off until seated. He was a 
learned man, taught at several places, went to Iowa and married a 
widow with two boys, then came to Kansas and settled in Jewell County. 
He was living there when I went to visit my brother, Exum, and mother, 
in 1891. 

Ottaiva, Kansas. 


(By Aaron Newby.) 

Thomas W. Newby was born May 7, 1824, in Randolph County, 
North CaroHna. When about three years of age his father, Eleazar 

Newby, died, leaving- his mother, 
Mary (Winslow) Newby, a widow 
with two small children, Thomas, 
about three years old, and Elea- 
nor, about one year old. When a 
boy, Thomas Newby made his 
home with his uncle Micajah 
Newby, who was the father of the 
late Nancy Thomas, wife of the 
late Amos Thomas. When a 
small boy, he moved to Indiana, 
first living in Henry County, then 
later moved to Grant County, 
where his uncle. ]\Iicajah, settled 
on the farm known as the Amos 
Thomas farm, ^^'hen a young 
man. he hired to Uncle Nathan 
Morris, who was a Friends minis- 
ter of the (iospcl. 

Sarah Hill was born in Ran- 
dolph County. North Carolina, on 
December 7. 1824. When a little girl al30Ut three years of age. her 
father, Aaron Hill, loaded his belongings and family into a wagon and 
started for Indiana, and settled on what is ncnv known as the Henry 
Harvey farm. The writer of this article remembers hearing his mother 
often tell about riding over the Blue Ridge Mountains in the feed-box 
on the back end of the wagon. Quite different from the ways of con- 
vevance of today with automobiles and aeroplanes. 

I think it was while Thomas Newby was working for Nathan ]\1 or- 
ris that his courtship began with Sarah Hill, which resulted in their 
marriage, the ceremony being performed in Back Creek meeting, the 
contracting parties walking from the home of the bride to the meeting 
house, and then back home again after meeting and the ceremony had 
been performed according to Friends discipline. 

About the year 1847, Thomas Newby bought the eighty acres that 



Glimpses of Pioneer Life. 95 

Aaron Newbv formerly owned for ten dollars an acre, went in debt for 
the whole amount, and the writer has often heard him remark that if 
all his belongings had been sold at that time for one hundred dollars 
it would not have left a shirt on his back. The farm had no land cleared 
on it, there being seven acres deadened on the northwest corner of the 
eighty, the balance in green woods and swamps. He built a hewed-log 
house, of one large room, but built it tall enough so that it contained 
one large attic about three and one-half feet from loft (we called it 
those days, to the eaves), making it about six and one-half feet to the 
comb of the house. He also' built a log barn and stable, with barn on 
one end, and stable on the other, into which three horses could be 
crowded, with shed between barn and stable, the barn being ten or 
twelve rods from the house. They could not see the barn from the 
house, the timber and bushes being so thick, deer often passing by in 
sight of the house. 

At the time he bought the farm, his father-in-law, Aaron Hill, told 
him he was foolish, that they could not make a living on the place ; but 
he had too much energy and perseverance to be discouraged, and set 
to work clearing the land and ditching, and by his every-day habits of 
industry, and living very economically, he soon had the farm paid for ; 
and going right forward, performing such w^ork each day as he could, 
and using close economy and good management, with his good com- 
panion giving all the aid she could in performing her part of the work, 
keeping house, cooking, washing, ironing, spinning, weaving and mak- 
ing the clothes for the family, they added, acre by acre, until they had 
bought over eight hundred acres of land, which is the choice of Grant 
County land today, there having been as high as ninety bushels of corn 
raised to the acre and fifty bushels of wheat without the use of com- 
mercial fertilizers. 

In the year 1903, December 7th, Thomas Newby, at the age of sev- 
enty-nine years and seven months, passed away. After his death, it 
was agreed among the heirs to keep the estate in one body while mother 
lived. She remained in good health, most of the time, until March 7, 
191 1, when she passed from works to rewards, at the age of eighty-six 
years and three months. After the death of both, when the heirs met 
to settle the estate, it was found to be valued at over sixty thousand 
dollars, besides giving each of the six children eighty acres of land, 
which was worth about one hundred and forty dollars per acre. With 
the improvements the children had made on their land the entire estate 
rose from less than one hundred dollars in 1846 to about one hundred 
and thirty thousand dollars in 191 1 — all by steady habits of industry 


The Makifiii' of a Township. 

and economy and keeping money at usury at only a reasonable rate of 

Thomas Newby was a man who liked to accommodate his neigh- 
bors, and was always willing to aid those in need. He had a great rep- 
utation for selling persons who were in need of feed and did not have 
the money, to let them have the feed on time and pay when they got 
the money. He was not a man to go security on notes or give security. 
He was a man who paid the cash for what he bought, outside of land, 
and in settling his estate we found only one account against him, of 
fifty cents. 

When first starting up house- 
keeping they had neither cook- 
stove nor clock for quite a while ; 
had a large fireplace in the west 
end of the house that would take 
in a backlog three and one-half 
feet long. Up over the fireplace 
was a long bar of iron reaching 
from one jamb to the other, with 
hooks hanging down on which 
mother would hang kettles to boil 
meat, cabbage, potatoes, turnips, 
etc., and to bake bread she had an 
oven. She would pull out fire 
coals on the hearth, put her oven 
on, and would_ then put her corn 
dodgers, biscuits or corn pones, 
whichever she was baking, then 
would put the lid on the oven and 
cover with good, live fire coals 
and let set until they were 
baked. I can almost see mother 
lifting that lid to see how the 
bread was baking. To make 
mush, they would hang a kettle of water over the fire until the water 
would begin to boil, then mother would have her tray of meal served 
ready, then take the kettle of boiling water from over the fire, shovel 
some good, live coals out on the hearth, setting the kettle on ; then she 
would begin adding the meal ; father, with a wood paddle about three 
feet long, would keep constantly stirring the water as mother added the 
meal, until thev got the mush as thick as thev wanted it. then thev would 


Glimpses of Pioneer Life. 97 

let it boil until it was done. The only cupboard mother had for years 
was made by boring- holes in the logs of the house and driving long 
pins in them, then laying clapboards on the pins for shelves, on which 
to put her dishes and victuals. The first clock they owned they traded 
a milch cow for. Father did not have any wagon to start out with, 
using a hand-made sled for some time. 

I well remember the two large beds setting in the east end of the 
room, one on the north side and the other on the south side, with the 
trundle-bed run under the one on the north side. I imagine I can hear 
that trundle-bed scjualling now as it is pulled out from under the large 
bed. But when the children grew large enough father hired a carpen- 
ter to build a stairway by using two rough boards, nailing cleats on the 
inside of them, then nailing steps on the cleats. The loft floor, as we 
called it those days, was made out of rough boards, with great cracks 
between the boards, and the roof was of four-foot clapboards riven out. 
The roof must have been put on the wrong time of the moon, as the 
boards curled up. 

Now just imagine one sleeping up there on a stormy night in the 
winter and wake up in the night with snow sifting down in his face, 
and next morning when he went to arise, roll the cover back and hear 
the snow squeak like rolling a snowball ; then think of wading through 
snow down to the big fireplace, where he would receive a warm greeting. 

Fairmount, Indiana. 


(By Dr. A. Henley.) 

EVER since the descendants of Noah passed out from the plains of' 
Shinar to people the whole earth and the islands of the seas, there 
has not been a land discovered by a record-making people that did not 
find a race of beings which had preceded them and taken possession and 
made themselves homes. This disposition to seek a new country seems 
to have been a God-given impulse that has come on down through the 
ages, and manifested itself in the Anglo-Saxon race of the eighteenth 

We have records of but few of the early emigrants to Fairmount 
Township who became discouraged by reason of privations and hard- 
ships they had to endure in the new country and returned to their 
native land. This proved that they were in possession of that energy, 
perseverance and stick-to-itivenesss which triumphs over all difficulties. 

Just why the people of North Carolina and Virginia should have 
selected Grant County for a future home without a forerunner to spy 
out the land I cannot say. Certainly the move demonstrated good judg- 
ment as to fertility of soil and favorable surroundings for the making 
of desirable homes and the development of a sturdy, loyal progeny . 

In my location of the first settlers of Fairmount Township I will 
take up the district lying between the Range line on the west and the 
State road, or old pike, on the east, from the county line north. Later 
I may take up that part of the Township lying east of the old pike. 

John Wilson and wife, Mary, with a family of twelve children, eight 
sons and four daughters, came over the mountains from Randolph 
County, North Carolina, in May, 1837, and bought a half-section of 
land that was bounded on the south by the present County and Township 
line (it will be remembered that the Grant County line once extended 
a half-mile south of where it now is), erected a cabin and proceeded to 
the making of a farm. The family consisted of Jesse E., Nathan D., 
Cyrus, Henry, Nancy, Micajah, Elizabeth, Eliza, John Milton, Lind- 
sey, Samuel and Abigail. 

John Wilson was an energetic, enthusiastic farmer, and with the 
low cost of labor of those days and the assistance of his boys, he in a 
few years had a self-sustaining farm, with grain and stock to sell to 


Characteristics of First Settlers. 99 

those that came in later. John had the reputation of raising good 
horses, good corn and large melons. 

He had the advantage of some in receiving a good education, and 
was a fine scribe. Very few excelled him with a pen. He was a good 
writer and composer, and wrote the life history of Joseph in poetry, 
which was worthy of preservation. At the beginning of each chapter 
there was a verse different in style from the balance, but appropriate to 
that chapter. 

John met with quite a misfortune on election day, as I now recall 
it. The election was held in the woods near my father's house. John 
had ridden a spirited animal to the election which he hitched to a limb 
or bush not far away. The animal managed to get loose and started 
for home. The way was but a trail for near a mile through the thick 
woods. The animal evidently was running, and in making a short, 
quick turn, struck one hind leg against a sapling and broke the bone 
below the knee. The only remedy was to shoot the horse and relieve 
its suffering. I passed by that skeleton many times. 

John Wilson gave each of his children a good start in life, and lived 
to see the country develop into good farms, and when too feeble to 
longer attend to his farm work, sold out and moved to town, where 
he died, in June, 1864, at the ripe old age of eighty years. 

Hanley Broyle^ and wife, Betsy, came from North Carolina near 
the time John Wilson did, and took land in the southwest corner of the 
intersection of the County line and the Range line, where they made a 
farm and lived many years, esteemed by all who knew them, and died 
leaving no posterity. 

The first man to take up land north of John Wilson was Dempsey 
Bailey, who did not remain there long, but sold to Jonathan Wilcuts, 
who, in a year or two, sold to Martin Bates. 

There seemed to be considerable trading in land at that early 
date. The first settlers who came into the new country before mills 
were erected to grind corn had their resources severely taxed at times 
to provide for large, dependent families. Green corn, beans, potatoes 
and squash would substitute for bread for a short season, but soon 
the roasting ears were too hard. Then they must resort to other means 
to prepare the corn for the palate. One device was to cut a section of 
a tree twenty inches in diameter and three feet long, set it on end in 
some convenient place and with an axe or chisel and fire work out a 
depression in one end to hold a quart or more of corn. Then with a 
pestle made of hard wood beat the corn in this improvised mortar until 
one could run it through a sieve or blow the bran off and make a cake 


The Making of a Toimiship. 

or pot of hasty pudding, commonly called mush. He who has not read 
Will Carleton's poetical production on "Hasty Pudding" has missed a 

While Wilcuts was on this place he decided to have a wheat cake. 




Hon. Samuel C. Wilson, son of John Wilson; Joseph 
W. Hill, son of Aaron Hill; Jesse Bogue, son of 
Barnaba Bogue, and Asa T. Baldwin, son of Thomas 


He had grubbed out a few acres in the green woods in the spring and 
put it in corn, and gave it some kind of cultivation, but the squirrels 
got a good part of the grain. When wheat sowing time came round, the 

Characteristics of First Settlers. lOl 

wild weeds and wild pea vines were taller and much thicker than the 
corn. Wilcuts made an effort to get between the corn rows with horse 
and plow, but after making quite an effort he gave it up as a bad job. 
He determined not to be beaten out of his wheat bread without one 
more trial. Shouldering his sack of wheat, he got on his horse and 
rode between the corn rows, sowing the grain over the tops of the 
weeds as he went, trusting that the weeds would soon fall down and 
protect the wheat, which they did, rewarding him with a fair yield the 
next harvest. 

I have written of this incident to show future generations that may 
chance to read this what difficulties the early settler had to contend 
with. Wilcuts sold to Martin Bates, who, I think, put up the first 
frame house I recollect of seeing on Back Creek. 

Bates had a half-section of land and took stock for all of it in a 
scheme to build a railroad from Cincinnati to Chicago. The bubble 
burst and nearly all that took stock in the road lost every dollar or acre 
of land they put in. Bates moved to Iowa, and from there to Kansas. 
I was near where he lived in Kansas, in 1858. It was said Martin was 
doing quite well there. 

John Phillips lost eighty acres west of Little Ridge in that same 

Bernard McDonald next bought the Bates land of the railroad cred- 
itors. Since then it has been divided up somewhat and may now be 
owned by Henry Davis's heirs. 

James Lytle settled on the Cal Dean place. He sold to John Smith 
some time in the '6o's and moved to Iowa, where he died some years 

The next place north was taken by Frank Lytle, Jr. He, too, emi- 
grated to Iowa. The place has since been owned by a number of per- 
sons, namely, Nixon Winslow, David Stanfield, Lindsey Wilson, and 

The next eighty acres was taken by Benjamin Benbow and traded 
to Thomas Baldwin. Then, Calvin Bookout owned it ; then, a Mrs. 
Dickey, I think. 

The next man north of the Bates place was David Smithson, who 
took up three hundred and twenty acres, in length one mile north and 
south. Wilson, Bates and Smithson owned a block of land two miles 
in length, reaching from the County line north to Perry Scale's south 
line, or directly west of Washington Street, Fairmount. 

David and Betsy Smithson had a family of twelve children, six sons 
and six daughters, namely, Mahala, Judiah, John, Jehu, Sarah, Jona- 

102 The Making of a Tonmship. 

lliau, Isaac, Anna. Margaret, Seth, Nancy and Adeline. Four of his 
sons were in the Civil War. They were Jwdiah, Isaac, Seth and Jehu. 
David was a good citizen and died on his farm. He set each of his 
children off with forty acres of land. 

Tn 1833, Thomas Baldwin and Lydia, his wife, came frpni Wayne 
County, Indiana, and took up the land that reached to the center of 
Fairmount, later known as the David Stanfield homestead. Baldwin 
sold to Stanfield, who came, in 1836, from Tennessee, with a family of 
seven children, wdio later married and settled near Fairmount. 

The land now owned hy W. A. Beasley was first taken by Thomas 
Morris, April 9, 1832, and later sold to Benjamin Benbow. Thomas 
Baldwin, in the early day, taught three terms of school on that place. 

Benbow sold the place to Daniel Thomas, who lived there from 1841 
until his death. 

Thomas Baldwin afterwards bought the farm later known as the 
Jesse Dillon |)lace. north of town. From there he moved to the Deer 
Creek settlement. 

Jesse E. and Nathan D. Wilson, sons of John and Mary Wilson, 
married sisters, Hannah and Mary, daughters of Aaron Hill, in 1838, 
and settled on the land given them by their father, south of the Rush 
farm and west of Back Creek. They both reared large families and 
were energetic, progressive farmers, useful ipembers of church and 
community, and were much used in the church, giving freely of their 
time and substance to promote the cause of righteousness, temperance 
and peace, and were in the front ranks when anything was to be done 
for the betterment of the community. They led exemplary lives, and 
left the world better for having lived in it. 'I'hey died on their farms, 
after enjoying the fruits of their labor for many years. Their widows 
died in Fairmount with relatives. Tlieir children are scattered many 
miles apart. Some went on the long journey where life is full of joy 
and bright hopes. , A majority of both families now rest with the silent 

Daniel Baldwin and wife. Christian, with a family of ten children, 
came to Fairmount Township, in 1833. ^^'^^^ settled on the quarter-sec- 
tion of land embracing wdiat is now the north half of Fairmount. lie 
erected a cabin near where J. H. Wilson's residence now stands. Here 
they lived, and here they died some years later, leaving five of the fam- 
ily yet unmarried. They subsequently married and lived in Fairmount. 

Nathan Morris and wife, Miriam, with a family of children, came 
in 1832 and took the quarter-section lying immediately north of Daniel 
Baldwin, where he made a good farm. Nathan was energetic, progres- 

Characteristics of First Settlers. 103 

sive. and made a good and useful citizen. He was the father of twenty- 
rwo children. He emigrated west, in 1865, and died in Jewell County, 
Kansas, in 1881, having been a minister in the Society of Friends from 
early manhood. His old farm has been divided up and is now owned 
by different parties. 

In 1835, Dugan Rush and wife, Elizabeth, took up the land now 
owned by John Kelsay. He was a hard worker, would pile his brush 
during the day and burn it at night. Mostly by his own labor, he made 
a nice farm and had passed over the most trying period of pioneer life. 
The alluring reports from the great West of the ease with which one 
could make a farm on the prairie so enthused him that he sold out to 
Thomas Powell and moved to Iowa, where he purchased land and pro- 
ceeded to make a new home. They had not been gone more than a year, 
I think, when word came that Dugan was dead and the family was 
anxious to return to Indiana. A brother of Dugan's went after them 
and moved the family back. Having to dispose of their holdings out 
there at a reduced price, they had but little left when they arrived at 
their old home. 

In 1835 came l^homas Winslow, wife and four children, Milton, 
Lydia, Milicent and Nixon. 

In 1836, Phineas Henley and Mary, his wife, and four children 
came and took land lying between Dugan Rush and the Range line west 
and the Oak Ridge road on the north. 

Thomas Winslow lived there until some time in 1850, when he sold 
to Robert Carey, and purchased the farm east of the pike formerly 
owned by Jesse I^ogue. 

Phineas Henley remained on his land until no longer able to work 
it, and moved to town. 

Thomas Winslow's original farm is now owned by Mattie Wright 
and Phineas Henley's by Mrs. Alice Thomas. 

Thomas Winslow died on the Bogue farm and Phineas Henley 
passed away at the home of his son. Dr. A. Henley, in Fairmount. 

Seth Winslow and Mary, his wife, in 1829, entered land directly 
north of Iredell Rush's northeast forty and Nathan Morris's northwest 
forty. They had four children born to them, namely, Sarah, Elizabeth, 
Jesse and Ruth. Jesse died when about twelve years old, I think. Sarah 
lived to be a young woman and died. Elizabeth married and died, leav- 
ing four children. Ruth lived to care for her parents and soothe their 
])athway through the decline of life. Ruth has since joined her loved 
t)nes to give an account of her stewardship, and thus that family has 
become extinct. 

104 ^^^^ Making of a Towinship. 

In 1835 came Jacob Hale and Dorinda, his wife, from North Caro- 
Hna, with a family of eight children, namely, Nancy, Elizabeth, Dorcas, 
Samnel, Asenath, William, Jane and George, and located on the eighty 
acres north of Josept W. Baldwin, the land now owned by John Flana- 
gan and W. P. Scale. Jacob's wife was a sister of Iredell and Nixon 
Rnsh. Hale sold to a man by the name of Townsend, he to Robert 
Corder, and Corder to W. P. Scale. Hale emigrated to Iowa, and from 
Iowa to Kansas, in 1858, where a remnant of the family is now living, 
near Leroy, Coffey County. 

In 1837, Peter Rich and wife, Sarah, and six children, mostly of 
age, namely, Aaron, George, Rebecca, Mary, Martha and Isaac located 
directly east of Hale. Peter was a wagon maker by trade. He did all 
his work by hand and with few tools. His w'ork was strong and last- 
ing. He was a useful man in the new country. They were a stout 
family and industrious workers. The mother and daughters spun, 
wove, colored and made all the material they wore. The father, mother 
and Isaac died a mile west of Fairmount. George, Rebecca and Martha 
died in Kansas. Aaron and IMary died in Iowa. 

The land joining the Rich farm on the east was taken by Iredell 
Rush, in 183 1. He and his wife, Elizabeth, were also from the old 
North State. They had a family of eight children born to them in the 
new country, namely, John, Calvin, Nixon, Jr., Thomas, Jane, Milicent, 
Anna and Mary. Iredell was an energetic farmer and was forging 
ahead rapidly when he was taken violently sick and died, in the prime 
of life, leaving a widow with a large family. She nobly cared for themi 
and lived to see all of them married but two, Thomas and Jane, who 
died unmarried. After many years of widowhood, the mother married 
Thomas Jay, a minister of the Society of Friends, where she had held 
an honorable position as elder for many years. They were a mutual 
help to each other, and passed down the shady side of life happily 
together, and now await the trumpet's call. 

In 1836 came William Osborn and wife, Keziah, and took up the 
land that Mary Rich now lives on, directly north of Dugan Rush. 
William's wife was a sister of Thomas Harvey, Sr., and Jesse Harvey, 
Sr. They brought up a family of six children, namely, Mary, Abigail, 
Ruth, Lindon, Mahlon and Lydia. They were a very nice family of 
people, dressed and lived very plain, as most people did in the new 
country. Mary married Lindsey Baldwin, Abigail married George 
Shugart, Ruth married Samuel Roberts, Lydia married Milton McHat- 
ton, Lindon married Mary Reeder and Mahlon married Arcadia Phil- 
lips. I think not one of the family is now living. 

Characteristics of First Settlers. 105 

Thomas Harvey, Sr., and Anna, his wife, came the same year, with 
a family of five, four sons and one daii^^hter, namely, Jesse, John, 
Henry, Thomas and Mary, and took the land directly north of William 
Osborn and a forty west of the road that Jesse settled on, where Cyrus 
and Ephraim were born. Thomas Harvey, Sr., was a very industrious, 
quiet, inoffensive man. He had a large orchard and fruit nursery at 
an early day, and sold his fruit and young trees over the newer parts 
of the country. Thomas and his boys were great friends to the colored 
race, and assisted many on to freedom. The old homestead has passed 
out from the Harvey name, I think. All of the original family have 
passed away. A few of the second and third generations yet survive 
the ravages of time, but are widely scattered. 

Directly east of William Osborn's old home lies Exum Newby's 
one hundred and sixty-acre farm, given him by his father-in-law, Joseph 
Winslow, in 1829. Here two children were born, Eleazer and Rebecca, 
when the young mother died, leaving a little babe that was taken by 
Grandmother Newby, and as years rolled by became the wife of Zimri 
Richardson. Caroline Newby was the first one of the new colony to 
be taken away. Her little boy was taken by an uncle and reared until 
he was of age, when he met with an accident that ended his life. Later 
on, Exum married Rachel Knight and reared a family of seven chil- 
dren. Exum Newby was a carpenter by trade, and was a No. i work- 
man. He and Thomas Hill, a brother of Aaron Hill, another good 
workmen, did the carpenter work on the old Friends brick meeting 
house at Back Creek. Anyone who has seen that work would say that 
it was a marvel of accuracy. The matching of the flooring, and espe- 
cially the ceiling, has not been excelled by the late machine work. Many 
a time I have sat and looked for a bad joint in that ceiling, but found 
none, and yet it was all worked out and gauged by hand. 

The old road that ran diagonally through the Newby farm has long 
been closed up, and the old frame house, one of the first that was put 
up on Back Creek, that was wont to resound with the cheerful voices 
of all the young people of that section, even for miles away, may now 
be the home of the bat or barn swallow. 

The old Back Creek meeting house should never have been torn 
down, but kept as a lasting monument to the memory of the loyalty and 
energy of the founder of that church. What a great place that could 
have been made for recreation and public meetings ! 

North of the Newby farm, and joining the same, lay the Joseph 
and Peninah Winslow home, with their son, Henry. Joseph has been 
quite well written up and I will not detract from what has gone before. 

io6 Tlic Making of a Township. 

His farm is now occupied by Ancil Winslow, a grandson of Thomas 
Winslow. one of the first settlers of the country. 

Matthew Winslow (son of Joseph) and his wife, Anna, came with 
his father and took the land directly east of his father, where he made 
a farm and prospered. Later, he decided he must have more land for 
the boys. He sold out and moved to Iowa, where land was cheap. The 
change did not prove to be a good one. The two elder boys sickened 
and died, leaving him but one son. The bereavement cast a shadow 
over the remainder of their days. The old farm is now occupied by 
John A. Jones and John Devine. 

Charles Baldwin (a brother of Daniel Baldwin) and Eunice, his 
wife, came in 1830 and took land joining the Newby farm on the east. 
Charles was married twice. By his first wife he had five sons and three 
daughters, namely, Thomas, Ahira, Lindsey, John and Quincy, Mary, 
Jane and Rachel. All of them came to the new colony, marrying and 
making homes near by. Thomas married Harvey Davis's daughter, 
Ahira married Jane Newby (a sister of Exum Newby). Lindsey mar- 
ried Mary Osborn (a daughter of William and 'Keziah Osborn), Mary 
married Lancaster Bell, Jane married David Stanfield. Jr., and Rachel 
married Jesse Dillon and was the mother of the preacher, Josiah Dillon. 
The younger son, Charley, as we always called him. married Malinda 
Knight, a daughter of Benjamin Knight, near Marion. Thus we see the 
two elder Baldwins and Nathan Morris did a Roosevelt's part in popu- 
lating the new country. Charles Baldwin was rather dignified, but 
courteous and kind-hearted, kept close to the old style of Friends' plain 
dress and address, never wearing suspenders, and, I think, but few 
buttons. He and his wife rode to meeting in a two-wheeled covered gig, 
the only vehicle of the kind in the country at that date. His last wife 
was a fleshy woman, a sister of the Pembertons. Some twenty or thirty 
rods north of the LaRue brick house stood the old Baldwin residence, 
partly log and partly frame, a few rods east of the public road, and an 
open lane ran by it down east beyond where the Big Four railroad now 
crosses the farm. Just over there once stood a cabin that was occupied 
by Evan Hinshaw and family, then John Baldwin, and later Joseph 
Baldwin for a brief time. Across the lane from the residence the wood- 
house and carriage shed stood, where Carlotta Peacock ended her life. 

The field east, south and west of this house contained some eight or 
ten acres, and was sown to wheat, which was ripe and ready for harvest. 
At that date wheat had mostly been cut with a sickle or cradle scythe. 
This field of grain had been put in the shock ready for threshing out. 
At that period threshing machines were in their development stage and 
rather crude affairs. 

Characteristics of First Settlers. 107 

A man by the name of Jesse .Morris, from near Marion, had a 
machine that was fashioned somewhat on the principle of the later- 
made ones, not so long in body, but set on four wheels, the two hind 
wheels being the drivers for the motor power, the whole thing drawn by 
four or six horses. It was to pass over the field by the shocks, where 
the pitchers would toss the sheaves to the band-cutter and feeder, who 
stood on the machine. They had just made a start when it was dis- 
covered that the machine was defective. The band that ran the straw- 
carrier would slip off the pulley every few rods, necessitating the feeder 
to climb over the top of the machine- to adjust the band. In doing 
that he went over once too many times and let one foot slip into the 
cylinder, when one or more teeth hit his foot, tearing it to pieces. It 
was necessary to take the foot off above the ankle. That was done 
before the day of anaesthetics. Dr. William Lomax, a young man then, 
did the operation. 

Whew ! Just think of lying down and having a leg taken off with- 
out an anaesthetic. I think that machine was not moved out of its 
tracks for some time. I saw it standing in the field later. 

Thomas Hill and Daniel Frazier were among the early arrivals, and 
located east of Aaron Hill and Matthew Winslow. Frazier's land joined 
Samuel C. Wilson's farm on the north and Hill's land lay north of Fra- 
zier's. It later was occupied by Lindsey Baldwin and family. Baldwin 
died there and his family are scattered. 

Thomas Hill was a brother of Aaron Hill and was a first-class car- 
penter and joiner. As has been said, he was one of the builders of the 
old brick church at Back Creek. What became of Thomas Hill and 
family I do not know. 

Daniel Frazier had a wife and farnily of three sons and two daugh- 
ters that I can recollect, who attended church at the old brick house in 
an early day. One son and one daughter were grown, two were in their 
teens and one boy eight or ten years old. This little fellow, in some 
way I do not now recollect, got lost in the forest. If anything will 
arouse sympathy and energy in a people it is for a child to get lost in the 
wilderness. As soon as the word was circulated that the Frazier child 
was lost, the whole settlement was out looking for him. The clearings 
around the settlers' cabins were small, then, with a heavy forest all round 
and wild animals prowling about looking for something to devour. 
Night came on, with no tidings of the lost boy. The nights were dark. 
Anxiously, they waited for the light of another day. when they could 
renew the hunt. A little way north of the cemeter}- grounds and half- 
way between the creek and public road stood a large, hollow sycamore 

io8 The Making of a Toimiship. 

tree, witli an opening near the ground. When dark came on the lad 
chanced to come across that tree, and, looking in, saw it was ver\- dark 
in the hollow, and decided it was so dark that no animal could see him in 
there. So he went in, laid down, and slept until day, when he was soon 
sighted by some one on the search for him. At no time was he far from 
a cabin, but made no noise, and hence was not sooner found. The fam- 
ily emigrated to Iowa and passed out of our knowledge. 

Lewis Moorman, who married Sarah Thomas, of Wayne County. 
Indiana, a sister of the wife of Thomas Baldwin, Sr., came to join the 
new colony in 1835, and took land a mile east of Charles Baldwin. The 
land between was very wet. Lewis was a stout-built, heavy man. with 
a coarse voice, and somewhat eccentric, but made a good, loyal citizen. 
He had two sons and two daughters. T do not know who now owns the 
original home place. I think his sons are dead. The daughters moved 
to the West years ago. The Moormans lived the farthest east of any 
family of Friends, but were regular in attendance at meetings. 

The same year. 1835. came Jabez H. Moore, and took land joining 
Moorman on the south. Moore was an educated man. and put on a lit- 
tle more style than many others. He always went dressed well when 
away from home, wearing a tall, silk hat and cravat. He had two sons 
and two daughters, namely. Isaac, John, Lacy Ann and Martha. Jabez 
and his wife have been dead some years. One son and one daughter 
were living in Kokomo a few years ago. Jabez made a good citizen and 
was active in the organization of the Township and County, rarely ever 
missing an election. 

Directly south of Charles Baldwin, on the east side of the, public 
road, Lancaster Bell, who married Mary Baldwin, a daughter of Charles 
Baldwin, took up eighty acres, in 1836. Bell sold, or traded, to Thomas 
Baldwin. Later, Jesse Dillon bought the place and established a gun- 
making shop there, where he and his boys changed all the flintlock guns 
for miles around into caplocks. The place is now owned, I think, by 
some of the Winslow family. Lancaster Bell and wife moved to Iowa 
many years ago. where they died. Jesse Dillon and wife died there. 

The eighty acres just east of the Bell place .was taken by Jesse. Sr.. 
and Lydia Harvey, in 1832. He was a brother of Thomas Harvey and 
Solomon Parsons' wife. Jesse died early in the '40's. His wife lived there 
alone for many years and passed from there to the Great Beyond. They 
were two very quiet, kind-hearted bodies, liked by all who knew them. 
They left no children. 

In 1835, Solomon Parsons and wife, Rachel, took the land joining 
Harvey on the south. Rachel was a sister of Thomas and Jesse Har- 

Characteristics of First Settlers. 109 

vey. Sr., and Keziah Osborn. Solomon was a valuable man in the new 
country, as he was an excellent workman with leather and made a nice 
boot or shoe. He was a fast workman. They reared a family of five 
children, namely, Keziah, Elizabeth, William, Anna and Henry. Keziah 
married Henry Wilson. He died. Later she married Reece Haisley, 
and they moved to Jewell County, Kansas. Elizabeth married Conner 
Knight, an Englishman, and lived for some years on what is now the 
north end of John Peacock's farm. They are both dead, leaving two 
sons and two daughters. Dr. John C. Knight, of Jonesboro, is one of 
the family. William married and moved to Iowa many years ago. Anna 
married Dr. White, a young- physician who practiced in Fairmount a 
short time in an early day. He emigrated West and we lost track of 
him. Henry fought for the Union in the Civil War, was badly wounded, 
but recovered sufficiently to live until a short time ago. He settled in 
Iowa after the war, reared a family, and was an honored citizen. Par- 
sons sold to John Beck. The writer went to school with all the chil- 
dren many a day. 

The land directly east of Parsons, to the prairie, was taken up by 
Eastern speculators, held for some years, and for this reason was not 
improved for some time. 

In 1835 we find John Lee and wife a mile and a half east of Par- 
sons' south line. The cabin stood a little east of the old Wayne trail, 
west of the slough. xA.maziah Beeson located a little way across the 
slough, to the southeast of Lee. John Lee's wife was a sister of Nathan 
Morris and a twin sister of Solomon Thomas' wife. The Lees and 
Beesons were members of the Friends church and attended Back Creek 
meeting. Lee and Thomas emigrated to Iowa, in 1850. Lee died out 

Beeson remained on his prairie farm and brought up a family tlicre, 
Beeson and the Lees were related in some way. Amaziah was a chemist, 
to some extent, and had a small distillery, where he manufactured sassa- 
fras and peppermint oil, which he sold at a profit. He built the first 
brick residence in Fairmount Township, I think, which certainly indi- 
cated energy and perseverance. I think he and his wife died on the 
farm. Charles Beeson was their son. 

In 1835 Timothy Kelley settled on the Lake Galatia land. He and 
his wife, Avis, had five children, namely, Jane, Mary Ann, Alfred, Sam- 
uel and Anna. They were from Pennsylvania, I think, members of the 
Friends Church, and a degree more aristocratic than most of the early 
settlers. A portion of their land was covered by a cranberry marsh 
before the country was drained. This was a source of considerable reve- 

no Tlie Making of a Toicnship. 

nue to them. They were good, honest, Christian people, and have all 
passed away. 

Between the John Lee place and the Kelley farm Otho Selby -ettied, 
in 1836, on the north side of the prairie, where he reared a family of 
three children. Otho was an industrious man, uncompromising in prin- 
ciple, and an educator and promoter of the best interests of the country. 
His children are all living, and retain the old farm, which but few- 
descendants of the original pioneer stock can truthfully say. 

A half mile southeast, across a branch of the prairie, Henry Winslow, 
Sr., and Jesse, his son, settled in 1836. They were Friends, and their 
location was a long way back in the woods, with bad roads, yet they were 
regular attenders of Back Creek meeting. They were compelled to go 
on horseback. Aunt Penny made a fine appearance in the saddle. Old 
Henry, as we always called this one, because there were four of that 
name — Joseph's Henry, or Big Henry, Ryer's Henry and John's Henry. 
Old Henry, the father of Thomas, Jesse, John, Henry, Polly Wilson, 
Elizabeth Powell-Dillon and Susie Crowell, died on the prairie farm. 
Jesse sold out over there and bought the Elijah Harrold place, where 
Foster Davis now lives, east of Fairmount. Jesse and his wife, Peninah, 
were excellent people. T would that we had more like them todav. Their 
influence will roll on until it reaches the golden shore. 

The farm now owned by Nate Wilson was taken in 1835 ^y Charles 
Hinshaw and wife. Charles was a strong, hard worker and had the 
only whipsaw in the country. He cut out floor-plank for people. It 
was a slow, expensive process, and was not resorted to very much. 
While Hinshaw lived at that place, a son, a young man about seventeen, 
I think, was drowned in the river north of Jonesboro. a little southeast 
of Jesse Jay's place, where the road makes a turn to the northwest. He 
had been, or was on his way, to the Deer Creek mill, had reached that 
point, and decided to have a bath, not knowing that it was a deep hole 
of water. He hitched his horse, left his clothes on the river bank and 
plunged in where the water was deep, but could not swim. Some time 
later a man was passing, and, seeing the horse tied and clothes lying near 
by, surmised what was wrong, got help and fished the body out. N'ot 
long after this, Charles sold out and moved to Iowa. In 1858 I met 
Charles in Kansas. He was wearing the same hat he wore the first time 
I ever met him, at Back Creek meeting. He was a Friend. It was a 
round-crowned, broad-brimmed beaver hat and would last one hundred 

The Clint Winslow place was taken by a man named Ratliff. The 
house was on the north side, near where the old oritrinal road ran. 

Characteristics of First Settlers. ill 

Ratliff, I think, sold to Hopkins Richardson, and Hopkins gave it to his 
son, Jonathan. 

In 1833, Hopkins Richardson and wife, Elizabeth, with two sons, 
Jonathan and Zimri, located directly west of Ratliff. Richardson was of 
medium size, dark skin, black hair, and full of energ)'. He was a great 
hunter and would find a deer where other people failed. Hopkins gave 
the most of his land to his two sons. His wife died at the old place and 
he sold what land he had left, married again, bought a place on top of 
the Deer Creek bluff, west side, and died there. He was quite a trader 
for that early day. He would buy a lot of good horses — he was a good 
judge of horse flesh — take them to Kentucky or Georgia, sell them to 
the wealthy planters at a good profit, return and invest in more land. 
Thus he became owner of a fine body of land. His sons are dead. 
Elmer Buller. I think, holds the old homestead. 

Directly west of the Richardson homestead, William Winslow (black 
Bill, or Uriah's Bill, as he was always called to designate him from the 
other Bills) took land. He was a brother of Jesse, Thomas and John 
Winslow. He had quite a family of girls. He sold his land to Rich- 
ardson and moved to Iowa. The old road ran east and west, near the 
middle of his place, and near his cabin, some thirty rods west of the pub- 
lic road that passed by Richardson's house, and intersected the road that 
crossed the creek on the line of Third Street, or what is now Bogue's 

This brings us back to the center of Fairmount again. 


(By T. B. McDonald.) 

MY FATHER, Bernard McDonald, moved to Grant County the fall 
of 1854. He bought what was known as the Martin Bates (now 
the John Davis) farm, three hundred and twenty acres, mostly heavy 
timber. Bates never received a dollar for this farm. 

About the year 1849. ^ railroad was projected to run from Cincinnati 
to Chicago. The land, as surveyed, ran east of Fairmount, through 
Galatia and Jonesboro. A part of the right-of-way was cut out. Im- 
mense piles of crossties and bridge timber were piled up along the right- 
of-way, were not paid for, and rotted where the material was piled. 

A great many farmers subscribed for stock in this railroad and gave 
their farms in payment for the stock. Not a single subscriber ever 
received a penny for his farm or stock. The farms were sold to inno- 
cent purchasers and there was no recourse for the people who lost their 
farms. Martin Bates was one of those who lost a good farm. , There 
were many more. 

Bates had planted an orchard of about twelve acres in apples, peaches 
and pears. This orchard was a great source of profit for my father. 
There were but few orchards west of us for many miles, and for several 
years we sold apples at Kokomo, Windfall and Elwood. Those were 
our nearest railroad towns, west of us, at that time. 

The west half of Fairmount Township was settled by Friends, mostly 
from Xorth Carolina. The east half of the Township was settled by 
good, sturdy people who were not Quakers. 

We had not been in the country long until I became acquainted with 
Morris (Mallegan) Payne's boys, and they were friends of the Lewis 
and Leach boys. In that way I met those of my own age. 

I remember Esom Leach, a short, fat man, who once told me he 
had no use for an Irishman, as a rule. I soon learned that he was 
in fun. 

William G. Lewis was a kind man — generous to a fault. The Os- 
borns, Paynes, Thorns, Harrisons and Fears were all names which I 
recollect as being early settlers. 

Thus it was, in the first settlement of the Township, they were all 
sturdy men, able to cope with the hardships that were necessary to suc- 


Wide Variety of Subjects. 


oeed. What was once a wilderness is now the finest farming commu- 
nit\ in the world. The entire Township cannot he excelled in this glo- 
rious country. 

T. B. McDonald 

Has had an interesting career. He 
was born near Liberty. Union Coun- 
ty, Indiana, December 6, 1846. His 
father, Bernard McDonald, was born 
in County Carlow, Ireland, August 
25, 1812. At the age of eight Ber- 
nard McDonald went to sea as a 
cabin boy on a ship with his uncle. 
He followed the sea for twenty-five 
years, when he came to America. 
T. B. McDonald's mother, Elizabeth 
McDonald, was the daughter of Sam- 
uel Heavenridge, of Rock Bridge 
County, Virginia. Hs settled at Cin- 
cinnati, Ohio, where Mr. McDonald's 
mother was born in 1824. Samuel 
Heavenridge was a Quaker of the 
old school. He was an elder in the 
church at Fairmount when he died 
Bernard McDonald moved to Henry 
County, Indiana, when the son was 
one year old, and to Grant County 
in 1854, where the latter spent his 
boyhood days on a farm. When he 
left the farm Bent went to Jones- 
boro and worked in a woollen mill 
owned by Pemberton & Baldwin. 

From there he went to work for Xoah Harris, and assisted in building the 
first grain elevator at Harrisburg (now Gas City). It was while this ele- 
vator was being built that John Evans killed John Brinegar. T. B. was a 
witness to the killing. This unexpectedly changed his plans for life. He 
had intended to go to Kansas with John Rush, but was held as a witness to 
the tragedy, and could not go as he had planned. He then went to work 
on the Panhandle railroad as a brakeman on a gravel train, then on a local 
freight train for about ten months, when he went to Nebraska City with 
Dr. J. N. Converse, who was building the Midland Pacific railroad. He re- 
mained there, employed as a conductor, until the road was finished to Lin- 
coln, Nebraska. He was the first conductor to run a train into Lincoln. 
This was on April 24, 1871. He went to Iowa October 9, 1871, the day of 
the great Chicago fire. He was employed by the Burlington Railroad as a 
conductor for ten years. Since that time he has been engaged in farming. 
merGhandising and banking, and is now President of the Lovilia Exchange 
Bank. He owns 965 acres of valuable coal lands, contented with his lot, 
never held a public office, has often been a member of the third house 
^ (lobby), has always taken an interest in politics, votes the Republican ticket, 
believes in prohibition and woman suffrage. He is proud of the fact that 
he is a native of Indiana and lived in Fairmount Township, "where," as he 
puts it, "more good people live and have lived than on any other six miles 
square on earth." 

Among the early settlers there was not a single sluggard to be found 
• — every man a Christian according to his belief. There were Solomon 
Thomas, the Winslows, Wilsons, Newbys, Harveys, Baldwins, Solo- 

114 ^^'^ Making of a Tozwiship. 

mon Parsons, the Jays, Peacocks, Joseph Rich, Spencer Reeder, Lind- 
sey Biiller, the Scotts, John Ferree, the Wrights, Harvey Davis, Wil- 
Ham Cox, David Smithson, Eh and Wihiam Neal, Carter Hasting, 
David Stanfield, Wihiam Hall, William Pierce, Joseph Hill. Nixon 
Rush, Phineas Henley, Iredell Rush, ]\Iahlon Harvey, John and Wil- 
liam P. Seale, Samuel Radlerand John Bull. Were there ever so many 
good, solid, well-meaning men in one neighborhood? We think not. 
It does me good to think of those sturdy men and their wives. God 
bless them ! They, too, were the equals of their husbands. 

Clothing the family was a problem in those days. It was difficult 
to raise sheep in the heavy timber, and for that reason wool was scarce. 
The wool was carded by hand and spun into yarn, reeled into skeins, 
and from the skeins it went to the large roller in the loom. Then the 
ends of the thread were placed through a reel, when it was ready for 
the shuttle. Sometimes the chain would be all cotton and the filling 
all wool. 

This cloth was called linsey, and when both filling and chain were 
wool it was called flannel, or jeans, as the case might be. 

Remember, the 'work was all done by hand, and a great deal of it 
by night with but little light, sometimes a tallow dip, sometimes a greas> 
rag placed in a pan and set on fire. 

The first houses were built of logs, some hewed and some round. 
A big fireplace at one end of the building served for both heat and light, 
and a place to cook what they had to eat. 

The manner of cooking was certainly crude. Those who could, had 
cranes in their fireplaces. There was a bar of iron fastened at one side 
of the fireplace, fixed so it would swing out or in as needed. This bar 
extended almost across the fireplace. Hooks were placed on this bar. 
on which the kettles would be hung while the food cooked. Then there 
were covered skillets, in which the baking was done, such as corn bread 
or wheat bread, as the case might be. 

Those skillets were set on the hearth and live coals put on top and 
around the bottom, and kept there until the food was done. I don't 
believe the stove was ever made that would cook food to taste as good 
as those good old-fashioned pots and kettles. 

Wheat bread was not within the reach of all the early settlers. 
Wheat bread was rather a luxury in 1850. 

Stoves were few and far between. Everything that the pioneer had 
in the shape of clothing was made at home. Bed ticks and sheetings 
were made of linen, so were towels and grain bags. 

The flax was sown with a view of getting as long a fiber as possi- 

Wide Variety of Subjects. 115 

ble. When the flax had gotten ripe enough it was pulled up by the 
roots, the seed knocked off, then a nice, clean piece of meadow was 
selected, the flax spread out and left until the fiber had rotted suffi- 
ciently, then the rotted flax was tied up in bundles and placed in a dry 
place until spring. 

When the flax was prepared for the loom first, it was broken, that 
is the wood part of the stem was separated trom the fiber. An ugly 
piece of machinery called a flax brake was used to do the work. The 
machine consisted, first, of five pieces of wood about six feet long and 
six inches wide. The top edge of those bars was shaven to a sharp 
edge, then they were matriced into a heavy block of wood. Into those 
blocks were placed wooden legs about two feet long. Then there was 
another set of only three bars. These fitted between the first named 
bars. The top set was hinged at one end. The operator would raise 
the top set of bars and place the rotted flax on the bottom set of bars. 
When the top set of bars came down it would break the flax straw so 
that the woody parts would separate from the fiber. The next thing 
to be done was to scutch the fiber. 

This was done as follows : A board about eight inches wide was 
shaven to a sharp edge at the top, then fastened to a block. A piece of 
board It wo feet long and four inches wide was shaven so that both 
edges were sharp. This was called a scutching knife. A bunch of the 
fiber would be taken in the hand, laid across the top of the board, and 
used against and down the side of the board would soon prepare the 
fiber for the hackle. 

This instrument of torture was made by driving a lot of sharp 
spikes in a solid board. These spikes were driven as close as possible. 
The tops of the spikes were as sharp as possible. 

This machine was about six inches square. The fiber was drawn 
through those teeth until all the coarse fiber had been separated from 
the finer fiber. 

Then came the spinning of the thread. This was done on w'hat was 
called the little wheel, which was run by foot power. The thread passed 
through what was called flyers. The fiber was placed on wdiat was 
called a distaff. The operator would take a small piece of the fiber in 
her hand and start it through the flyers, which twisted the thread. The 
operator regulated the size of the thread by the deft feel of her fingers. 
Some were more expert than others. When sufficient thread was pro- 
duced then the weaving was done. 

We have no doubt that some pieces of linen made as above described 
can now be found in Fairmount. You who have it just take a look at 

Ii6 The Making of a Tozi'iiship. 

it, and think what toil it required to produce it. Yet it was done cheer- 
fully. It does not seem possible that such wonderful changes could 
take place in a space of sixty years. 

The next step necessary to keep the family of the pioneer in good 
health was to provide shoes. If he be fortunate enough to have cattle, 
then one or more would be killed for meat. The hide would be taken 
to the tanner and made into leather. It took one year to complete the 
tanning. If the farmer had money enough he would pay the tanner 
the cost and take all the leather. If not, the tanner would take one half 
for his labor. Aaron Williams, where Summitville now stands, had 
the first tanyard that we recollect. There was one, we think, at Fair- 
mount, but we have forgotten who owmed it. However, we do remem- 
ber Micah Baldwin and Rariden Smith as tanners, because we have 
driven the old horse in the bark mill many an hour. We also remember 
being thrown bodily into one of the vats filled with filthy ooze. A 
school house stood just east of the tanyard and we were going to school 
there at the time. 

After the leather was procured, the itinerant shoemaker came and 
stayed until the entire family was shod for the winter. However, there 
were a great many men who made all the shoes for the family. One 
pair of shoes for each person was about the limit for each year. 

The early settler had plenty to eat, such as it was. Game was plen- 
tiful. Not many years after the first settlers came wild hogs were 
numerous, and in the fall of the year those hogs were fat. They lived 
on mast, as it was called — nuts, such as beechnuts, acorns, hickory nuts, 
hazel nuts, walnuts. The ground would be literally covered with nuts — 
and hogs could live all winter on them. 

The man who did not have hogs of his own would take his trusty 
flintlock rifle and soon have sufficient meat to last all winter. There 
was no excuse for killing more than he needed, as there was no market 
for cured meat and salt was scarce. Bear in mind, there were only a 
few persons who had to get their meat as w^e have described. 

Wild turkey were plentiful, as were deer, squirrels, pheasants, opos- 
sums and raccoons. The pioneer had no difficulty in bringing home 
game when needed. 

Powder and lead were scarce and were never wasted. There were 
none of the modern guns in use — no percussion caps. Such a thing as 
a shotgun was never seen, unless it was an old musket that had been 
used in the War of 1812, or earlier. The guns w^ere fired b}' a spark- 
made by a flint striking a piece of steel, which was a part of what was 
called the pan. A small portion of powder would be i)laced in the ])an. 

JVide J^ariety of Subjects 117 

When the trigger was pulled the hammer, which had a flint fastened 
in it. would make a spark which would ignite the powder in the pan, 
and cause the gun to go off. Sometimes the gun would fail to fire. 
Then it was called a flash in the pan, and it was then that the hunter 
said uncomplimentary things, especially if he missed getting the nice 
turkey he had expected to take home with him. 

The hunter's outfit consisted of his gun, powder-horn, bullet pouch, 
bullet moulds, string of patchen, knife, powder measure and a bunch of 
flax tow. 

The first store that we now recollect of being in was kept in Fair- 
moimt by Henry Harvey. The building, we think, stood where the 
Citizens State Bank now stands, and his residence about where the 
News office is now located. This store was a small affair in comparison 
with the stores now in Fairmount. The principal stock was green cof- 
fee, brown sugar, rice, dried herring, salt crackers, a few cut nails, 
grain pepper, cloves, powder and lead, a few pieces of blue denim, some 
cotton thread, and possibly two or three pieces of wool cloth suitable 
for men's pants, three kinds of tobacco (home grown), a twist called 
dog-leg, and a ])lug black as night. If \ou asked Henry for tobacco, 
he would say : 

"Will thee have flat plug or dog-leg?" 

There were no canned goods, no cereals such as oatmeal, corn 
flakes, etc. Xo bottled goods, no olives : in fact, nothing except what T 
have mentioned above. 

Henry Harvey was a good man in every sense of the word. He did 
just as the merchants of today do. He granted credit to those who 
never paid him for his goods or appreciated his kindness for extending 

I remember only John, Avis and Kelley Harvey. Possibly there 
were others. 

Joseph W. Baldwin kept store in Fairmount, and, I believe, Seaberry 
Lines. John Scarry kept a grocery. 

George Doyle came later on, kept a grocery, and was accused of 
selling wet goods. We always thought he was guilty for the reason 
that at that period my father was in the habit of taking a nip of the "Oh, 
be joyful !" He thought a great deal of iMr. Doyle and usually after 
calling at Doyle's grocery showed the effects of John Barleycorn. There- 
fore, we thought that wet goods were sold at Doyle's. We think that 
no liquor was sold in Fairmount after Doyle left until after i8()8. 

Fairmount was as dry as the Sahara Desert for years, except possi- 

ii8 The Making of a Toztmship. 

bly when a drug store sold 4-X bitters and London gin. That did not 
last long. 

We forgot to mention the fact that the first settlers had no oil lamps 
— only tallow candles, some of which were made in moulds and some 
were what were termed dips. 

The candle-mould consisted of three, six or nine round tin tubes 
shaped like a candle. Those were joined together at the bottom and 
top. The bottom of the tube had a small hole through which the wick- 
ing was drawn. The wick was prepared as follows : It was cut twice 
the length the candle was to be made, then doubled and placed in the 
tube and the ends drawn through the hole in the bottom of the tube. 
After a round stick had been placed through the folded wick at the top 
of the moulds, the wick was then drawn tight and tied at the bottom. 
The melted tallow was then poured into the mould and allowed to cool, 
when the candles were pulled out of the mould and stored away ready 
for use. 

The dip was made by preparing the wick and placing them on a 
round rod. Then a kettle of melted tallow was prepared and the wick 
was dipped in the melted tallow and taken out and hung on a support 
until the tallow that had adhered to the wick had hardened. This pro- 
cess was continued until the candle had become the desired size. This 
style of candle could be made only in cold weather. We have assisted our 
mother in making this style of candle. 

A lamp flue or lantern globe was not thought of. A lantern made 
of tin, punched full of holes of various sizes, was to be found occa- 
sionally. A candle was placed on the inside of this lantern. You can 
imagine about how much light it would give. Later a lantern was made 
which had glass sides. This was an improvement over the old tin lan- 
tern. There may have been a lantern that burned sperm oil, but we 
never saw one. When we wanted a light to go to the neighbors, or 
coon hunting, a hickory bark torch was used, and it made a good light. 

Fairmount Township was covered with heavy timber, the finest that 
ever grew. If we were to state the size of some of those immense pop- 
lar and oak trees that were to be found along Back Creek the reader 
might say : 

"That fellow is out of his head." 

It was a serious problem with the early settlers to know how to dis- 
pose of the timber. In order to clear the land for cultivation the most 
common method was to deaden the trees. After they had become dead 
and dry it was easier to burn them. This was done and it involved a 
great amount of labor. A farmer would either burn or cut a large num- 

Wide J\iriety of Subjects. 119 

ber of logs in lengths that could be handled. Then he would invite his 
neighbors to a log rolling. They would come early and stay late. You 
would see them with their favorite handspike in hand ready to roll logs 
and out lift their neighbor. 

It was at the log rollings that many contests were had as to the 
strength of those hardy pioneers. There was much care exercised to 
see that no advantage was taken in the contests. If a man won honors 
it must be done fairly. Great numbers of logs would be piled by the 
men, to be burned at the pleasure of the owner. The women of the 
neighborhood would come in and assist the good wife in preparing a 
sumptuous dinner for the men. And so it went all over the country. 

The people of those days were genuine neighbors in the strictest 
sense of the word. When a few acres w^ere cleared they were fenced 
with rails. This was done to keep the stock out, as all kinds of stock 
ran at large. Bells were put on cows, horses and sheep, so that the 
owner could find them more readily when he wanted them. Each owner 
knew the sound of his bell as well as that of his neighbor. 

When we moved to Fairmount Township, David Smithson owned 
six hundred and twenty acres of land that joined my father's farm. We 
do not think that more than sixty acres of this immense farm was clear 
and in cultivation. This was about a fair sample of the entire Town- 
ship at that time. Tanbark finally became a commercial factor in the 
community. In the spring of each year hundreds of the finest oak trees 
would be felled and the bark taken from them and hauled to the tanyard. 
The trees were either made into rails or left to rot. 

The best log house ever built on Back Creek was built by Setli Wins- 
low about two miles north of Flairmount. It was built of hewed logs, was 
two stories high, and there were only seven logs on a side, as w€ rec- 
ollect it. Each log was thirty inches wide when hewn. We think the 
building was twenty by thirty. What immense trees it must have taken 
to get such logs ! Who but Seth Winslow would have undertaken such 
a task ? Anyone who ever saw this house could not help praising its 

Uncle Seth could pinch the hardest of any man I ever saw and 
derived the most pleasure out of seeing his victim get out of his reach. 
We have good reason to recollect him. The last time the writer saw 
him he was sitting outside of his house on Main Street, in Fairmount. 
I had just arrived from Nebraska, and was talking to some friends 
near where he sat. He reached out and pinched me until I winced 
with pain. He laughed heartily at my discomfort. No one could get 
angrv at him. If he is not with the angels then there are none. 

I20 The Makinf!; of a Township. 

■ The first school I attended in Grant County was taught by Milt 
McHatton. He was a small man. INIy recollection is that the school 
house was a little old log cabin that stood on the southwest corner of 
my father's farm. Then a new, hewed-log school house was built on. 
Henry Wilson's farm and called Wesleyan Back Creek school house. 
It was the pride of the community. The seats were linden logs hewed 
flat and pins driven in for legs. Then there were long pins driven in 
the walls and a wide board placed on them. This was where we prac- 
ticed writing. Once or twice a week the teacher set the copy and the 
scholars tried to imitate it. Steel pens were a scarce article. The pens 
were usually made by the teacher out of a goose or a turkey quill. The 
ink was of home manufacture. 

At the first school the studying was audible — reading and talking 
aloud — a regular bedlam. This method soon gave way to more sane 
ideas. In those days there was very little money for educational pur- 
poses. The majority were subscription schools. A teacher would go 
through the neighborhood and get as much patronage subscribed as 
possible, with the understanding that the teacher should board around 
among the patrons. The result was the patron who had the best accom- 
modations had the teacher to board most of the time. The net amount 
usually received by the teacher was fifteen to twenty dollars per month. 
The term usually lasted four months. It did not require a great deal 
of preparation to be a teacher. If you could write a fairly good hand. 
knew a little arithmetic and read fairly well, you could teach school. 
Grammar, algebra, history and geometry were not necessary in the 
first schools. 

John Rush was our second teacher. He taught in the new school 
house. He was a frail man and very sedate. He came to school the 
.first day with a big beech limb, or whip, laid it on his desk, then read 
the rules of the school. In those days the teacher made his rules with- 
out any reference to patrons of the school. He was the lord of the 
manor. The whip, or gad as it was called, w'as used unmercifully l:)y 
many teachers. I have witnessed some brutal wdiippings in the old 
log school house. 

Wide Variety of Subjects. 



Was born in Dorchester County, av 
Johnson's Cross Roads, now Oak 
Grove, on the eastern shore of Mary- 
land, September 5, 1818, and died 
at his home on Mill Street, in Fair- 
mount, August 31, iQii. He was a 
son of Jacob and Nancy (Cockran) 
Woollen. In early life he had ac- 
quired a practical education obtained 
by his own personal experience and 
observation. In 1836, at the age of 
eighteen, his parents having died, he 
went to Baltimore. From Baltimore 
he walked to Wheeling, Virginia, 
and at this point he took a boat, 
making Ohio River towns, arriving 
at Cincinnati with only seventy-one 
cents in his pocket. Here he found 
employment in a brick yard. After 
a short stay at Cincinnati he went 
by boat, working his passage to 
Quincy, Illinois, where his cousin, 
Isaac Woollen, resided. He re- 
mained here two years, doing such 
work as came to hand in this new 
Mississippi River town, when he de- 
cided to return to his old Maryland 
home. He traveled horseback. 
While on this journey he joined 
some cattle men and assisted them 
in driving their stock as far as' Con- 
nersville, Indiana, where he parted 
company with the drovers and went on to Wayne County, Indiana, to visit 
Robert and Jane (Woollen) Whitely, his sister, who had but recently emi- 
grated from Maryland and settled at Milton. He abandoned the idea of 
returning to Maryland and joined Robert Whitjly in agricultural pursuits. 
It was at Milton that he met and courted Julia Ann Oldfield, a daughter of 
William Oldfield, also a native of Maryland, who with his daughter and 
two sons, James and Luther, had found a home in the new West. James 
subsequently bought a farm near Summitville, Indiana, where he lived until 
his death, Luther continuing to reside at Milton. On May 24, 1842, at 
Milton, William Woollen and Julia Ann Oldfield were married. Five years 
later, in the fall of 1847, they moved to Madison County, and with savings 
accumulated by hard lalaor and the strictest economy, purchased a farm near 
Summitville. He commenced at once to improve his land, passing through 
all the hardships and successfully meeting the discouragements which were 
the common lot of all pioneers in that early day. In 1852 he bought and 
operated the first chaff piler brought to that section, later purchasing a 
separator from a Richmond concern, one of the first separators manufac- 
tured, and for that time an innovation which attracted the attention and 
excited the wonder of his neighbors for miles around in that sparsely popu- 
lated settlement. In 1864 he sold his Madison County farm and bought of 
John Rush two hundred acres of land in Grant County, situated southwest 
of Fairmount, where John Woollen now lives. Here he remained until his 
wife's health failed, when he retired from active work and moved to F"air- 
mount. In politics he was first identified with the Whigs, casting his bal- 
lot in 1840 for Gen. William Henry Harrison, who was elected the ninth 
President. In 1856. upon the formation of the Republican party, he sup- 
ported Gen. John C. Fremont. Late in lifa he became a member of the 
Society of Friends, and as often as health would permit he was found in his 
place at all services. William and Julia Ann (Oldfield) Woollen were the 

122 The Making of a Township. 

parents of five children, namely: James H., born May 24. 1843. who died in 
January, 1894, at his home in Clay County, Nebraska; Jacob, born Novem- 
ber 30, 1845; Edward, born September 22, 1847; William L., born August 6, 
1851, who died June 22, 1873, at his father's home, and Mrs. Elda A. Trader, 
born September i, 1857. wife of Harvey Trader. They reside in Fairmount. 
Jacob lives in Fairmount, and Edward owns and manages a farm about three 
miles southwest of Fairmount. August 13, 1886, the wife and mother, after 
a prolonged illness, passed away. On the 14th day of December, 1887, Wil- 
liam Woollen was married to Miss Lizzie McConnell, of Marion, who was a 
true companion and faithfully attended her husband's care and comfort in his 
declining years. William Woollen was a man of sterling qualities and noble 
characteristics. His strict integrity and absolute honesty none questioned. 
His life was replete with kindly deeds and manifestations of consideration 
for the welfare of others. To his progeny he left the memory and example 
of a career in every respect worthy of emulation. 

We think George Pierce taught several terms. Foster Davis was 
well liked as a teacher. He was one of the first teachers at Wesleyan 
Back Creek to get away from the old idea that "he that spareth the 
rod spoileth the child." I do not think that he ever kept a whip in the 
schoolroom. All the others prior to him did. 

No woman had ever taught school at Wesleyan Back Creek until 
a little English miss of about seventeen applied for the school. Mary 
Taylor was her name. The old heads said it was not possible for a 
woman to teach the school, but Eli Neal, Harvey Davis and my father 
were willing to try, and employed Miss Taylor. She was a success 
from the very first, and taught one of the best terms ever held in the 
old school house. 

About this time, 1854 to 1866, the people became more enlightened, 
and waked up to find that women were just as competent to teach 
school as men. Angelina Harvey and Mary Winslow, both, were 
teachers who never had a superior and few equals. 

When we attended our last school in Fairmount Township the term 
was taught in the new two-story frame building. It stood just oppo- 
site Jonathan P. Winslow's brick house, at that time the finest in 

No wonder Fairmount has such good schools. The foundation was 
of the right kind of material. The early teachers were none of them 
more advanced than the eighth grade of the present time. They made 
good use of what knowledge they did have and laid the foundation 
for the present-day methods. 

In the earliest days the school house did not have stoves, but a big 
fireplace that would take a four- foot backlog. The teacher (man) and 
the big boys cut the wood in the timber around the school house and 
carried it so it could be used when needed. A backlog twelve to eight- 
een inches in diameter would be j^ut in the fireplace, then smaller wood 

Wide Variety of Subjects. 123 

would be placed in front, fire started, and all in the room would be 
comfortable. A backlog would last a day. 

Schoolbooks were scarce. They would not average more than one 
book to the scholar. Not all children of school age attended school. 
As soon as they were able to work they were compelled to assist in 
clearing the land, that a crop might be raised. 

The roads of Fairmount Township were almost impassable, espe- 
cially in the spring and fall. As is well known, the surface of the land 
is very level, and at an early date was not drained. Therefore, it was 
not possible to have good highways. I will describe the thoroughfare 
running east and west from the old pike at Carter Hasting's, and this 
description will answer for all the roads in the Township. 

All the worst places were called corduroy. This kind of road was 
made by cutting rails, poles and logs about twelve feet long. These 
were placed across the road and a little dirt thrown on them — just 
enough to hold them in position. This kind of road could be found 
for miles. Often, when the waters were high in the spring, these logs 
would float out of place. Then the road would be impassable until the 
logs were replaced or the water receded. 

Commencing at the home of James Nixon, running west for miles, 
this pole road could be found. To say that it was rough would be 
putting it mildly. Just imagine going over those logs or poles in a 
wagon (no spring seat) for miles at a time, with seldom a smooth 
piece of road to break the jolt, and water on both sides full of frogs 
and snakes. Such were the country roads of Grant County prior to 

The first gravel road built was started about the year 1857. As 
we now recollect, it was a toll road commencing at the Madison County 
line and running north to Jonesboro, where it was to connect with a 
plank road that was to run from Jonesboro to Marion, and on to 
Wabash. This road was built by private parties. We fail to recollect 
all of the original owners, but Nathan D. Wilson, Jesse E. Wilson, 
William Pierce, Samuel Radley, Joseph W. Hill, Henry Harvey and 
my grandfather, Samuel Heavenridge, were among those who built 
the first gravel road in Fairmount Township and Grant County. 

This road is a monument to the men who built it. They were 
eighteen carat fine in brains and integrity. They anticipated the wants 
of the country long in advance of the time. Tollgates were estab- 
lished at points where travel coming from cross roads would be inter- 
cepted and toll collected. For a long time a tollgate was maintained 
just south of where Dr. Glenn Henley's office now stands, that being 

124 T^he Making of a Toiciisliip. 

the south side of Fairmount. Solomon (Toddy) Thomas kept this 
gate for years. There was a gate not far south of Joseph W. Hill's, 
near Jonesboro. William Winslow kept this gate. Later on, a gate 
was established near Allen Dillon's and one at the cross roads south of 
Carter Hasting's. (I use the names that were familiar to me.) 

There were always people who would try to avoid paying toll. 
They w,onl(l run past and do a dollar's worth of dodging- to avoid 
paying a few cents. I have known men who lived south of Fairmount, 
and near the pike, who, rather than pay a toll of say, ten cents, would 
go west out of town, then south to the County line, then east, miles out 
of their way. They pretended that their rights were infringed upon. 
I am told that there are no toll roads in Indiana now. 

The farmers soon discovered that drainage was very important. 
Back Creek and Deer Creek were splendid outlets for almost the entire 
v/est part of Fairmount Township. It soon became evident that those 
creeks must be cleaned out to make drainage perfect. There was no 
such thing as tile to use in draining the farm. The ditches were dug 
about two feet deep and twenty inches wide. An oak rail about six 
inches wide was put on one side of the ditch and stakes driven to hold 
it in place. Then inmcheons of oak were made and one end placed on 
the rail, the other end resting on the ground. This made a good drain. 
My father was among the first who drained his farm. We always had 
corn when anyone in the vicinitv did. 

The first settlers depended on maple sugar almost entirel\- until 
i856-'57, Avhen sorghum was first introduced in the L'nited States. 
My father received a ])ackage of sorghum cane seed from the Patent 
Office at Washington. D. C, the spring of 1857. He decided to give 
it a trial. Sorghum was an entire stranger in the United States, being 
a native of China. Xo one knew how to get results. There were 
no mills in existence to crush the stalk and get the juice. Neither did 
they have evaporators or other means to reduce the juice to syrup. 

Grandfather Heavenridge and my father conceived the idea of 
making a mill of wood. They took a wheelwright by the name of Jack 
Reel in with them. They went to the timber, selected a perfect maple 
tree about two feet in diameter. They turned two rollers eighteen 
inches through, one with a long shaft, the other shorter. They placed 
wooden cogs near the top of the rollers, then a heavy oak frame was 
made and the roller placed in it. The frame was made so that b\ means 
of a wedge the rolls could be made either loose or tight, just as needed. 
After the rolls were in place it was necessary to have something to 
turn them. A crooked tree was procured and made into what was 
called a sweep. 

Wide J^aricfy of Subjects. 125 

In the meantime, the cane had grown splenchdly and was ready for 
the mill. The next problem was, ''Could the juice be boiled in iron 
kettles?" We had two iron kettles and one large coffee kettle, and 
decided to try both. 

The cane was cut and business commenced. The result was the 
jiiolasses was as black as it was possible to be. but tasted all right. 
People came from far and near to taste the new syrup. The mill was a 
success. We think it possible that one other person tried the same ex- 
periment the same year in Grant County. 

This was the year that a paper dollar would be good when you 
started to town, but would be worthless before you got to spend it. 
The merchant kept a book in which the values of paper money then in 
circulation were listed. Nothing but gold and silver had a real 
value, and there was but little of either in circulation. 

There were no markets for the products of the farm, for the reason 
that farmers would not take mone}" of uncertain value. A great many 
merchants issued their own script. This was used in the vicinity 
where it was issued. If the merchant was good the scrip was redeemed. 
Man\ merchants failed, many banks went out of business, but the 
sturdy farmers of Grant County went alonsr as usual. 



DAVID STANFIELD, son of Samuel and Lydia Stanfield, was 
born about nine miles above Greenville, in Greene County, Ten- 
nessee, on the Second day of the week. Fifth month 13th, 1793. From 

a little private diary, made by him- 
self of an excellent grade of pa- 
per, each page 3x4 inches, the 
writer is permitted by Dr. Glenn 
Henley, a great-grandson of Da- 
vid Stanfield, to copy the informa- 
tion given herewith. As nearly as 
is practicable the items are taken 
verbatim from this diary as David 
Stanfield himself entered them : 

"David Stanfield's Family Rec- 
ord of his own and his wife and 
family's births, marriages, remov- 
als and deaths. 1824." 

Omitting information in regard 
to David and Elizabeth already 
given, this diary reads as follows : 
"David Stanfield and Elizabeth 
Beals, aforesaid, were married by 
Esq. ]\Iiller, at her father's house, 
in Washington, Tennessee, afore- 
said, on the 13th of 5th mo., 1813. 
DAVID STANFIELD "Births of David and Elizabeth 

Stanfield's children, the 2 eldest, William Williams and David S. Stan- 
field, both born at his father's house, nine miles above Greenville, Green 
County, Tennessee State. The other children as far as the now 
youngest, namely, Lydia Jane, were all born on Big Sinking Creek, 
Green County, five or six miles above Greenville, Tennessee, as 
follows : 

"William Williams Stanfield was born ist day of week and 13th 
of 2d mo., in the year of Christ, 1814. 

"2d child, David S. Stanfield, was born on ist of week and 7th of 

5th mo., 181 5. 


David Stanfidd — Naming of Fainiiount. 



"3d child, Charles Stanfield, was 
born 5th of week and i8th of 12th 
mo., in the year of Christ, 1816. 

"4th child, Isaac Stanfield, was 
born on 5th of week and 27th of 8th 
mo., 1818. 

"5th child, Samuel Vernon Stan- 
field, was born on the 4th of the 
week and 29th of 3d month, in the 
year of Christ, 1820. 

"6th child, Hannah Jones Stan- 
field, was born on 6th of week and 
28th of 1 2th month, 1821. 

"7th child, and last, until the suc- 
cessor, Lydia Jane Stanfield, was 
born on 4th of week and 12th of 
nth mo., 1823. 

"8th child, Elijah Stanfield, was 
born on 24th of lOth mo., and 3rd Daughter of Isaac and Hannah 

day of week, in the year of Christ, ^^^\ and wife of David Stanfield, 

-^ -^ was born three miles above Lees- 

1826. burgh, on the Abington Road, Lime- 

"Clayton Reeve Stanfield was ^t°"^ C^^^^^' Washington County, 

-^ iennessee, on the first day of the 

born the ist day of the week and 3d week and first of sixth month, 1794. 

of 6th month, 1832." S^e died fifth month, twenty-first, 

. icbi, aged eighty-six years, eleven 

No entries are made under the months and twenty days. Her re- 

headin^s of the different pa^es left "^f ^"^ lie in Back Creek Graveyard. 

^ ^ where repose m their last resting 

for 'Marriag-£s," or "Wedlock yet place all that is mortal of many of 

Perpetuated." Under the heading ^^r pioneer friends and acquaint- 

'Removals we find this entry : 

"David Stanfield moved from Tennessee to Indiana in the year 
1833, and from Madison County to Grant County in 1837." 

David Stanfield was of English stock. He bought a piece of land 
not quite a mile east of Fairmount, which is now a part of the Foster 
Davis farm, where he lived for a short time prior to buying the land 
south of town, where he made his permanent home. In stature, he was 
erect, five feet, ten inches tall, square-built, of a commanding appear- 
ance, weighed about 175 pounds, big forehead, dark hair and grey eyes, 
pleasing address, and when speaking in public used good English. His 
habit was to go smoothly shaven, hair cut short, was neat and clean in 
nis dress and appearance, wearing the Friends regulation cut of clothes 
and using the plain language at all times. As a recorded minister of 


T]}c Makirii^ of a Toz^viship. 

the Society of Friends, he traveled some in ministerial service, always 
paying his traveling expenses, which all preachers did not do. He held 
advanced views in reference to the resurrection of the dead to wdiat was 
generally accepted by his church in his day and time, hence some ob- 
jected to giving him liberty to travel, as was Friends usage. His faith 
is now quite generally accepted by all orthodox churches. He was a 
man of energy and perseverance. He did not wait for opportunities to 
come to him, but got out and turned something up. He was strictly 
fair and honest in his dealings with men, but wanted what was his by 
right. He loved to trade in real estate, owned a number of farms at 
different periods of his active life, and gave each of his sons a good start 
in life. At one time he kept a large fruit nursery, from which many of 
the orchards of this section were stocked. He was kind and considerate 

This picture shows the old house which once stood at the southwest corner 
of Main and Eighth Streets. It was on this lot that John Benbow com- 
menced the erection of the first log cabin on the present site of the town 
of Fairmount. Before the cabin was completed Daniel Baldwin came from 
Wayne County, Indiana, with his family, and in 1833 purchased the property 
and finished the cabin, which he occupied tor several months. 

as a neighbor, courteous in his luanner, given to hospitality, lived out 
the Scriptural injunction to live in peace with all men as much as laid in 
his ]K)wer. David Stanfield was a man of splendid spirit and of singular 
purity of character. The foregoing is an estimate of his career by a 
prominent citizen who knew him intimately for many years. 

Daiid Stanficld — Naming of Pairuioiint. 


David Stanfield's monument, a plain stone slab, erected at his grave 
in Back Creek graveyard, bears the following inscription : 

"David Stanficld, proprietor south half of Fairmount, Minister of 
Friends Church, died loth mo. 24th, 1868, aged 75 yrs., 5 mo. 11 da." 

(By Cyrus W. Neal.) 

As David Stanficld was one of the persons who did not come to 
Fairmount, but Fairmount came to him, I will give a little information 
as regards this fine man and 
much-loved citizen. He came 
from Green County, Tennessee, 
was an authorized minister in the 
Friends Church before he came to 
Fairmount, and so continued until 
his death. He was the first 
preacher I remember of hearing 
preach. In the fall of 1856 he 
preached at my mother's funeral 
at old Back Creek (I was five 
years old at the time). Margaret 
Pucket also preached at the same 

David Stanficld appeared to be 
quite an old man at that time. He 
lived about two blocks south and 
two blocks west of where Dr. 
Glenn Henley's office is now lo- 
cated. His family consisted of 
himself and wife and nine chil- 
dren, seven boys and two girls. 
The boys were William, Vernon, 
Elijah, Clayton, Isaac, Charles 
and Samuel. The girls were Lydia Jane (wife of Joseph W. Bald- 
win), and Hannah (wife of William Hall). 

David Stanficld was a great man for fruit and had a large nursery 
and orchard that came to Dr. Henley's residence. He was exceedingly 
fond of good horses, and they did not come too lively for him. He was 
a good man with young horses, and always had the very best. He was 
what we would call an up-to-date farmer. He was not a rich man, but 


130 The Making of a Township. 

for that day was considered "pretty well fixed," and was ready and 
willing, as were all the early settlers in the Township, to divide the last 
bushel or the last ham with a neighbor without money and without 

My wife, who was a daughter of Joseph W. Baldwin, and a 
granddaughter of David Stanfield, has in her possession a diarv kept 
by her grandfather in 1831, before he came to Fairmount. The book- 
was made by cutting heavy, plain white paper seven inches square, 
which was sewed together with white flax thread, and the writing was 
very fine, indeed. It would be interesting to some of our young people 
to see this splendid penmanship made by him eighty-six years ago. 
Not many persons of today could duplicate it. He says : 

"In the year 1831 had a concern to attend Indiana Yearly Meeting 
and the meetings constituting it, and obtained a certificate for that 
purpose. On the fourteenth of the Ninth month, in the same year, 
pursued the project, accompanied by my worthy friend, Aaron Ham- 
mer." He says they held no meeting while passing through Kentucky, 
and arrived at that great city in the State of Ohio, Cincinnati, Ninth 
month, twenty-fifth. ( Eleven days on road, and I suppose traveled 
horseback, a distance of about three hundred miles.) 

A meeting was appointed for him in Cincinnati at the First Presby- 
terian Church. Many English Friends were present. He felt very 
much embarrassed at the prospect of facing a congregation made up 
of persons so intellectual and distinguished, in such a large city, and 
wished himself among country people. He says that Friends told him 
that Cincinnati, according to the last census, contained twenty-eight 
thousand people. He had his meeting, and many older Friends came to 
him after the service and encouraged him, saying he did well. 

On the seventh day, first of the Tenth month, they attended Yearly 
Meeting at- New Garden (doubtless Indiana Yearly Meeting was held 
at New Garden and not at Richmond, at that date, as he says nothing 
about Richmond in his book). 

On the way from Green County, Tennessee, to Cincinnati, they stop- 
ped over night at taverns, I suppose similar in construction and hos- 
pitality to the one kept by Robert AlcCormick in Fairmount Township. 
The bills itemized are : Bobbs, 25 cents ; Lowe's, 50 cents ; Johnson's, 
50 cents ; Calvert's, 50 cents ; Sails, 62I/0 cents ; Rose, 62I/2 cents. 

As these bills were for two men and two horses, it would seem that 
the high cost of living did not figure much in those davs. After preach- 
ing in Indiana and Ohio, at man\- places, they returned home. 

David Stanfield was a persistent Bible student. Any person going 

Daiid Stanficld — Naming of Fainiionnf. 131 

to his home to see him on matters of business would find him reading" 
his Bible. 

Marion, Indiana, March 13, 191 7. 

Fairmount had in 1850 attained to a position of some importance 
as a business point. It was in this year that citizens began to cast 
about for a suitable name for the embryonic town. David Stanfield 
suggested that the place be called Kingston. Joseph W. Baldwin, 
who owned the corner store, had heard much of Fairmount Park, Phil- 
adelphia, and favored Fairmount. Stanfield and Baldwin, after due 
consideration of the matter, being unable to agree, decided to leave the 
controversy to the decision of William Neal. Neal agreed with Bald- 
win, and this is how^ the town came to be called Fairmount. This, at 
least, is the conclusion arrived at by the writer, after conferring with 
a pioneer who knew Stanfield, Baldwm and Neal intimately, and was 
closely allied with the three men and held frequent conversations with 
them at the time the matter was under consideration. However, there 
appear to be other ideas in reference to it, and expressions bearing 
upon the subject are here submitted: 

Joseph W. Baldwin, when talking about the early days of Fair- 
mount, always claimed, that he gave the infant town its present name. 
There were three of them that had the matter in controversy. They 
were William Xeal, surveyor, William Hall and Joseph W. Baldwin. 
They all had names to offer. I have forgotten what they were. Jo- 
seph presented the name of Fairmount and won the others over to his 
choice and thus it was recorded Fairmount. 

A. Henley. 

Melbourne, Florida, March 2'/, 191 7. 

Editor News : I see that somebody says Joseph W. Baldwin gave 
Fairmount its name. I have always thought that my father, William 
Neal, named Fairmount. I am sure he was County Surveyor about 
that time. Mrs. Alvin Wilson. 

Los Angeles, California, February 26, 1917. 

(Editor's Note: — The best information at hand shows that before 
a name was selected for the town Joseph W. Baldwin had a little store 
on the Seth Winslow corner (the northeast corner of Main and Wash- 
ington Streets), located where the Borrey Block now stands. David 

132 Tlie Making of a Toimship. 

Stanfield, father-in-law of Baldwin, was planning to have a part of his 
farm surveyed and an addition laid out and platted for the sale of lots. 
It was suggested by one of the two men that the time had come to select 
a name for the town. Both agreed that this should be done. Stanfield 
preferred that the town be called Kingston. Baldwin, who had been 
reading about Fairmount Water Works, at Philadelphia, favored Fair- 
mount. After discussing the matter at some length they agreed to let 
William Neal decide the controversy when he came to make the survey. 
When Neal arrived Stanfield and Baldwin put the question up to 
Neal, and he took the view that, all things considered, Fairmount 
would be the best choice of names. Bill Wright had previously given 
the struggling village the name of Pucker, and the place was so desig- 
nated until the name Fairmount was finally agreed upon.) 

Editor News : Some years ago, while Joseph Baldwin, William 
Hall and James R. Smith were yet living, I remember one afternoon 
these three worthy pioneers were sitting at the front of our store 
(Oakley & Elliott's), discussing with others the cjuestion as to who gave 
Fairmount its name. My recollection is that William Hall made the 
following statement (the other two concurring), that William Neal, 
who just at the time the people were seeking a name for the prospective 
town, returned home from Philadelphia, where he had visited Fair- 
mount Park, and being greatly delighted with its beauty and grandeur, 
he proposed the town be called Fairmount, which was generally accepted 
by the community. J. N. Elliott. 

St. Petersburg, Florida, MarcJi 9, 19 17. 

(Editor's Note: — It will be observed that there exists a difference 
of opinion as to who named Fairmount. However, there is honor 
enough to go around, and it is very likely that several had a hand 
in it.) 

The south part of Fairmount was platted and subdivided into lots 
by David Stanfield, December 28, 1850. At first only four blocks lying 
south of Washington Street were surveyed by William Neal, who had 
been engaged for this work. 

The original town plat was located in Section 29, Township 23 
north and Range 8 east, consisting of fifteen lots. The following addi- 
tions have since been made : David Stanfield's ; Jonathan Baldwin's 

Darid Stanfield — Naming of Fairmount. 133 

First, Second, Third, Fourth and Fifth ; Nixon Winslow's ; J. P. Wins- 
low's First, Second and Third; Henley's First, Second and Third; 
Baldwin and Nottingham's; Phillips's; Winslow, Filers and Bogue and 
Winslow and Osborn's. 

The first home built inside the present corporation limits was a log 
cabin started in November, 1831, by John Benbow, and completed later 
by Daniel Baldwin, at the southwest corner of Eighth and Main Streets. 
It was a typical pioneer cabin built of round logs, with a stick and clay 
chimney, puncheon floor, chinked and daubed to protect the family 
from wind and cold. 

In December, 1833, Daniel Baldwin and family arrived from Wayne 
County, Indiana. Baldwin had visited Grant County the year before, 
and while here he purchased the Benbow cabin. 

The second cabin built was erected by Thomas Baldwin, on the lot 
at the northeast corner of Madison and Mill Streets. 


(By James M. Hundley.) 

IN COMPLIANCE with my promise I will attempt to descnl^e things 
as I remember them in 1852 and up to 1863, when my acquaintance 
with Fairmount and Fairmount Township terminates. 

In order that the reader may know why I assume to speak of early 
conditions in your town and Township I will say that I make no claim 
to having been a pioneer in your community. As a matter of fact the 
hunters and early pathfinders who contended with the haughty sav- 
ages that inhabited your almost impenetrable wilderness had gone many 
years before I came. F)Ut the home builders and early settlers, the 
sturdy characters who cleared away the forest, built the roads, con- 
structed the drains, erected the log school houses, the primitive church 
and their plain and simple habitations were here when I came. It is 
of these that I shall attempt to write. 

I was born in Clinton County, Ohio, July 6, 1847, and came with 
my father, William Hundley, to your Township in the late fall of 1851. 
I have no distinct recollections of the journey from Ohio, which was 
made in a two-horse wagon to a point a short distance south of the 
Back Creek meeting house, where the road running east and west 
crosses the road leading to Marion. 

It was here, in the early spring of 1852, that memory first dawns 
upon me. I found myself living with my father in a log cabin which 
was owned and also occupied by a man named Sam Jones and his 
familv (not the Sam Jones of Gospel fame, but the husband of Jane 
Jones, who was a preacher of some note in the Friends Church). Sam 
Jones had a small frame blacksmith shop located at the crossroads, 
and, as my father was a blacksmith, they joined their fortunes and we 
remained there until the year 1853, when we removed to Fairmount 
and father, with Isaac Roberts, built the first smith shop in your town 
on what is now North Main Street. 

I want to say before proceeding" further that I am writing wholly 
from memory, which for one so young as I was at the period about 
which I write, would seem an unreliable source of information at this 
time. It has been said, and I think truly, that early impressions are 
the most lasting. I am sure that in my mind the surroundings and the 
nun and events of that day are more clearly impressed upon my mind 
than events happening but a few brief years ago. 

I am conscious of the fact that i am writing" for a generation of men 


Eighteen Fifty-h'.'o to Eighteen Sixty-three. 


and women who can have but a faint conception of the conditions which 
surrounded your beautiful and prosperous town and your splendid and 
progressive Township when I came. I have already stated that I was 
not a pioneer or first settler, but only one who remembers those sturdy 
and splendid men and women who laid sure and fast the foundation 
and assured the making of your splendid town and Township. 

They it was who overcame obstacles which would seem to char- 
acters less stern and hardy, insurmountable. Their industry, priva- 
tions and hardships changed an unhealthy and unfriendly environment 
and made your fertile fields to blossom as the rose. If we trace the 
progress of civilization in the past we shall find that environment has 
largely determined the advance of man in the attainment of the high- 
est and best of which he has been found capable. 


Son of Daniel and Christian (VVil- 
cuts) Baldwin, was born in Wayne 
County, Indiana, September 30, 
1823. He came to Fairmount Town- 
ship with his parents in December, 
1833, his father having entered the 
land now comprising the larger por- 
tion of the north part of Fairmount. 
This land extended from Washing- 
ton Street north to Eighth Street, 
and from the Big Four railroad west 
to Back Creek. The cabin home 
originally stood near the hackberry 
tree on the Bogue lot. After the 
death of his parents Jonathan Bald- 
win purchased the home place and 
added much to its appearance. He 
was a man of medium size, not of 
robust build, but with more energy 
than physical endurance. He was 
public spirited, and always in the 
front rank in promoting public im- 
provements. No man did more in 
the building of the town, the public 
schools and the charch of his choice 
than Jonathan Baldwin. He was 
extremely hospitable and kind-heart- 
ed, generous in charitable calls. He was religiously inclined, a consistent 
member of the Wesleyan Methodist Church, to which he was a liberal con- 
tributor. He kept several yoke of cattle and for some years did a great 
amount of heavy teaming. He greatly exposed himself to inclement weather, 
thus contracting lung fever, from which he never recovered, but lived a 
number of years afterwards. He was no shirker, li there was a hard 
piece of work to do he went at it, confident of success. He did Cammack's 
heavy hauling in building the first steam saw-mill in that country. He was 
one of the original promoters of the Jonesboro and Fairmount turnpike. He 
was married twice. His first wife was Sarah Ann Dillon, daughter of Jesse 
Dillon. By this union four children were born, namely. Isaac, Elizabeth, 
David and Mary. Isaac died at fourteen years of age. The others are still 
living. His wife died in 1861. Later he married Mrs. Emeline (Tharp) 
Hockett. Jonathan Baldwin died April 8. 1877. His funeral was a large 
one. The minister, Rev. Elijah Coats, who preached his funeral, said of 


The Making of a Tozwiship. 

him: "As to his real worth to his church and the community in which he 
lived, he stood head and shoulders above his fellow men; that he lived a 
contented, joyful, happy life, spent in doing good." — Dr. A. Henley. 

I think I am safe in saying that your Township had made more 
progress when I came than had Fairmount. There were scattered all 
over your Township small farms and clearings. Fruit-bearing orchards 

gave evidence that their owners 
had been there several years when 
I came. The town and Township 
were, however, covered largely 
with a dense growth of magnifi- 
cent forest trees. The houses 
were chiefly of logs, some of them 
hewed logs, but by far the most 
of them were round log cabins, 
with puncheon floors and stick 
and clay chimneys. I do not mean 
by round-log cabins that they were 
circular in form, but that they 
were constructed of round logs. 
A puncheon floor was one made 
of split logs. The man who was 
fortunate enough to have a com- 
fortable frame house was consid- 
ered an aristocrat in those days. 
The most formidable task which 
confronted men of the early day 
was the clearing away of the for- 
est and the draining of the land, 
which was very much of it cov- 


Who has contributed leading articles ered with stagnant water for a 

to this story, is one of the able writers large portion of the vear. And 

and speakers of the State. He is a ,, . , , u j r 

son of William and Jane (Martin) ^bis produced an abundance of 

Hundley. James M. Hundley enlist- fever and ague, which, during the 

ed in August. 1863, at Indianapolis, in r n r ^i u i. i. 

Company C, Eleventh Ohio Volun- ^^11 of the year, would prostrate 

teer Infantry. He served with this entire families. I think it was 

regiment till April, 1864, when he was /- 1 t^i t , r- t 11' 1 -j 

discharged and sent home. In Au- <-ol. Robert G. Ingersoll who said 

gust, 1864, he again enlisted, this time that "the world was not a very 
as a member of Company E. One ,1 • 1 • 1 ^ 

Hundred and Fortieth Indiana Infan- good place in which to raise peo- 

try, serving with this command until pie, because it was three-fourths 
July II, i86s. Mr. Hundley is a law- , . , 11,, 1 ^ ■< ^ 

yer He has served as a member of ^ater and much better adapted to 

the Indiana Legislature, from Madi- raising fish." I am sure that this 
son County. He was for eight years ,' r t- • . t- 1 • 

postmaster at Summitville ^^^s true of Fairmouiit Township 

Eighteen Fifty-tz^'o to Eighteen Sixty-three. 


when I first saw it. Back Creek, which runs through Fairmount, 
was an ahnost impenetrable swamp, and in a good many places it was 
more than one-half mile in width, and for the greater part of the 
year it was very difficult to locate the channel. In the year 1854 
the ditching of this creek was commenced, and a drain twenty-five 
feet wide and of sufficient depth to carry the water and furnish an outlet 
for lateral drains was constructed. This work was done by some fifty 


Owned and occupied by James Cammack and family. Built by Joseph Pea- 
cock, then a carpenter and contractor here, now a citizen of Kokoino. 

James Cammack, who owned the mill, lived in the house west of Stanfield's 
store. The picture above shows this house, which until torn down in 1916 
stood almost opposite The News office on West Washington Street. This 
house was at one time the home of George W. Butler and family, when 
Butler was associated with his son-in-law. J. N. Wheeler, in the ownership 
and operation of the old flouring mill, located in the building which still 
stands at the southeast corner of Washington and Mill Streets, and now occu- 
pied as a coal office. The old dwelling was used in later years as an office by 
the late Squire John F. Tones. It was also a sort of headquarters for vet- 
erans of the Civil War, who were in the habit of congregating here during 
leisure hours for the purpose of exchanging reminiscences and telling stories 
of their service during the Rebellion. Squire Jones himself was a brave 
soldier, having served as Captain of Company C, Eighty-ninth Indiana Vol- 
unteer Infantry, a command in which many Fairmount Township men were 
enlisted. Captain Jones was popular w^ith all comrades, enjoyed their respect 
and confidence, and for many years after the close of the War worked faith- 
fully to secure and did secure pensions for hundreds of veterans and their 



Tin- Makiiii:^ of a ToK'iisliip. 

Irish laborers, brought from Cincinnati, and was superintended by 
Jesse E. Wilson, Seth Winslow and Jonathan Baldwin. It was the first 
public improvement undertaken aside from cutting- out and making- 
some corduroy roads. 

"Well," some of our young people will ask, "what was a corduroy 
road?" Simply a road constructed with logs thrown crosswise and 
covered with Inrush and dirt in order to prevent vehicles from sinking 
in the mire. Anyone who has traveled over one of these roads in a 
wagon will not soon forget his experience. 


On North Main Street, now owned and occupied by Mrs. Elizabeth Bogue, 
widow of Robert Bogue, a grandson of Daniel Baldwin. This house, which, 
consisted originally of twelve rooms, six below and six above, is finished 
in native walnut taken from the forest. It was built by Jonathan Baldwin, 
son of Daniel Baldwin, in 1858, and was for many years the center of char- 
acteristic pioneer hospitality dispensed with a lavish hand by Jonathan Bald- 
win and wife. This house has at different times been used for hotel pur- 
poses. Across the road east of this house, in a beautiful grove, political and 
other meetings were held during summer and fall months. 

The first saw-mill in Fairmount was built b\- James Cammack, and 
was there when I came in 1853. A little later he put in burrs and 
ground corn. Solomon (Toddy) Thomas had a horse mill for grinding 
corn, but this was southeast of Fairmount. 

Isaac Stanfield, who was a pioneer merchant, built the first flouring 
mill a little way south of the present mill site, in tlie year 1854. This 

Eighteen Fiftx-two to Eighteen Sixty-three. 139 

was a two-story structure and equipped with the most modern machinery 
known in that day. This mill blew up by a boiler explosion and was 
never rebuilt. 

The building of a woolen mill was commenced in the year i860 and 
completed in 1861. I am now unable to say who was the builder and 
operator of this mill, but think Jonathan P. Winslow was one of the 
chief promoters. In any event, this mill supplied a lonq-felt want, card- 
ing, spinning and weaving wool, making jeans and linsey, the fabrics 
out of which the clothing of this time was chiefly made. Prior to the 
building of this mill the carding, spinning and the weaving had been 
done by hand, and the woolen clothing for winter and the linen clothing 
for summer had been spun and woven by the good women who then 
lived in your Township. 

I cannot here describe the old-fashioned spinning wheel, your 
grandmother's loom or the cards used in preparing the wool for spin- 
ning. You may find these in some collection of curios. The flax-brake 
and the hackle have long since disappeared and can onh- be found in 
some collection of relics. 

I cannot describe the process by which the home-made garments 
were colored. Certain it is, however, that many variegated and beau- 
tiful colors w^ere obtained, and the miss of that period, costumed in her 
homespun dress, was quite as comely and fair to look upon as her lat- 
ter-day sister, arrayed in her frock of silk which in man\ instances 
seems to have failed to attain its growth at both ends. 

I wnsh I could paint a pen picture of an autumn day in your Town- 
ship in 1853. In all the humble homes would be heard the hum of the 
spinning wheel, the sound of the loom, and in the clearings would be 
heard the sound of the woodman's ax and the crash of fallino' timber. 
At night the sky would be illumined by the burning of brush and logs 
piled high by your sturdy home builder in his effort to clear away your 
virgin forest and bring it under a state of cultivation. Then we Avere 
seeking to obliterate the forest and to destroy millions of dollars worth 
of valuable timber. Today we are talking about conservation and 
spending millions in promoting forestry. But I am digressing. I have 
been attempting to describe the public improvements and the private 
enterprises which at an early day contributed to the making of your 

In 1854 or 1855, Daniel Ridgeway came with a tanyard and located 
in your community. He continued to operate this place for a few years, 
when he sold it to Micah Baldwin, who continued to make leather so 
long as the writer remained in or near Fairmount. Xathan Little 


The Making of a Tozvnship. 

established a tanyard in your town some time after Daniel Ridgeway 
came, and these two places furnished the leather to make the boots and 
shoes for your town and the surrounding community. This was an 
important and indispensable industry. 

In 1859 or 1^60 ^ stage line was established from Marion to Ander- 
son, and trips were made from each place three times a week, carrying 
mail, merchandise and passengers. I cannot now remember who estab- 


Which stands on the Bogue lot, near the present residence of John Harvey- 
Wilson, on North Main Street. This tree is one of the largest in the To\yn- 
ship. A few of its spreading branches extend out seventy-five feet, making 
an interesting and picturesque object contributed to the present generation 
from the primitive forests of Fairmount Township. 

lished this line, but know that Walker Winslow operated it during the 
Civil War and for some years afterwards. It went out of business when 
the Cincinnati, Wabash and Michigan Railroad came, in 1874. 

In 1862 or 1863 was built the first gravel road in your Townsliip, 
running from Jonesboro to the Madison County line. This was a toll 
road, and was promoted and owned by men of your Township until 
bought by the County and made a free gravel road. I think Jonathan 
P. Winslow was one of the chief promoters and owners of this road. 

Eighteen Fifty-tzvo to Eighteen Sixty-tliree. 141 

I have thus far confined myself to matters that in my opinion were 
of a more or less public character and in their operation served to pro- 
mote the growth and making of your Township in a material wav. I 
have said nothing about schools, churches, trades or business enter- 
prises, all of which are vitally essential to the growth and progress of 
a town or Township. 

When I came to your town the frame Quaker meeting house fur- 
nished the only school room in town. In 1855 was built on East First 
Street a frame building in which was opened the first free school in 
town. William Neal was the teacher. There were in the Township, 
at that time, some five or six public schools located in various parts of 
the territory. I cannot now locate all of them, but remember that one 
was located near the William G. Lewis homestead, another east of town, 
not far from the William Karwin farm, one at Sugar Grove, on the 
Madison County line, another southwest of town, near the Liberty 
Township line. 

The Quaker meeting house was the only place of public worship in 
town when I came. Nixon Rush and Milton Winslow were the minis- 
ters connected with this church whom I remember most distinctly. Wil- 
liam Hall was, I think, a United Brethren minister and George Bowers 
was a Methodist minister. The last two were what were known in that 
day as circuit riders and covered a wide extent of territory. 

All of the above ministers were worthy exponents of the Master's 
cause, and were preaching in the interest of a fallen humanity and for 
the upbuilding of the cause of Christ. 

The merchants in town during the period about which I write were 
Joseph W. Baldwin, Isaac Stanfield, William and Vincent Wright, 
Seaberry Lines, George Doyle, Ezra Foster, Jonathan P. Winslow and 
Mica j ah Wilson. I think, perhaps. Henry Harvey may have had a 
store there during this period. 

The physicians were John White, Philip Patterson. Alpheus Hen- 
ley and David S. Elliott. 

The blacksmiths were Isaac Roberts, William Hundley, Joseph Ben- 
nett, William A. Walker, Elisha Cook and Solomon Macey. 

The carpenters were' William Hall, N^athan Vinson, Joshua Foster, 
Miller Martin, Alfred Waldron and Dennis Montgomery. 

The shoemakers were Solomon Parsons, James Martin, William G. 
Lewis, Logan Fear and Micajah Wilson. Richard Mott was a travel- 
ing shoemaker, and went from house to house in the fall and winter, 
makifig the shoes for the entire family while he remained. 

The first cabinet maker was William Hollingsworth. He made the 

142 - TJ\c Making of a Township. 

furniture which adorned the primitive homes, as weH as the caskets in 
which the pioneer fathers and mothers were consigned to their final 
resting place. 

Lawyers we had none, and needed none. Men were then capable of 
settling their own affairs. 

Bankers were not necessary, for everybody was poor. The good 
housewife was the tailor and dressmaker. 

Robert Kelsay, Smith Kelsay, Granville Mott and Bert Mott were 
the early stone cutters and builders of monuments. 

The early hotel keepers were Seaberry Lines, Solomon Parsons, 
Nathan A' inson and John Scarry. 

I have now traced briefly many of the men and events which my 
boyhood recollections connect with the early making of your Township. 
I have not stopped to comment upon the individual characteristics of 
these men, nor to point out, except in a general way, the part they 
played in obtaining the high and advanced position your town and 
Township now occupy in all that is best in our present-day civilization. 

These men were ruggedly and scrupulously honest in their deal- 
ings with their fellow men, loved their homes and their families, as well 
as their neighbors. They recognized the fatherhood of God and the 
brotherhood of man. They were charitable and generous to a fault. 
They knew and recognized no law except the law of right, and during 
all the period about which I write no crime of any kind dims the fair 
record of your Township. 

To these rugged pioneers courts and jails were unnecessar_\' and for 
them held no terrors. These hardy pioneers have long since gone to 
their final reward, and most of the men who were contemporaneous 
with me have also crossed the Great Divide. 

As I close this review of a long-gone past there come unbidden to 
my mind some stanzas of Gray's immortal Elegy Written in a Country 
Churchyard : 

Beneath those rugged elms, that yewtree's shade, 
Where heaves the turf in many a mold'ring heap, 

Each in his narrow cell forever laid. 

The rude forefathers of the hamlet sleep. 

The breezy call of incense-breathing morn. 

The swallow twitt'ring from the straw-built shed. 

The cock's shrill clarion, or the echoing horn, 
No more shall rouse them from their lowlv bed. 

Eighteen Fifty-f-a'o to Eighteen Sixty-three. 143 

For them no more the blazing" hearth shall burn, 

Or busy housewife ply her evening care ; 
No children run to lisp their sire's return. 

Or climb his knees the envied kiss to share. 

Oft did the harvest to their sickle yield, 

Their furrow oft the stubborn glebe has broke ; 

How jocund did they drive their team afield ! 

How bow'd the woods beneath their sturdy stroke ! 

Let not ambition mock their useful toil. 

Their homely joys, and destiny obscure ; 
Nor grandeur hear with a disdainful smile 

The short and simple annals of the poor. 

The boast of heraldry, the pomp of pow'r, 
And all that beauty, all that wealth e'er gave. 

Await alike th' inevitable hour. 

The paths of glory lead but to the grave. 

These men who linger only in memory, whose lives and deeds you 
seek to perpetuate in "The IMaking of a Township," which is. after all, 
but the making of a State and Nation in miniature, have left to their 
descendants who largely populate your town and Township a glorious 
heritage. No act of theirs can bring aught but pride, no deed of theirs 
can mantle the cheeks of their children and grandchildren with shame. 
They are gone, but not dead. They live in the glory of the blessings 
they have transmitted to posterity. 

Sumniitville, Iiid., January 30, 191 7. 


(By J. M. Hundley) 

I CAME into your community when the great questions which after- 
ward shook the very foundation of our Nation were beginning to 
be discussed and agitated. I mean the extension of human slavery and 
the doctrine of State's rights. 

Reference has been made in your story to the Underground Rail- 
road, but I doubt very much if young people have any adequate con- 
ception of what is meant by the Underground Railroad. 

Slavery, in some form, existed in all Nations from the earliest 
dawn of human history, but it is not my purpose in this communication 
to discuss the different forms of this monstrous and inhuman custom, 
except in so far as it has affected our political history in the past. 

Our English ancestors established negro slavery in this country in 
1620, at Jamestown, Virginia, and at one time it extended throughout 
the New England states. 

It was soon found to be unprofitable in New England, and finally 
found its abiding place in the cotton-growing states, where we find 
it at the period about which I am writing. 

As early as 1807 the great British statesman. Fox, worked aggres- 
sively against human slavery in England and her colonial possessions. 
He was preceded by Wilberforce, Buxton, and Elizabeth Heyrick, a 
Quaker lady, who wrote a pamphlet entitled "Immediate, Not Gradual 

The arguments of this good Quaker lady finally prevailed, and on 
August I, 1834, England emancipated her 800,000 slaves and paid their 
owners $100,000,000 for them. At the same time England emancipated 
her slaves in her East Indian possessions, making a grand total of 
12,000,000 slaves who obtained their freedom. 

I have recited the brief history of England's emancipation of slaves 
in order that I may the more easily get the reader to understand what 
I am going to say in relation to the Underground Railroad and its 
operations in Fairmount Township, as well as with the political history 
of our common country. 

It will be understood that the United States failed to be impressed 
by the humane arguments which induced the mother country to give 
freedom to her slaves. On the other hand, the Southern States, finding 


The Underground Railroad. 145 

slavery very profitable in the growing" of cotton and other Southern 
staples, sought to have this institution extended to newly-formed 
states, and even succeeded in having this degrading practice recognized 
in our Federal Constitution. 

Canada, lying along our Northern border, was the mecca of bond- 
men fleeing from slavery in Kentucky and border slave states. As early 
as i8co Congress had declared the importation of slaves to be piracy, 
and had abolished slavery in the District of Columbia. But at the same 
time the slave power was growing more arrogant and was extending 
slavery to new states and demanding additional laws to assist in the 
recapture and return of escaping slaves. 

The Fugitive Slave Law, which made every free man in Indiana 
or any other free State a slave catcher, and provided that anyone who 
should feed or shelter one of these poor black men fleeing to Canada 
in order to obtain his liberty should be subject to fine and imprison- 

This obnoxious law was soon followed b)- the infamous Dred Scott 
decision, which declared that the negro belonged to an inferior race and 
had no rights which our Constitution was bound to respect. These 
two actions on the part of the slave power which was then dominant in 
our Government fanned to a white heat the flame of hatred against 
the curse of slavery which already prevailed in the free states. 

As love laughs at locksmiths, so liberty depises and defies oppres- 
sion. The immediate effect of the laws to which I have referred was to 
foster the organization of .societies in the free states to render aid and 
comfort to escaping slaves. 

The most potent and effective agent in assisting slaves to obtain 
their freedom by reaching Canada was the Underground Railroad, 
which consisted of organized societies extending across Indiana and 
Michigan, with stations at convenient intervals where escaping slaves 
could be secreted by day and transported by night from one station to 
another on their way to Canada and Liberty. 

This railroad had no track but the rude trail through the wilder- 
ness, and no train or trolley car, but the means of transportation was a 
farm wagon, on horseback, or on foot, as the case might be. The flee- 
ing slave, with the north star as his beacon to liberty, and three or four 
of these hardy Hoosier pioneers as guides and protectors, made his 
slow and painful way to freedom. 

One of these Underground Railroad stations was in Fairmount, and 
the Winslows, Wilsons, Baldwins, Rushes, Davises, Henleys, Stanfields, 
Richardsons, and many others were active agents on this railroad. 

146 The Making of a Township. 

Pendleton, south of Fairmotint, and Marion, north, were stations, 
and when an escaping slave was brought from Pendleton in the night 
time he was concealed in Fairmount or vicinity until the next night, 
when he was conveyed to Moses Bradford or Samuel McQure, at Ma- 
rion, who in turn would convey his charge to Ashland, now Lafon- 
taine. In this way fugitive slaves were housed, fed and conveyed to 
their destination in Canada. 

The writer well remembers the last escaping slaves he saw. It was 
in August, 1856, and for some reason two runaway slaves had found it 
necessary to change their hiding place in the day time, which was an 
unusual and dangerous thing to do. They came to my father's smith 
shop about two o'clock in the afternoon, but in a few moments disap- 
peared and were concealed in Dr. Philip Patterson's hay mow — none too 
soon. Shortly after their disappearance James Buchanan, who was, I 
think, the sheriff of your county at the time, appeared upon the scene, 
accompanied by four or five other men, two of whom were the masters 
of the fleeing negroes. Inquiry was made as to whether any one had 
seen the escaping slaves, but, of course, no one had seen them, and in a 
short time their pursuers disappeared. That night my father, William 
Hundley, Jonathan Baldwin and Seaberry Lines conveyed them to 
Bradford's, at Marion. 

Many instances of this kind occurred, and men, women and children 
were conveyed in the above-described manner to Canada and freedom. 

I think a large number of your pioneer citizens were connected with 
the Underground Railroad, and I am sure a very large majority of them 
were in sympathy with its operation. While many of them came from 
North Carolina, Kentucky and Tennessee, they were not of the slave- 
holding class and detested the institution of slavery and loved liberty for 
all mankind. 

I have traced briefly the history of slavery as it affected your com- 
munity. While I have shown that there was an overwhelming senti- 
ment in your town and Township in favor of human freedom and op- 
position to the institution of slavery, it is only fair to say that this insti- 
tution had in your midst a few defenders. 

The writer has traced in a hasty manner the action being taken 
everywhere throughout the North to nullify the odious laws which had 
been enacted in order to perpetuate human slavery. Nowhere was the 
feeling against slavery stronger than among the Quakers of your 
Township, but it was seen that this institution could not be eliminated 
by compromise or by the assistance of the Underground Railroad. 
The time was rapidly drawing near when this institution was to 1)c shot 

The Underground Railroad. 147 

to death on the field of battle, and in the accomplishment of this result 
Fairmount and Fairmount Township were to offer on the bloody field 
of carnage many of their best and noblest sons, who gave their lives in 
order that human freedom might prevail everywhere in our fair coun- 
try, and that the doctrine enunciated in the Declaration of Independence 
"that all men are created free and equal, endowed with certain inalien- 
able rights, among which are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness" 
might be true for the first time in our history. 

I shall not attempt in this article to trace the formation of political 
parties or to describe the National campaigns which immediately pre- 
ceded the Civil War. I want to here advert very briefly to what was 
known in 1856 as the Know Nothing party, which made its appearance 
in Fairmount Township in that year. It was also known as the Amer- 
ican party, because of its opposition to foreign influence. This party 
was characterized by its secrecy and the reticence of its members. 

I remember that when this party organization came to your Town- 
ship there were no secret societies of any kind in Fairmount. As the 
members of this party held their meetings in secret, and as there were 
no public halls or lodge rooms the meetings were held at night in barns 
and shops. The women of the town upon one occasion became greatly 
excited and pursued their liege lords to Bill Wright's barn and de- 
manded admittance. This was refused, whereupon the women pro- 
ceeded to break into the star chamber session and of course broke up the 
meeting and took their spouses home, where they were taught that they 
must at least know one thing, and that was that they could not keep 
late hours in barns without the consent of their wives. 

I have been writing much about slavery and the black man, but have 
failed to say that the first colored man I ever saw was in Fairmount in 
1852. His name was Nelson Brazleton, and he was a wagonmaker and 
worked in my father's shop and lived at our home for some time. 
He was a sober and industrious man, and was universally respected. 
I do not know whether he was the first man of African descent to make 
his home in your Township or not, but he was the first man of that 
kind that I had ever seen. In 1858 and 1859 Brazleton had a small 
shop on Jesse Winslow's farm, east of town, and did wagon repair 
work and some blacksmith work. I think he died here in i860 or 1861. 

I am sure that I have only touched upon the great subject of the 
Underground Railroad and have failed to mention scores of your early 
pioneers who were identified with this cause and did valiant service in 
advancing human liberty. 

Summitzille, Ind., February 2y, igiy. 


Tlic Makiiii^ of a Toi^'iisliip. 

(By Mrs. Angelina Pearson) 

The Friends everywhere worked by speech and by writings against 
the institution of slavery. The Underground Railroad became a means 
of escape for human chattels. Levi Coffin, a Friend, who lived in Cin- 
cinnati, was the reputed president. There were hundreds of branch 
lines running through various sections of the free states, reaching 
northward to Canada, the only territory the runaway slave could flee 
to and be safe from the pursuit of his master. 


One of the capable teachers to whom 
frequent reference has been made, 
is a native of Fairmount Township, 
where she was born, February i/, 
1845. Her paternal grandparents 
were Thomas and Anna (Sadler) 
Harvey, and her maternal grandpar- 
ents were Phineas and Mary 
( Bogue) Henley, all of North Caro- 
lina, who came in the early day to 
this community'. John S. Harvey, 
the father, was born in Randolph 
County, North Carolina, February 
24, 1821, and died August 18, 1850; 
Lydia (Henley) Harvey, the mother, 
was born July 21, 1827, and died 
July 29, 1845. Mrs. Pearson was 
their only child. On her father's 
side she is of English, Irish and 
Welsh extraction, while her ma- 
ternal ancestors were a mixture of 
English, French and Indian blood. 
She was educated in th; common 
schools of Fairmount Township and 
attended Earlham College in 186.3. 
With the exceptit)n of three years' 
residence at Converse. Indiana, she 
has always lived in I'airmount 
Township. Mrs. Pear.son was en- 
gaged in teaching from 1862 until 
1870, her school work being con- 
fined mostly to her own native Township, with the exception of brief en- 
gagements at Blue River .Vcademy, in \\'ashington County, Indiana, in 
Howard County, near Greentown, and on? summer session in Greentown. 
Her most notable success, perhaps, was at the Lake School, in Fairmount 
Township, during the Civil War, when management of the highest order 
was required in the maintenance of discipline. On December 30, 1869, she 
was joined in marriage to Lemuel Pearson, born at West Milton, Ohio, 
December 17, 1843. His death occurred September 15, 1914- His parents 
were Isaac and Mary (Pemberton) Pearson. Lemuel and Angelina Pear- 
son were parents of six children, namely: Herbert, born June 25, 1871; Har- 
vey, born August 18, 1873; Mary, born February 22, 1878; Ethel, born De- 
cember 30, 1880; Ernest, born April 26, 1883, and Susan, born April 24, 1886. 

The Dred Scott decision covered the entire Cniled States. This 
decision made it unlaw ful U<y anyone to harbor, feed or protect a run- 
awav slave. 

The Underground Railroad. 149 

The Underground Railroad had one of its best officered organiza- 
tions in Fairmount Township. All the way from Cincinnati there were 
stations where the slave was befriended. As far back as 1833 there was 
a station at the farm just opposite the Friends meeting house at Back 
Creek. It was occupied by Charles Baldwin and family, he having 
several stalwart sons who were ready, day or night, to give their lives, 
if need be, for the cause of abolition. I will relate one incident. 

Often there were runaways brought in for Baldwin to aid. On one 
occasion there were nine men brought, and for one week Baldwin kept 
them concealed in a thicket, in a little log cabin which had been built 
for the purpose, one-quarter mile east of his home. These men were 
closely pursued by their masters. They belonged to three different 
owners in Kentucky. Baldwin had brought them to the house with the 
intention of conveying them on north. Upon looking out towards the 
road, which is now the tarvia road, he saw three men and two officers 
stop at the end of the lane. One of the slaves ventured out far enough 
to look at them and recognized them as their masters. He informed his 
comrades and they formed a circle in the center of the living room, 
taking hold of hands, looked. upward, and in concert they swore : 

"By the God of Eternal Justice we will die in our tracks right here 
before we will go back into slavery !" 

And they stood there firm. 

After parleying for a half hour the men at the end of the lane 
turned their horses and went back to Anderson without a single sisfht 
of their slaves, after pursuing them to within speaking distance. 

The Back Creek neighborhood was wholly one of anti-slavery sen- 
timent, and was always glad to aid in any way it could. 

Charles Baldwin often said : 

"I could not do what I am doing if it were not for my kind neigh- 
bors. I often have to inform them when I have a consignment. Some- 
times I am eaten out, but when we open the kitchen door in the morning 
there will be great baskets of cooked food, clothing and medicines as 
our needs may be." 

The kitchen door had not been locked at night. 

It was no uncommon thing for the slave owner to follow the track 
of the Underground Railroad, but it was rare for him to recover his 
human property. Many were the cunning artifices used to delude 

On one occasion there were three men to be conveyed to Moses 
Bradford, three miles north of Marion. The owners were in the neigh- 
borhood. It was undertaken by John S. Harvey, my father, and Quincy 


The Making of a Toivnship. 

Baldwin, two young men then about twenty years of age. The work 
must be done that day. They dared not travel the public road, but 
walk, and go a round-about way through swamps and a jungle of 
underbrush. As there had just been a deep "thaw out" and a heavy 
rain, it was impossible to travel in any other way. They selected a posi- 
tion where there was a thicket 
on each side, what is now a stone 
road, in front of where Isaiah 
Thomas now lives, and every 
man kept hid while John Harvey 
crossed the road and reported 
that nobody was in sight. Then 
one man would cross at a time, 
being careful to step in the same 
track. Ouincy Baldwin was the 
last to cross. By sunset they 
were at Bradford's, torn by 
brush, clothing in tatters, cold, 
hungry and wet with mud and 
water above their knees. Oh, 
what a price for liberty ! But 
that was better than the lash of 
the whip, or being branded by 
hot irons, like cattle, as many 
slaves were. 

As well as the writer remem- 
bers, until January i, 1861, the 
date of his death, at the age of 
sixty-two years, Aaron Hill lived 
on the farm now known as the 
Harvev farm, and his home was 


Is another Fairmount boy who is oc- 
cupying a responsible position. Mr. 
Pearson has for several years been lo- 
cated at Balboa Heights, Canal Zone, 
where he is employed as Auditor of 
the Commissary and Railroad Depart- 
ments of the Panama Canal. Here 
his services are so eminently satisfac- 
tory to the Government that he finds 
no difficulty in holding his position. 
Mr. Pearson is a son of Mrs. Ange- 
lina Pearson and the late Lemuel 

another station. For some time after Aaron Hill's death the business 
was successfully carried on by his son, Daniel. One Sabbath afternoon 
Daniel Hill called u]K)n the writer of this article and excused himself 
for not staying but a few minutes, saying: 

'T took seven runaway slaves to Bradford's last night. There was 
the father, mother and five children. I had them four days. I put 
hay in my deep wagon bed, then had them get in and lie down. Then 
I put hay over them and ordered them not to speak. The only road 
was through both Jonesboro and Marion, and it was a bright, moon- 
light night. In driving through these towns I drove slowly. I passed 

The Underground Railroad. 


through Marion just at midnight. I had my horses walk through 
town slowly, but when I got beyond town at a safe distance I whipped 
them into a gallup and delivered them safely." 

This was the last "consignment" that ever passed over the Under- 
ground Railroad through Fairmount Township. Some one calculated 
that as many as fifteen hundred runaways passed over the road while 
it existed. Daniel Hill was a frail, delicate-looking man, but it is due 
him to say he was heroism personified. He, like many others, hoping 
that the war then raging would end slavery, enlisted in Company C, 
Eighty-ninth Indiana Volunteer Infantry, and laid down his life at 
Alexandria, Louisiana, on that fruitless raid up Red River. 



IN 1 85 1 Spiritualism swept over this part of the country. William 
Chamness started the movement for a town at Lake Galatia.''' As 
early as 1833 Solomon Thomas had built a tannery in the neighborhood, 
and Micajah Cross, son-in-law of William Chamness, and Moses Hol- 
lingsworth had erected cabins there. Chamness insisted that all his 
followers should have everything in common. All believers were re- 
quired to subscribe to the idea that there should be a mutual interest 
in all human necessities. 

In this way a proper community spirit would be developed, and all 
would labor for the common good of the faithful. 

Otho Selby, well known surveyor of his day, was employed to 
locate streets and blocks. Circles were formed and services were con- 
ducted by writing mediums. It was the design of Chamness to make 
this a seat of learning and headcjuarters for the propagation of Spirit- 

William Wellington and Joseph Hollingsworth erected a saw-mill 
and grist-mill. William Chamness and son started a store and built a 
residence. A little later James Lancaster erected a small frame build- 
ing and put in a stock of merchandise. 

A printing office was soon located, and a periodical called The 
Galatia Messenger was published. + The Messenger was a four-page 
paper, each page being about eleven by seventeen inches in size. Eli 
Selby was the managing editor of the periodical, which contained news 
of spiritualistic movements, accounts of local happenings, items in ref- 
erence to the seances held, and frecjuently referred to the excellent 
healing properties of the waters in the Pool of Siloam, otherwise known 
as Lake Galatia. 

Joseph Hollingsworth and Peter Havens were two of the strong 
characters connected with the movement. Mrs. Eleanor Hollingsworth, 
wife of Enos Hollingsworth, was one of the strong mediums. Charles 
Stanfield was another active supporter. 

*Micajali Wccsner at one time ran a lanyard near Lake Galatia. An 
epidemic of cholera broke out in the neighborhood. Weesner and Alex Dol- 
man, who had been stricken, were moved to a point north of Joncsboro. and 
died of the disease. 

iLouise Payne Thorn once related that on many occasions, as a girl, she 
visited the printing office and watched the printers and publishers at work 
on their paper. 

The Spiritualistic Moicnicnt 


Robert Xose relates that in 1855 a man named Gerard created con- 
siderable excitement in the neighborhood by announcing that on a cer- 
tain day he would make his ascension into heaven. Gerard had for a 
number of days been preparing for his flight by remaining in bed and 
abstaining from all food. E. B. Chamness, son of William Chamness, 
who was teaching in the vicinity, adjourned school in order that his 
scholars might see the flight of Gerard. At the appointed hour the 
children and other neighbors formed a circle around the bed. Gerard, 


It was asserted in articles published by the Galatia Messenger and claimed by 
followers of William Chamness, that the waters of Lake Galatia possessed 
healing properties. Thus the lake became known among faithful Spiritual- 
ists of the early day as the Pool of Siloam. 

his arms akimbo, slowlv arose, shook himself violentlv for a few min- 
utes, and by various other means attempted to arise. He did not suc- 
ceed in making the ascension as promised, and his failure created much 
unfavorable comment in the settlement. 

All went well for a time with the little colony. A minister of one of 

the orthodox churches, believed to have been Rev. George W. Bowers, 

one day gained the consent of leaders of the Spiritualists to preach a 

sermon to members of the faith. The minister chose for his text : 

"Oh, foolish Galatians, who hath bewitched you?" 

The sermon is described as one of great power. Bowers was an 

154 The Making of a Tozvnship. 

orator of unusual ability and considerable persuasiveness. His un- 
answerable logic appealed with such irresistible force to his hearers that 
the sermon started an agitation which eventually proved to be the be- 
ginning of the end of the enterprise. The movement began to dis- 
integrate in 1857, and in time gradually disappeared. 

The proposed metropolis soon faded away, and few of the present 
generation are aware of the movements of its ambitious but misguided 
promoters. Today not a vestige remains of this exploded enterprise, 
which in its energetic infancy promised far-reaching results. 

One of the most aggressive opponents of Spiritualism as practiced 
in that day was Morgan O. Lewis-, who openly ridiculed their doctrine 
and their practices. 

Rev. Bowers was a Methodist Episcopal minister. He was com- 
bative when it became necessary to enforce respect for religious ser- 
vices. Upon one occasion, it is related, an intoxicated hoodlum made 
bold to walk up to the platform and take his seat in the pulpit with 
the minister. Bowers remonstrated with the drunken man, who 
promptly replied that he had as much right in the pulpit as Bowers had, 
whereat Bowers took hold of the ruffian by the nape of the neck and 
forcibly escorted him to the door, putting the boot to the disturber as 
he went out. After this circumstance became known throughout the 
settlement Bowers was never known to have been again interrupted in 
his meetings. 

Eli Selby, soon after the enterprise began to wane, went to Mis- 
souri and settled in the Ozark Mountains. When the Civil War broke 
out Selby is said to have sympathized with the South. He and his 
son, George, joined a party of bushwhackers and were both killed in 
the Ozarks in operations against the Union forces. It is not known 
what became of other members of the family. 

E. B. Chamness, son of W' illiam Chamness, lived for many years at 
Alexandria, Indiana. He died in 1910. The widow, Mrs. Clara K. 
Chamness, at one time owned a cottage at Chesterfield, headquarters 
of the Indiana Association of Spiritualists, where their annual meet- 
ings are held. 

Lake Galatia afforded fine fishing for the pioneer. There used to 
be an abundance of black bass and plenty of fine perch here. A hard 
freeze in 1862 killed them off, and fish has not since been so plentiful 
in the lake. Attention was turned to the Mississinewa River, later on, 
where there were plenty of pike, red horse, suckers, bass and perch. 

The scattering settlers thought the gig, or hook, was too slow for 
catching fish, so they devised a brush drag long enough to span the 

The Spiritualistic Movement. 155 

river, and with grape vine and hickory bark improvised into a rope they 
pulled the drag down to a deep hole where they landed with all the 
fish they could take care of. 

"In December, 1847, in the village of Hydeville, New York," writes 
Mrs. Angelina Pearson, "a family by the name of Fox heard strange 
rappings about their house, which increased in loudness and frequency, 
and which were more of an annoyance at night than during the day 
time, and were noticeable in different parts of the house. It was an- 
noying to Mr. and Mrs. Fox, who became worn out with sleepless 
nights. Not until in 1848 did they discover that so many raps meant 
'yes' or 'no.' 

"Such mysterious doings could not be kept secret. The news spread 
in the village and elsewhere, and finally extended over the United States 
and to Europe. Great excitement prevailed wherever it made its ap- 
pearance, and people would go long distances to see and hear its myster- 
ious manifestations. 

"Finally, an alphabetical code was established, the letters corre- 
sponding to the number of raps. Thus the mediums believed a com- 
munication was established between the living and the dead. The first 
communication thus given, it is claimed, was : 

" 'We are all your dear friends and relatives.' 

"The public press took hold of the subject and printed much litera- 
ture. Now, Spiritualism had gained a strong hold, and had multitudes 
for its advocates. The Banner of Light, a magazine published in ad- 
vocacy of Spiritualism, was issued in an Eastern city. 

"The definition of Spiritualism, as given in some of the literature on 
the subject, is as follows: 

" 'Spiritualism is based on the cardinal fact of spiritual communion 
and influx. It is the effort to discover all truth relating to man's spirit- 
ual nature, capacities, relations, duties, welfare and destiny, and its 
application to a regenerate life.' 

"But to all honest-thinking minds who watched its final outcome it 
was a decided farce. 

"It reached Grant County some time previous to i860, and found 
many believers. It had many strong advocates in Fairmount Township 
in that day, especially in the neighborhood of Lake Galatia, and per- 
sisted in keeping up its operations until some time in 1865 or 1866. 

"The writer began teaching school in that neighborhood, in Jan- 
uary, 1864, and boarded at a house which had formerly been occupied 
by a family that had encouraged it. Often large crowds would gather 
at this home to witness its noisy manifestations. The family who then 

156 The Making of a Township. 

owned the house was not friendly to it, yet it was there to annoy tliem. 
Every evening about 9 o'clock there would be a noise begin near the 
floor, between the ceiling and weather boarding, like the climbing up of 
an animal as large as a cat, or small dog. On reaching the upper floor 
it proceeded to run, making a noise with its feet, and also another noise 
as if it was dragging a heavy garment with large buttons attached, 
which scraped and bumped on the floor. Then it jumped off down into 
the ceiled partition on the north side of the room. Then all was quiet 
till next evening at just the same time. At the exact hour it would be 
there and perform the same mysterious operation. 

"The woman of the house informed the writer that this was kept up 
just one year without mjssing a single night, but it gradually died out. 
At that time, in Fairmount Township, there were hundreds of people, 
as well as the writer, who saw and knew to a certainty something of 
the mystic nature of Spiritualism, but who did not believe it had its 
source in anything good, and only a few aged persons are living today 
who were witnesses. Latter-day Spiritualism has but little resemblance 
to that of 1847." 

For a number of years a lane was visible through the forest where 
the right-of-way had been blazed and graded ready for the Marion & 
Mississinewa Valley Railroad, which was projected to connect Galatia 
with the outside world. Many people subscribed to a fund which it 
was proposed to loan to the promoters of the railroad at ten per cent, 
interest. Thousands of cross ties were bought and hauled to the scene 
of operations. There are still slight evidences of the grading done on 
the James Carroll farm, near the lake, but few traces of the right-of- 
way remain. The Chesapeake and Ohio Railway later took over and 
now traverses for several miles practically the same route as that indi- 
cated by the original survey. 

The article in relation to the railroad which was surveyed and partly 
constructed through the eastern part of Fairmount Township brings 
to my mind that 1 have seen the bridge which Mr. Tingley mentions 
and many piles of cross ties along the right-of-way, which, if I remcm- 
])er rightly, ran near the farm then owned by Otho Selby, near Lake 
Galatia, writes J. M. Hundley. 

I also remember that many men in the southern part of Grant 
County were induced to put their farms into this scheme. I think much 
litigation arose over these farms, and T believe that a few farmers re- 
covered their lands, but of this I am not cjuitc sure. 

]\Ir. Tingley is right in saying that this railroad was the first at- 
tempted in Fairmount Township, and, for that matter, in Grant County ; 

The Spiritualistic Movement. 


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158 The Mahini^ of a Tozvnship. 

and luul it succeeded would no doubt have changed the whole aspect 
of your Township. Galatia would no doubt have been the leading 
town instead of Fairmount. 

I remember that this railroad bubble burst a short time after the 
scheme to build a canal from Wabash to the Ohio River through 
Grant and Madison counties had collapsed. These failures, with the 
failure of the State Bank of Indiana, which came about the same time, 
almost completely prostrated the little business there was at that time. 
(I am a little hazy about whether it was the State Bank of Indiana 01; 
the Bank of the State of Indiana, which failed, as there were two of 
them, and one was good and the other worthless.) 

I know my father had a lot of this money taken in at the smith- 
shop, and it was worthless. It was given to the children to play with. 
This was the day of wildcat banking, so called, and I remember that 
every merchant in Fairmount had what was called a "detector." or a 
book in which was given the amount of discount or the value of the 
several kinds of paper money. 

Dad Lines would say, when my father would go into his store with 
a paper bill : 

"We will take down the investigator and see how much this darned 
thing is under repair." 

And it was almost invariably under repair from a few cents on the 
dollar to half of its face value. 

This was one of the difficulties with which your pioneers had to 
struggle — the want of a stable currency. Imagine, if you can, our 
bankers and business men of today attempting to do the present vast 
volume of trade with a currency of this character. It would simply be 
an impossibility. 




THE FIRST temperance meeting of which there is any knowledge 
was held at the old Sugar Grove Church, in the Lewis settlement, 
about five miles southeast of Fairmount, in 1848. It was at this meet- 
ing that William G. Lewis made his first effort to speak in public. 
The sentiment expressed in his address created a furore in the neighbor- 
hood, and almost broke up the peace and harmony that had for many 
years prevailed among the early settlers. A few of the neighbors 
claimed that Lewis was advocating a plan that would take away the 
liberty that their fathers had fought for and bled for and died for. 

The movement grew rapidly, however, and ended in the forma- 
tion of a division of the Sons of Temperance. The agitation spread 
and the enthusiasm created at that first meeting bore fruit. 

As time went on all denominations united on this question and 
stood out aggressively against the liquor traffic. Ever since there has 
been in this Township a general feeling of hostility toward the sale 
and use of intoxicating beverages. This sentiment manifested itself 
in a striking manner on more than one occasion in the years that fol- 

In the late summer of 1874 Andy Morris, who lived at Summitville, 
encouraged by representations of an acquaintance that Fairmount might 
be a profitable location for a saloon, thought by a ruse to test the mat- 
ter of putting in a stock of liquors. 

It was highly important to ascertain the feeling of ultra temperance 
folks with regard to his proposed enterprise. Induced by Fred Cart- 
wright, a well known character of that day, to make a reconnoiter, 
Morris put some articles of furniture resembling saloon fixtures into a 
wagon and brought them to Fairmount. 

No sooner did Morris reach the southern outskirts of the town 
with his conveyance than he was surrounded by a crowd of determined, 
but angry men, led by Dennis Montgomery and Alex Pickard, who 
notified him that he had better take his traps and move out at once. 

Morris was reluctant to do so. He hesitated too long. He was 
placed astride a rail, Alex Pickard holding one end and W. A. Planck 
the other, and was carried for a considerable distance along Main 
Street. He was told, after a pause in the proceedings, that he might 
have his choice, get out of town immediately or be tarred and feathered. 



7' he Mak'iii:^ of a Toi^'iishit. 

Former Pastor Methodist Episcpal Cluuch 

Temperance — Grganisation of Churches. i6i 

Morris promptly acceded to the arbitrary terms laid down, and 
promised to leave at once if released. He was taken off the rail and 
with his wagon and other belongings he started south. Morris never re- 
turned to Fairmount after that. 

June I, 1875, Dave Capper, of Harrisburg, planned to open a saloon 
in a one-story frame structure built by Capper for that purpose east of 
the Big Four Railroad. There was a door in the west end of the 
building, and another opening out on the north side. When the 
structure was being erected Capper claimed that it was intended for a 
blacksmith shop. 

Jonathan P. Winslow suspected the motives of Capper, and kept 
vigilant oversight of the structure as the work was being completed 
and the building made ready for occupancy. 

A circus was billed for the town. It was on the night before that 
Capper brought his liquors by wagon from Harrisburg. 

Failing in his efforts to persuade Capper to desist from his purpose, 
Winslow went to the home of Frank Norton. 

Norton immediately left his bed and plans were formulated. It was 
agreed that the ringing of the Wesleyan Methodist Church bell would 
be the signal for the ringing of every other bell in Fairmount. When 
this bell pealed forth in the early dawn of that summer day church 
bells and dinner bells in the town and country joined in, and a great 
commotion among the people was the result. 

Nixon Rush was among the first to respond. The people were thor- 
oughly aroused, and a number of men assembled to ascertain the cause 
of the excitement. As each man appeared upon the scene the matter 
was fully explained. In a short while the crowd had gathered at the 
old frame school house on East Washington Street. 

Norton was promptly elected leader of the crowd. He formed the 
men in line, and at their head marched northeast, crossed the Big 
Four tracks, and were soon at the building, where they halted. 

Capper, who was a Civil War soldier and a courageous man, ap- 
peared at the west door with a cocked revolver in each hand. He 
swore that he would shoot the first man who came near or who mo- 
lested him in any way. 

Norton was acquainted with Capper. He knew that Capper meant 
what he said, and that he would shoot. However, Norton, who himself 
was a soldier in the Civil War, and just as courageous and equally de- 
termined, quietly notified Capper that citizens meant business, that they 
did not propose to allow a saloon to be run in the town, and that he 

i62 'flic Makiiv^ of a Township. 

would advise Capper, on behalf of the people, to pack up his goods and 
get out immediately. 

Capper stepped back, again notified the crowd that he would shoot 
the first man who interfered with him, and closed the door. 

After a short consultation with Jesse Bogue, J. P. Winslow and 
Nixon Rush, Norton shouldered a fence rail, took a running shoot, and 
knocked the door about half way through the building. Jesse Rogue 
was at the time right at the side of Norton and remained with him 
through the mix-up. 

When Capper discovered that further resistance was useless, and 
that the citizens would not be bluffed or bulldozed, he capitulated. 

The citizens loaded up his stock of liquors on a two-horse wagon 
owned by Jonathan P. Winslow, and, driven by his son, John, who held 
the lines, forced Capper to sit on one of the whisky barrels, and in 
charge of a committee, at the tolling of a bell, was hastily started back 
to Harrisburg, amidst the jeers and hoots of an indignant but hilarious 

In 1886 Ira M. Smith, of IMarion, was making plans to open a 
saloon on the west side of North Main Street, between \^^ashington 
and First, in a two-story frame building which stood where the Marion 
Light and Heating Building is now located. Smith had secured his 
license. One night, in the summer of that year, the building was de- 
stroyed by dynamite, and Smith abandoned his project. He returned 
to Marion. 

Luther Morris secured a license in 1892 and opened a saloon in a 
one-story frame residence at the northeast corner of First and Main, 
which had been occupied by Mrs. Eleanor Thomas, widow of Daniel 
Thomas. Prior to this year, for about fourteen months, Morris had 
been engaged in taking orders for liquors and beer, delivering his 
goods by wagon from Marion. In the latter ])art of 1892 Morris had 
erected a one-story frame building- on East Eighth Street, and was pre- 
paring to move his stock of liquors to this location. I'efore the struc- 
ture was quite ready for occupancy it was destroyed by dynamite one 
night and a few days later the pile of debris was burned. In 1900 Mor- 
ris erected the two-story brick building now occupied by the Marion 
Light and Heating Company, on North Main Street. He continued to 
operate his saloon in this building until 1906, when the citizens of the 
Township, by petition, remonstrated the business out of existence, 
Morris being the first and the last man to own a licensed saloon in 

Temperance — Organization of Chun lies. 


A Friends meeting was held as early as 1831 at the cabin of Joseph 
Winslow, on Back Creek, two miles north of Fairmount. In the same 
year a double hewed-log cabin was built, where services were continued, 
on the Exum Newby farm, and this meeting was known as Back Creek. 
Nathan Morris was the first preacher. Among early members were 
the Winslows, the Morrises, the Newbys and the Baldwins. In 1833, 
by direction of New Garden Quar- 
terly Meeting, of Wayne County, 
a meeting for worship was regu- 
larly established. A monthly meet- 
ing was set up here in 1838 by di- 
rection of the same Quarterly 

The construction of the old Back 
Creek meeting house was started 
in 1840, and completed in 1842.* 
Charles Osborn sat at the head of 
the meeting and preached the first 
sermon. The land on which it 
stood was donated by Exum New- 
by, and the ground for the grave- 
yard was donated by Henry Wins- 
low. David Stanfield and Nathan 
Morris were prominent preachers 
among the Friends at that time. 
The early settlers along Back DAISY BARR 

Creek and the supporters of Quakerism as well, were the Winslows, 
the Baldwins, the Hills, the Newbys and the Harveys. 

In the early day, Northern Quarterly Meeting of Friends, held at 
Back Creek, in June, was one of the important events of the year, not 
only among Quakers, but with people of every shade and variety of 
religious thought and denominational attachment. For a number of 
years people from miles around, on foot, on horseback, and by means of 
wagons and every kind of vehicle then known, would attend these 
meetings. On Sunday the capacious brick meeting house would always 
be filled to overflowing. Those who were unable to gain admittance 
attended services outside. It was not an uncommon thing to see preach- 
ers up in wagons out in the shade of the beautiful grove exhorting sin- 
ners to forsake their evil ways. Platforms were provided for the use of 

*In that day it was necessary to mold and burn brick by hand. It was 
a tedious process, and accounts for the delay in completing the structure. 

164 Tlic Making of a Toivnship. 

ministers. These platforms were surrounded by roughly improvised 
seats. From such rude elevations the Gospel was ardently expounded 
and the power of the Holy Ghost vigorously proclaimed. Vast throngs 
would assemble on these annual occasions, drawn thither by motives as 
varied as the individual mood differed. Some had pious promptings, 
others came to mix and mingle, while young beaux brought their best 
girls to "see the sights," and a few attended as a matter of idle curiosity. 
Thrifty men, anticipating the needs of the multitude, would erect tents 
and sheds from which were retailed sandwiches, ice cream, lemonade 
and other eatable knickknacks. These "stands" naturally were liberally 
patronized. From year to year others similarly inclined were attracted, 
and the gatherings began to take on the appearance of ordinary Sunday 
outings, therebv to a great extent defeating the main purpose for which 
Friends established the quarterly assemblies, and assuming the air and 
aspect of "worldliness." The crowds, as they grew in numbers with 
each recurring June, finally became noisy and unmanageable. The ses- 
sions were transferred to Fairmount and the name changed to Fair- 
mount Quarterly Meeting. 

The first Methodist Church in Fairmount Township was organized 
at the home of Joseph Weston, about 1835. The charter members were 
Elijah B. Ward, Elizabeth Ward, Joseph Weston, Lydia Weston, David 
Lewis, Nancy Lewis, William Payne, Celia Payne, George Crist, ]\Iar- 
tha Crist and Ann Austin. The latter taught the first term of school 
ever held in this part of the Township. Elijah Ward was the first 
class leader at old Sugar Grove.* 

The class later moved the place of meeting from Joseph Weston's, 
Joseph Weston being the first class leader. The class was organized 
by Wade Posey. Rev. G. W. Bowers was the second preacher. These 
people were the earliest supporters of Methodism in this part of the 
country. The Methodists held services at the cabin of Henry Osborn, 
southeast of Fairmount, as early as 1837. 

In 1849, Methodists held services at Henry Osborn's hewed-log 
cabin, which still stands, and is situated on land now owned by Zim 
Payne, three miles southeast of Fairmount. Caleb Morris, of Marion, 
an exhorter of that day, would sometimes be present and assist in con- 
ducting the meetings. Those who attended meetings at Osborn's were 
Jesse Brooks and wife, Thomas Morris and wife, David Jones and wife, 
Henry Osborn and wife, Charles Stanfield and wife, Enicline and 

*This church was then located on land now owned by Henry Roberts. 
It was later moved to the David Lewis farm, on the County Line Road, now 
ownsd by Daniel Johnson. 

Temperance — Organisation of Churches. 


Louisa Osborn, and Caroline, Martha and Aaron Taylor. In that day 
it was no uncommon thing to keep house and hold religious services in 
a room eighteen by twenty feet. 

Located about four miles southeast of Fairmount. Elijah Ward, who was 
the grandfather of Mrs. David G. Lewis, about the year 1835, helped to or- 
ganize the first Methodist Church established in Fairmount Township. He 
was the class leader at old Sugar Grove. 

A United Brethren Church, known as Union Chapel, was built in 
1839 on the Solomon Thomas farm, three miles southeast of Fairmount. 
Rev. John Pugsley was the first preacher at this church. 

Standing in Union Graveyard, as if to keep mute vigilance over the 
remains of pioneer dead, is a wild cherry, a hickory, a sycamore, a wal- 
nut, an elm, and a buckeye tree. The graveyard is situated just south 
of where Union Church stood. 

The United Brethren, in 1844, organized a class at Carter Hasting's 
home, one mile south of Fairmount. The charter members were Solo- 
mon Thomas and wife, John Thomas and wife. Isaac Anderson and 
wife. Carter Hasting and wife, William Hall and wife, John Buller and 
wif-e, and John Smith and wife. William Hall was the first class leader. 
Services were held later on at the home of William Hall, in Fairmount. 
He was called to the ministry, and for a number of years preached at 
different points in this section of Indiana. 


The J/ci/v'/;/','- of a Toz<'iishif>. 


First Postmaster of Fairmount. was 
in his younger manhood a carpenter 
and tanner. For a number of years 
lie lived at the southwest corner of 
Third and Main Streets, occupying 
the dwelling house now used by his 
daughter, Mrs. John Burgess Hol- 
lingsworth, and family. William 
Hall was a native of Greene County, 
Pennsylvania, where he was born. 
February 28, 1814. He died at his 
home in Fairmount on October 4, 
1900. His father's name was Josiah 
Hall, born in Greene County, Penn- 
sylvania, where he died, in 1825; the 
mother, born in the same county and 
same State, died in 1828. William 
Hall was a Republican in politics. 
He served as a member of the In- 
diana State Legislature in 1861-62. 
For fifty years he was a minister of 
the United Brethren Church, and had 
much to do with the organization of 
this church at various points in this 
section of Indiana. He was known 
widely as a circuit rider, doing a 
vast amount of missionary work 
among the pioneers. His wife was 
Hannah Jones Stanfield, born in 
Tennessee, December 28, 1821. She 
died August 3, 1873. Her parents 
were David and Elizabeth Stanfield. 
William and Hannah Hall were the parents of seven children, namely, 
George \\'., Malissa. Mary, Jane, Levi, Sarah Ann and David. Mary Hall 
Hollingsworth lives in Fairmount; Levi is a well known business man of 
Marion, and David resides in Wichita, Kansas. The others are deceased. 
William Hall was a man of considerably more than ordinary ability. He 
lived a long and useful life, and as minister and legislator earned by good 
works and disinterested service the respect and gratitude of his neighbors. 
William Hall was a potential factor in many of the most important move- 
ments which resulted in the moral, educational and business welfare of the 

The W'eslcyan Alethodist Church was orq^anized about 1848 at the 
lioine of Harvev l^avis. wlu) at that time lived about two miles and a 
lialf southwest of i'airnujunt. The charter members were Lindsay 
Buller and wife, Elijali Harrold and wife, and Henry Wilson and wife. 
The class was oro'anized by Rev. Alfred Tharp. Meetino;-s were con- 
tinued at the liome of Harvey Davis mitil 1850, when \\'illiam Cox. 
David Smithson, James I''arrin<;ton and Harvey Davis built a school 
house on the Davis farm, where services were held for ten \cars or 

Temperance — Organiaatioji of Churches. 167 

more. Robert W. Trader* and wife and Bernard McDonald and wife 
became members soon after the services were started at the school 

The first Baptist Church was organized at the home of William 
Leach, which was a commodious two-story log structure, lo- 
cated about five miles southeast of Fairmount. This was the 
beginning- of the church that is now known as Harmony Church, which 
holds services in a brick building standing on the pike northwest of 
Matthews. The first members, when the church was originally formed 
at the Leach home, were William Leach and wife, Benjamin Furnish and 
wife, William McCormick and wife and James Gillespie and wife. Ben- 
jamin Furnish was an associate judge of the circuit court, 1845 to 1852. 

Fairmount Friends meeting for worship was set up in 1851. Pre- 
parative meeting was established in 1852. and a monthly meeting in 
1869, with a membership of 547. The first brick church was built in 
i860. It had a seating capacity of 8(DO. Fairmount Monthly Meeting 
was composed of Little Ridge, Fast Branch, Upland and Fairmount 
Preparative meetings. 

The little frame church that the Friends first put up in Fairmount, 
where they held their first school, stood, according to Dr. A. Henlev, 
about where the late Henry Davis lived, now the home of Mr. and Mrs. 
Lewis Mittank, on the south side of First Street. 

(Editor's Note. — Dr. Henley's recollection of Fairmount Township 

'""Robert W. Trader, prominent in the early days in the Wesleyan Back 
Creek neighborhood, was born in Clinton County, Ohio, June 30, 1828. His 
grandfather was Arthur Trader, of Virginia. His father was William 
Trader, born in Virginia in 1801, and died in October, 1867. Robert Trader 
was the son of William and Elender (Wiley) Trader, the father born in 
Virginia in 1801 and died in October, 1867, and the mother born in Clinton 
County, Ohio, in 1801 and died in 1855. Robert Trader came to Grant 
County in 1842, and with the exception of sixteen years spent in Alexandria, 
Indiana, he has lived in Fairmount Township all his adult life, engaging 
continuously in farming with the exception of one year he sold merchandise 
in Fairmount. He cast his first vote for the Free Soil candidates, and when 
the Republican party was organized in 1856 he supported Gen. John C. 
Fremont, remaining loyal to this organization until 1884, when he affiliated 
with the Prohibition party. He was converted in 1848 and became one of 
the organizers of the Wesleyan Methodist Church in Fairmount Township, 
being a charter member. The denomination held its first meeting, led by 
Rev. Tharp, in Harvey Davis's home, southwest of Fairmount. The or- 
ganizers were Harvey Davis and wife, James Lytle and wife, Lindsay Duller 
and wife, John Duller and wife and Robert Trader and wife. Jane (Davis) 
Trader, the wife, was born in Madison County, Indiana, in 1829, and died 
May 9, 1862. They were married in February, 1849. Four children were 
born of this marriage, namely: Harvey, Mariah, Mary and Eunice. The 
second wife was Phebe Ann Wright, daughter of Jesse Wright, and of this 
union three children were born, namely, Etta, Oscar and Luther. There 
were no children by the third marriage to Nettie Sater. of Alexandria. 

1 68 

The Makijii:; of a Towiisliip. 








Temperance — Organwation of Churches. 169 

This picture of the Berean Class of the Friends Church, Fairmount, was 
taken in October, 1913. One hundred and thirty-two members and one 
visitor were present on that day, and all filed out in front of the church at 
the close of the lesson and were back in their places at the close of the 
school, after the picture had been taken. Followmg are the names of those 

^'^^sTck row. left to right— John W. Smith, Edgar M. Baldwin, Caleb A 
Starr, Hude Dyson, John W. Naylor (deceased), William Bell Albert W. 
Kelsay, Roland Mahoney, John Kelsay, James Bell, Charles E Carey, Hor- 
ace Reeve Alvin J. Wilson, O. R. Scott, John Hasty, Rev. Wilson Bond, 
Levi Winslow, Prof. William M. Coahran, David G. Lewis, Alonzo Thomas, 

Rev. Elwood Davis. ^ ^ , ,n hi ■^,■^ 

Second row from back, left to right— Riley Jay (deceased), Mrs. Kiley 
Jay, Mrs. John W. Naylor, Mrs. J. E. Duncan, Mrs. C. E Carey, Mrs W. M 
Coahran, Mrs. W. B. Pickard, Mrs. Will Taylor. Simon Barber, M. A Hiatt, 
G. E. Mabbitt, Fred Macy, Joseph A. Roberts. William R Lewis, Oliver F. 
Buller, William H. Lindsay, Arthur Throckmorton, Mrs A. Throckniorton, 
Mrs Thomas Winslow, Thomas Winslow, Thomas Butler, Charles Kelsay, 
Samuel Fritch, John E. Duncan, Charles D. Adams. ,. t. t q.oI. 

Third row from back, left to right-Mrs. A. W.. Kelsay Mrs. E. J. Seale, 
Mrs H F Presnall, Mrs. Lydia Washburn, Mrs. Lizzie Woollen Mrs. Isaac 
Moon, James Lynch, Joseph Holloway, Ralph Little J. C. Long, Jabez 
Winslow Webster J. Winslow, Edwin Harvey, James Clark, William Hick- 
man, E. J. Seale, Alvin B. Scott, Dr. N F. Davis. 

Fourth row from back, left to right-Mrs. Alice Thomas, Mrs. J A. 
Roberts, Mrs. Luther Davis, Luther Davis Mrs. Marcus Ga^dis, Mrs Ralph 
Little, Mrs. N. A. Armfield, Mrs. Elizabeth Hane, Adam Hane, Joshua Hol- 
lin-sworth, O. J. Stevick, Rev. Eli J. Scott (deceased), Mrs J. R. Little, 
JohnT Little, Addison Scott (deceased), C. D. Overman, Walter Luse (de- 
ceased), Henry Barber, Joseph Ratliff (deceased). 

Fifth row from back, left to right— Mrs. O. P. Buller, Mrs G. E. Mab- 
bitt Mrs. Wilson Bond, Mrs. Louisa Haisley, Mrs. James Clark M,ss Rena 
Fritch Mrs. A. B. Scott, Mrs. Fred Macy (deceased), Mrs. William Lew s, 
Mrs W. L Henley, William L. Henley, Aaron Newby Harvey F. Presnall, 
Paxton Wilson. W. B. Pickard, Lsaac Lemon, Jr Isaac Lemon Sr^Seth Cox. 

Sixth row from back, left to right— Mrs. Nimrod Brooks Mrs M. A. 
Hiatt Mr' May Carter, Mrs. Jennie Jones, Mrs. Jabez Winslow^, Mrs^ Le- 
roy Mcmtton^'^Mrs. Joseph RatHff Mrs. A. J Wilson Mrs. ^ J. Scott 
(-deceased) Mrs James Bell. Mrs. John Foster (deceased), Mrs. lorn Miller, 
Mrs Witli'am Lam; Mrs. Paxton Wilson, Mrs. C. D. Overman, Mrs. Gas 

^^"S^venth row from back, left to right-Mrs^ Addison Scott Mrs. Martha 
Gossett, Mrs. O. J. Stevick, Mrs. N. F. Davis Mrs. Charles Atice Mr . C^D. 
Adams, Mrs. Roland Mahoney, Mrs. John Kelsay Mrs. Susie Cassell, Mrs 
Ethel Shuey, Mrs. Joshua Hollingsworth, Mrs. J. W. Smith, Mrs. D. G. 
Lewis, Mrs. Isaac Lemon. 

Sitting in front— Barnaba P. Bogue, Ellwood O. Ellis. 

runs back seventy years or more. This fact makes his contributions of 
more than average importance. The writer may add, at this point, in 
connection with the location of the frame meeting house, there is excel- 
lent authority for the statement that this structure stood close to the 
spot where the late Henry Davis had his office, on the lot now owned 
by his daughter. Mrs. Lewis Mittank.) 
■ Following is a paper read at the Friends Church, Fairmount, m the 
autumn, 1916, by Elizabeth Peacock: 

I have been asked to give a little history of the local Friends Meet- 

170 V V't' .U(iA'/»<^ of a Township. 

ing- at I'airniount, but as it will have to be oiyen almost entirely from 
memory I fear that it will fail to be of much interest. 

Whenever my thoughts turn back to the early days of Friends in 
Grant County, and especially in and near Fairmount. and remember 
how earnestly they toiled to clear the forests, ditch the swampy ground, 
build school houses and churches, and improve the almost impassable 
roads, I am always reminded of one text in the Bible, which is this : 
"Other men labored and ye are entered into their labors.'' John iv:28. 

I often wonder if the young people, and even the middle-aged, ever 
stop to consider what it really meant to do so very much under such 
trying circumstances. 

And then I think, well, is it possible for them to realize what the 
early Friends and citizens endured to make the pleasant surroundings 
that we are enjoying today? 

Let us all, young and'older. try to be thankful for these things. 

Fairmount local meeting' of the Friends church was established in 
the year 1851. and was composed of a few families, about fifty persons, 
adults and children, who were members of the Back Creek Monthly 
Meeting of Friends and had been attenders of the Back Creek local 

The first church was a small frame building, and to my recollection, 
nearly square. It stood a little east of where Lewis Mittank's residence 
now stands. It was used for a place of worship and also for a school 
house. On meeting days school kept on until near 1 1 o'clock, the hour 
of meeting, when books and slates were put away until after the ser- 
vice was over, the scholars remaining for the service. 

Isaac Cook and Peninah Hill Binford. I remember, were among the 
early teachers. 

After some few years, a larger house, of brick, was built, a? the 
frame house was found to be entirely too small to comfortably accommo- 
«1ate the growing congregation and Sabbath school. It was quite an 
undertaking, as there was but very little money to be found among the 
members. But Friends helped willingly with their teams and in every 
way they could. 

The brick and lime were hauled from Jonesboro, and that was quitq 
a task, as there were no gravel, tarvia or crushed-stone roads at that 

My father, Samuel Radley, and Phinoas Henley laid nearly all,, if 
not all, the brick, and my father did the plastering. The house was 
torn down to make room for the house occupied today. We did not 

Temperance — Organization of Cliiirehcs. lyi 

have electric lights, hut these first two churches were lighted with can- 
dles and lamps. 

We did not often have night meetings in the first church, only when 
ministers came from a distance. But some wonderfully good sermons 
were preached in the dimly lighted church, for the ministers who came 
were filled with the Spirit and preached with power. 

David Stanfield, to my recollection, was the only minister of the 
Gospel who became a member of this meeting when it was first set up, 
and I think the first person I ever heard preach a sermon. He lived 
on a large farm where the south part of Fairmount now stands. 

David Stanfield's land reached to Washington Street on the north, 
and west to the William A. Beasley land, east to Main Street. His 
house stood not far from where Dr. Glenn Henley's residence now 

The meeting grew in numbers and interest. So much so that a 
monthly meeting for the transacting of the business of the church, com- 
posed of Fairmount, East Branch and Little Ridge local meetings, was 
established, in the Eleventh month, 1869. Nathan D. Wilson and my- 
self were the first clerks. 

No doubt, through the faithful efforts and preaching of some of 
the ministers and workers who went there nearly every Sabbath, there 
is now a monthly meeting at Upland. Its members were for some time 
members of Fairmount Monthly Meeting, and are still members of 
Fairmount Quarterly Meeting. 

Later, largely through the influence and faithful labors of Nixon 
and Louisa Rush, ministers of the Gospel, a meeting was begun, and is 
still kept up, at Vermillion, in Madison County. Indiana. The members 
of that local meeting now belong to Fairmount Monthly Meeting. 

In the early days of Fairmount meeting, ministers and Christian 
workers used to go on Sabbath afternoons and hold Gospel meetings 
in the school houses in the country, where much good was done. 

You ask me if those early Friends made a mistake in asking for a 
meeting for worship at Fairmount? I answer, "No, indeed, they did 
not, but did just right." 

No doubt a great deal of good has been done, and many souls 
saved. But perhaps much more might have been done if every one of 
the members had done their duty faithfully. 

A Sabbath school was started some time after. It was established 
largely through the earnest efforts of Milton Winslow. To my recol- 
lection, he was the first superintendent. 

172 The Making of a Township. 

Jesse Reece, also a minister, as I remember, was the first superin- 
tendent to begin the practice of keeping up the school all the year. The 
bad roads and the distance some lived from church made it impossible, 
as some thought, for it to be done. But he succeeded, and it is still 
being done. 

For several years the Friends Church was the only church in Fair- 

I remember well when Isaac Meek, a minister of the Wesleyan 
Church, and a very good man, held a revival meeting in the brick church, 
and in the winter of 1864 a woman belonging to the United Brethren 
Church held another meeting. She went from here to Jonesboro, and 
died there. John Lewellen, a Methodist minister from Jonesboro, also 
held a meeting in the brick church. 

The following named persons were married by Friends ceremony in 
the first two Friends meeting houses in Fairmount, as I recall them : 

Isaac Cook and Susannah Moorman. 
Calvin Rush and Elizabeth Winslow. 
Amos Thomas and Nancy Newby. 
Thomas Bogue and Emily Wilson. 
(The last tw^o was a double wedding.) 
John Seale and Amy Davidson. 
Jesse Rich and Mary Ann Radley. 
Elwood Haisley and Milicent Rush. 
Samuel Dillon and Elizabeth Powell. 
James Foust and Rachel Little. 
Jonathan Binford and Anna Wilson. 
Thomas Jay and Elizabeth Rush. 
Ephraim O. Harvey and Eliza Jane Dillon. 
George Shugart and Harriet Hollingsworth. 
William P. Seale and Elizabeth W. Henley. 
Charles V. Moore and Mary Baldwin. 
Elijah Elliott and Deborah Wilson. 
William S. Elliott and Alice C. Radley. 
Joseph H. Peacock and Elizabeth Radley. 

The following persons have been recorded ministers of the Gospel 
by Fairmount Monthly Meeting : Milicent R. Haisley, Susannah Cook, 
William H. Charles, Enos Harvey, John W. Harvey, Thomas Elsa 
Jones, Perry B. Leach, Eli J. Scott, Oscar H. Trader, Hiram Harvey, 
Charles Everett Davis, Bernice Oakley Riddle, Ola Smithson Oatley, 
Evelyn Overman, Grace B. Hobbs and Garfield Cox. 

Temperance — Organisation of Churches. 173 

(Editor's Note. — Mrs. Peacock was for many years clerk of the 
Northern Quarterly Meeting-, afterwards known as Fairmount Quar- 
terly Meeting of Friends, and until about 191 3 was officially connected 
with the Friends church practically all her adult life.) 

East Branch Preparative iMeeting of Friends was established in 
1869, and was held in a school house until 1871. 

The ministers accredited to the Friends in Fairmount Township in 
1877 were John Carey, Ruth T. Carey, Back Creek; William H. 
Charles, Thomas Jay and Nixon Rush, Jr., Fairmount ; and Milton 
Winslow, East Branch. 

The Alethodist Episcopal Church, of Fairmount, was originally or- 
ganized in 1 86 1. The first services were held in the old frame school 
house,* which, at that time, stood on the east side of Walnut Street, 
between First and Second. 

The charter members were William H. Broderick, class leader ; 
Agnes Broderick, Joseph Broderick, Martha Broderick, David Baldwin, 
Elizabeth Baldwin, Martha A. Wilcuts, Hannah Wilcuts, M. M. Mason 
and Anna Mason. 

In 1864 the membership had increased by the addition of the fol- 
lowing names : John R. Kirkwood, Phebe Kirkwood, George N. Eck- 
feld, Sarah M. Eckfeld, (Mary H. Moreland, Mahala Ward, Martha A. 
Smith, Thomas J. Parker, Rebecca Parker, John Shields, Martha 
Shields, John S. Bradford, Louisia Williams, Rachel Fankboner, Sarah 
Moreland, Jane Knight, Delilah Hollingsworth, Wesley B. Hollings- 
worth and Isabel Hollingsworth. 

A frame building was constructed for worship at the southeast cor- 
ner of Second and Main Streets, in 1871, and used for services several 

In 1886, a one-story brick church was built at the southeast corner 
of Madison and Walnut. In this church services were held until 1910, 
when the present magnificent structure was dedicated. The building 
committee having charge of its erection consisted of James F. Life, 
Charles T. Parker, J. W. Dale, Dr. J. W. Patterson, Palmer Winslow, 
Curtis W. Smith, J. W. Parrill, Dr. W. N. Warner, Asa Driggs, O. M. 
Bevington, Capt. Hugh Weston, with Rev. Benjamin Kendall, then 
pastor. This building cost ten thousand dollars and is modern in design 
and construction. 

"This structure was later bought by William Hollingsworth and moved 
to the south side of East Washington Street, between Main and Walnut, and 
occupied by him for many years as a cabinet shop. The building was later 
purchased by N. W. Edwards and in July, 1908, was torn down. 

174 j^ /'t' Makijii:; of a To7cnsJiip. 

In 1865. the Fairmoiint Wesleyaii Methodist Church was organized 
by Isaac Meek, who continued as pastor for eleven years. Among the 
first members were Jonathan Baldwin and wife, Nathan Vinson and 
wife, Joseph Rush and wife, Mrs. Margaret Henley and Joseph Bennett 
and wife. Jonathan Baldwin donated the ground on which the church 
was built. 

The Baptist Church was organized A]5ril 25, 1888. The charter 
members were Cornelius Price, Hannah Price, William Price, F. C. 
Creek, Catherine Creek, William Mulford, Joseph Leach, Louisa Leach, 
James M. Fowler, Lucretia Fowler, Ida Fowler and Albert Fowler and 
^wife. James E. Price was selected clerk and R. J. Gorbit, moderator. 
The present brick church, on the corner of First and Sycamore streets, 
was built in 1891. Emory Swindell, Joseph Leach and James M. Fow- 
ler comprised the building committee. The church was dedicated in 
November, 1891, by Rev. A. J. Hill. 

St. Cecilia's Catholic Church was organized in 1878. The services 
were held at, private homes for several years. Father Kelley, Father 
Struder, Father Grogan and others being in charge at different times. 
In 1900, the present buildingon North Vine Street was dedicated, and 
Father Joachim Baker became the first priest. The prime movers in 
the erection of the new church were John Shaughnessy, L. L. Coyle and 
Jerome Coyle. The charter members were J. P. Shaughnessy and fam- 
ily, Patrick McCone and family, Martin Flanagan and family, William 
Monahan and family, James Monahan and family, L. L. Coyle and fam- 
ily, Jerome Coyle and family, Mrs. Isaac Delph and children, Andrew 
Ulrich and family. Mrs. James Fenton. John Pfarr and family, Joseph 
Kearns and family, J. H. Flanagan and family. 

The Congregational Church was organized in 1888 by Rev. William 
Wiedenhoeft, who was the first pastor. The charter members were 
H. H. Wiley and wife, Wesley B. Hollingsworth and wnfe, Mrs. Phoebe 
LaRue, Mrs. S. l"". Ink and Mrs. Elizabeth Nelson. The church which 
now stands on the east side of Walnut Street, between Washington and 
First, was dedicated December 15, 1889. Levi Scott, Dr. A. Henley 
and William Lindsay were members of the building committee. Mem- 
bers of all denominations contributed liberally of their means to the 
fund for the building. 

The Christian Church was organized in i()07. The members were 
Noah Henigar and wife, A. R. Long and wife, .Mrs. C. X. I'rown, 
Ab Jones and wife, John Strnbel and wife, Mrs. J. C. Albertson, \\'\\- 
liam Cox and wife. Rockafeller LaRue and wife. Rev. W. A. McKown 
was the first pastor. The church building at the corner of Second and 

Temperance — Organization of Churches. 


Walnut Streets was erected in 19 12. The building committee consisted 
of the pastop, Rev. J. Ra}- Fife, A. R. Long, Ab Jones, Jason B. Smith, 
N. C. Henigar, Ed Stout and John Strubel. The church was erected 
at a cost of five thousand, five hundred dollars. 

The African Methodist Episcopal Church was organized in 1901 by 
Rev. Chambers. The charter members were Reuben Jones and wife, 
Mrs. Luzena Frazier, Minnie Wallace, Rosa Wallace, Lucien McMil- 
lan and Lydia E. McMillan, Homer Dicken, Willis Dicken and Virte 
Lee Jones. Bishop Grant dedicated the church on East Seventh Street 
in 1903. Rev. Jerry Nickels was the first pastor. 



SUSANNAH BALDWIN, daughter of Charles Baldwin, who set- 
led in the Township in 1830, taught school at the Back Creek 
Friends meeting" house in 1831. Others who taught here were Mahlon 
Neal, Thomas Winslow, Henry Harvey, Jesse Harvey and John Har- 

The first school house was huilt on the Benjamin Benhow farm, 
later known as the Daniel Thomas farm, now owned by William A. 
Beaslcy. It was a log structure, erected in 1836. The next school 
building was erected on the Jacob McCoy farm in 1839. 

In 1844 ^ frame school house was built on the Edmund Leach farm 
by popular donation. A store and a saw-mill were also started at about 
the same time, and the community took the name of Leachburg. Joe 
Broyles taught here. Among the scholars at different times were 
Elizabeth and Louisa Reeder, William M. Duling, John Duling, George 
W. Reeder, Henry Carpenter, Charles M. Leach, Clark Leach, Frank 
Brewer, James Terrell, John W. Furnish, Milt Brewer, Mary Brewer, 
William, John H. and Adrial Simons and Morton and Oliver McCor- 
niick, the two last named being grandsons of Robert McCormick. 

The earliest teachers in the Township upcMi the building of log 
school houses were David Stanfield, Thomas Baldwin, Jose])h W. Bald- 
win, Solomon Thomas, Thomas Gordon, Rachel Lee and jolm T. 

In his young manhood Thomas D. Duling, .Sr.. was Township 
Trustee. He was broad in his views and tolerant of the religious and 
political opinions of others. When he leased land for the erection of a 
school house, it was definitely stipulated in the agreement that the 
building should be open free to all denominations for service when not 
in use for school purposes. This school house stood three-quarters of 
a mile due north of Fowlerton. 

Edmund and Eliza (Hubert) Duling came to the Township in the 
same year, 1845. '^^'^^^ ^^^*^' former's brother, Thomas D., Sr. Edmund 
Duling's family consisted of five children, namely : Maria, Asa. IVIary 
Jane, Solomon and Emily. IMary Jane died at an early age. Ednuuid 
Duling bought eighty acres of land of Nathan Dicks, who in the early 


Early Schools ami Teachers. 177 

day owned a lialf-section. this tract lying about one mile northwest of 
Fowlerton. Edmund Duling was a successful farmer and a minister 
in the j\Iethodist Protestant denomination. In his younger days he, like 
his brother Thomas, was a teacher. One of his schools was taught 
at the old Myers school house, then situated at a point about one-half 
mile northwest of Fowlerton. The old Duling school house, frequently 
called Liberty, a frame building twenty-four feet square, erected in 
1856, was located on the farm now owned by J. O. Duling, three-quar- 
ters of a mile northwest of Fowlerton. The first teacher at this 
school was William H. H. Reeder, followed in consecutive order by 
George Bowers, Milt McHatton, Columbus F. Lay, John Heal, David 
H. Bowers, Mary Taylor, Lydia E. Brelsford, John M. Littler and 
John Daily. There was an enrollment of sixty at the first school 
taught there in 1856. Among the scholars were Thomas, Ellis, Lemon, 
Mary. Jane and William Jones, children of Jacob Jones ; Mary Ann and 
Simon Small, children of Josiah and Sarah Small ; Laura, Hiram and 
Elijah Simons, children of George W. and Mary Simons ; Wesley, 
Henry and George Roberts, children of Matilda Roberts ; Newton and 
Stephen Brewer, children of Stephen and Jane Brewer ; Sarah and 
William Searl, children of Elijah and Rachel Searl ; Nancy, Charles, 
John and Robert Nose, children of George Nose ; Washington and Mi- 
nerva Reynolds, children of Thomas and Rebecca Reynolds ; Charles 
Wright, son of Charles and Nancy Wright; George W\, Hiram A., 
Burtney R. and Robert L., sons of Joseph and Catherine Jones ; John 
C, Thomas, Minerva, John M., Lewis and James Littler, children and 
step-children of James and Sarah Nottingham ; Joshua. Andrew and 
Deborah Bishop ; Eliza and Cenia Reeder, daughters of Franklin and 
Fannie Reeder; William and Adrial Simons, sons of Henry and Eliza- 
beth Simons ; Joseph W. Parrill, step-son of Henry Simons ; Jasper, 
Charles M. and George Leach, sons of Edmund and Emily Leach ; 
Jane, Joseph and Eunice Barclay, children of Henry Barclay ; Maria, 
Asa and Solomon Duling, children of Edmund and Eliza Duling; 
William M., Mary, John V/., Barbara Ann, Elizabeth, Thomas D., Jr., 
and Joel O. Duling, children of Thomas D., Sr., and Nancy Duling. 
The winter term of school continued for sixty days, from December to 
February. W. H. H. Reeder, the teacher, walked two miles through 
woods and swamps, built his own fires, boarded himself, received one 
•dollar a day for his services, and on the last day of school gave each 
boy and girl a present. William H. H. Reeder was one of the strong, 
efficient teachers of the early day. He was a foremost man in pro- 
moting the best interests of the Township. He took great pride in his 

1^8 I he Making of a To7vnsliip. 

work when he set out to do a thing-, lie alwa^'s contended that it was 
his (lut\- to perfcn-ni any task set before him with all the care and intelli- 
gence of which he was capable. Several of the boys whose names are 
mentioned served in the Union Army during the Civil \\'ar. and some 
of them never returned from the front. 

In 1865 there were 495 children in Fairmount Township of school 
age. The amount of tuition fund drawn during the year was $908.98. 

In 1875 the number of children of school age was 445. Amount 
of tuition fund drawn during this year was $1,353.68. The tuition 
fund increased in ten years $444.70. 

In 1876 there were 447 children enrolled in the Fairmount Town- 
ship schools, 264 male and 183 female. The average daily attendance 
was 283. In this year there were eight school districts and nine teachers, 
six male and three female. The salary of the teachers was $2.18 per 
day for male teachers, and $2.02 for female teachers. The iiumber of 
days taught during the year was seventy-five. There were two brick 
and six frame school houses, having an estimated value of $5,000, and 
$100 worth of apparatus. 

In 1866 Jonathan P. Winslow, who was at that time Township Trus- 
tee, built the two-story frame school building* which stood on the 
square, donated by Jonathan Baldwin for the purpose, on East Wash- 
ington Street previous to the time that the present brick structure was 
erected to replace it. 

Winslow met with considerable opposition. Citizens at that time 
thought the Trustee was too ambitious, that his plans were too elabor- 
ate, and that the building he planned was too big and entirely too expen- 
sive. But with characteristic energy and persistence Winslow went 
forward with the work. He lived to see his judgment vindicated by 
later develojjments. as it was not many years before his critics discov- 
ered that he rightl\' interpreted and foresaw the needs of the time. 
His neighbors in later years gave him full and proper credit for his 
foresight. William Pusey and Mary Winslow Bogue were engaged as 
the first, teachers in the frame building. In 1891 the present com- 
modious brick building was constructed. 


Some incidents arc here related in the life oi Mary Ann Taylor, 
who was one of the teachers of Fairmount Township in the years of 

"^Squire Caleb Moon afterwards houirht the old frame Iniildiiig. wliich 
had been turned into a dorniitorj', and moved it to his farm, west of Fair- 
mount, in November, 1898, where it was worked over inti) a barn. 

Early Schools and Teachers. 



the past. She was of Eiighsh 
birth, born in Stebbing, England, 
in August, in 1843, coming to the 
United States when a httle child, 
being the youngest of a family of 
five children, who with their 
father, William Taylor, set sail 
for the new world some time in 
the spring of 1849. The mother, 
for whom Mary Ann was named, 
had been laid away three years 
previous, in one of the beautiful 
cemeteries of England. William 
Taylor chose a sail boat for this 
journey of almost three months, 
as much safer, as he believed, than 
a steamboat, of which there were 
few at this time. The little Mary 
Ann, then five years old, remem- 
bers her disappointment at leav- 
ing on shore her small dog, named 

Keeper, whom she had hoped to take with her. She remembers during 
a funeral on shipboard her father holding her uj) to see the shrouded 
figure lowered into the water, and of her fright at a great storm at 
night. There was great distress during the voyage from sea sickness, 
and her elder sister said to her when she refused to eat : 

"Oh ! but you must or you may die, and we might have to bury you 
at sea." 

The child remembered the family coming to Lagro, Indiana, by 
canal, although the connecting link between the Atlantic and the canal 
is lost ; and also that Aaron, who was next to her in age, after crossing 
the ocean without serious mishap, fell overboard into the canal and was 
rescued with more or less difficulty. At Lagro friends met them with 
a wagon and brought them to Grant County. This was some time in 
June. William Taylor, with his motherless children, settled in Fair- 
mount Township and lived on the little farm that he purchased until 
his death, in 1854. It was in these years that the people of Fairmount 
Township endeared themselves by many acts of kindness to this lonely 
family. The children left were never without home and friends. 

The first school attended was a subscription school at Back Creek, 
which was taught by William Neal. The school advantages being bet- 


The Mak'iiii^ of a Towxsliip. 

tor in fonesboro. after a time Man- 
Ann found her way into the Jones- 
horo schools and took advantage 
of ever\- thing offered at that time 
in the way of eckication. Such 
teachers as Sarah Jay, Terah and 
Asa I'aldwin, Cornehus RatHff, 
wiili his wife. Susan Jay RatHff. 
and Cornehus Shugart. have left 
a pleasant memory. Just before 
the Civil W ar she attended the In- 
diana College, at Marion, for a 
time. After leaving college Miss 
ra\lor, who had intended to be- 
et >nK' a teacher, went hack to Fair- 
mount d'tnvnshi]) to begin her 
work. Her favorite pastime as a 
child had been make-believe school 
teaching, when she wtnild gather 
the children of the neighborhood 
around her during vacation time, 
keeping them hap])\- and out of 
mischief for hours. .*~^he speaks 
JOHN R. LITTLE of her first school in the summer 

Taught thirteen term,^ of school in of 18.59. at Wesleyan l>ack Creek. 
Fairmount Township. In IQ05. when " , , , .' , ^ ■, ,•,,, 

Mr. Little wrote for teacher's license, ^^ '^ ^'e-^l school, taught by a little 

his examination papers showed an girl, as she was not nuich more 

avera!?e orade of 100 per cent He ', ^^t *. ci 1 ■ 1 

served oife term of six years as Trus- than that. She may have niher- 

tee of Fairmount Township. John R. ited somewhat the teaching in- 
Little is a son of Thomas and Susan- ... , , , - , , 

nah (Foust) Little. Thomas Little stmct, as two of her maiden aunts 

served during the Civil War, first in were life-long teachers in Eug- 

the Eighty-fourth Indiana Infantry, , , , . ^ , , , ,•, ^ , 

and hiter in the Seventh Indiana Cav- 1;"1<1- l^'iVUlg taught Until past 

airy. John R. Little's people were four-SCOre years. 

Quakers for many generations back. •. r. , , • , -i-v 1 

^ -^ After teaching at \\ esleyan 

Back Creek she taught in Fairmount a summer and fall school. These 
were subscription schools. In the winter of 1863-1864 she taught the 
Duling district school, east of Fairmount. In IMarch, 1864, she was 
married to Joseph A. Morrow, of Jonesboro. In 1866 they moved to 
IMarion, ]\Ir. Morrow having been elected Clerk of the Circuit Court 
of Grant County. They identified themselves with the IMethodist Epis- 
copal Church, of Marion, having been members of that church in Jones- 

Early Schools and Teachers. 


boro since early in life. Here Mrs. Morrow took up active church 
work, in the Sunday school as teacher and assisant superintendent in the 
Woman's Foreign Missionary work and wherever duty called her. At 
the present time she lives in Marion and is still interested in all work 
for the benefit of humanity, although of necessity not so active as in 
former years. 


Tacie Pemberton Adell 
Charles Atkinson 
Ann Austin 
Lydia Morris Arnold 
Joy Anderson 
Agnes Anderson 
Mary Winslow Bogue 
Alonzo A. Burrier 
Narcissa Luther Bundy 
Elias Bundy 
Andrew Buller 
David Baldwin 
Mattie Carter Bogue 
Burton Bradfield 
Joseph Broyles 

Frank C. Brown 

Millie Bogue 

William Bowers 

Frank Bundy 

Lancaster D. Baldwin 

William Baldwin 

Robert Beauchamp 

Stella Buller 

Zola Neal Brunt 

Asa T. Baldwin 

Charles Baldwin 

Susannah Baldwin 

Mary Baldwin 

Quincy Baldwin 

John H. Baldwin 

Arcadia Baldwin 

Huldah Baldwin Bradford 

Peninah Hill Bin ford 

Terah Baldwin 
Thomas D. Barr 
Thomas Baldwin 
Joseph W. Baldwin 
George W. Bowers 
David H. Bowers 
Lydia E. Brelsford 
Ella Brightenfelt 
Anna Bogue 
Zola Beasley 
Dora Bogue 
Emma C. Beals 
\'ashti Binford 
Aaron Cosand 
Milicent Cosand 
Sarah Cammack 
Cassie Lamm Carter 

Will Calhoun 

Pearlie Champ 

Mrs. Amy Carroll 

Hugh Clark 

John Carter 

Keturah Baldwin Crawford 

Eli J. Cox 

William J. Caskey 

John H. Caskey 

James E. Caskey 

Sallie Clark 

William Cammack 

Mosilean McFarland Crilley 

John W. Cox 

Eliza Coffin 

Mahlon Cook 

1 8-' 

The .l/(i/v'//;_c ()/ a To:i'nsIii[^. 

Truxton Coggeshall 

Clark Calderwood 

Charles H. Copeland 

Will Coahran 

Lelia Davis Coahran 

Charles L. Coffin 

Professor Carr 

Gertrude Coyle 

Elmira Dillon Charles 

Mattie Carter 

Edna Calvert 

H. L. Carter 

Mrs. Mattie Charles 

Ava Cope 

S. C. Cowgill 

Bernice Conner 

Katie Coahran Dillon 

Alice Coahran Dillon 

Georgia Dickens 

Hazel Dulino- 

Estella Davis 

Millie Cosand 

Ellwood O. Ellis 

Dora Ellis 

Xen H. Edwards 

Ora E. Eiler 

\'ina French 

John Furnish 

Joseph I'urnish 

Ada Hill Felton 

James Flanagan 

Forrest Foraker 

Prof. Daniel Freeman 

Evan H. Ferree 

Rachel Moreland l-ankbonor 

John Flanagan 

John D. Ferree 

Hortense Glass 

Murton Glass 

Treva Scale Gaddis 

1 laniilton Dean 

Joel Davis 

Thomas Duling. Sr. 

Edmund Duling 

Alex Deeren 

Nathan Davis 

Foster Davis 

J. ^1. Dickey 

Dorinda Rush Davis 

Lucy Davis 

W'yllis Davis 

R. B. Duff 

Everett Davis 

John Dailey 

Homer L. Dickey 

Nelle Denney 

Professor Dean 

Mr. Douglass 

Hannah Becson Davis 

John Evans 

Martin Evans 

Elwood Garner 

Flora Reeder Glass 

Addie Dare Goodall 

Mahala Gordon 

Edward Gardner 

Thomas Gordon 

W. C. Goble 

Eugene Goble 

Neil Good 

Grace Bevington Guinnup 

Rebecca Garrison Hayden 

Elizabeth Hollis 

Clinton Hockett 

Jarett Horine 

Joseph A. Holloway 

Thomas Harris 

Eliza Jane Dillon Harvey 

Charles M. Hobbs 

Albert Haislcv 

Early Schools and Teachers. 


Robert W. Himelick* 

Louisa Baldwin Henley 

W. J. Houck 

Icy Horton 

Rose Horton 

Oliver Hockett 

John Harley 

Sallie Price Harvey 

H. A. Hutchins 

Benajah Harris 

Elwood Harvey 

John W. Himelick 

Cyrus W. Harvey 

Jesse Harvey 

Henry Harvey 

Thomas Harvey 

Miriam Henley 

Mamie Ellis 

Lydia Hussey 

Ephraim O. Harvey 

Avis Harvey 

John W. Harvey 

Susannah Harvey 

Gertrude Hinshaw^ 

Thomas Hutchins 

John Heal 

Richard Haworth 

Nettie Baldwin Hollingsworth 

Tillman Hutchins 

Anna Harvey 

Lida Millikan Haisley 

Oscar Hockett 

Grace Hobbs 

Waldo E. Haisley 

Mr. Hadley 

Kate HoUiday 

Gusta Whitney Johnson 

Cerena Wright Jay 

Berry Johnson 

Cassie Jennings 

Henry Jeffrey 

Ben Jones 

Thomas Elsa Jones 

Orpha Jones 

Ora Jones 

David Jay 

Elizabeth Johnson Rush 

John Jones 

Walter L. Jay 

Edith Johnson 

Beulah Knight Kaufman 

Samuel Knight, Sr. 

Thomas Knight (Long Tom) 

Estella Davis Kirk 

Robert Kearns 

Louvenia Winslow Kelsay 

Sallie Hollingsworth Kelsay 

Mrs. Thomas Knight 

"Robert W. Himelick is a native of Madison County, Indiana, where he 
was born December 16, 1869. He was educated in the common schools, at 
Fairmount Academy, State Normal School, Indiana University, DePauw 
University and New York University. He received the degree of Master 
of Arts at Indiana University. He is a member of the Congregational 
Church. Mr. Himelick is principal of the Cleveland (Ohio) Normal School. 
He graduated from the State Normal School in 1898; Bachelor Arts, Indi- 
ana University, 1909; Master of Arts, Indiana University, 1910; superin- 
tendent of Fairmount schools; Jonesboro, Indiana; Monessen, Pennsyl- 
vania; supervising principal. Indianapolis schools; summer school instructor, 
Indiana University; superintendent training school. State Normal, River 
Falls. Wisconsin, and principal, Cleveland Normal School since 1914- Mr. 
Himelick was married, in 1895, to Miss Meda O. Tyler, at Fairrnount. They 
are the parents of two interesting children, namely: Francis and Jesse 
Himelick. Mr. Himelick has attained to his high position in educational 
achievement by thorough preparation and conscientious effort, ever mind- 
ful of the importance of keeping his profession at the highest standard of 
efficiency and practical usefulness. 

1 84 

The .l/(7/r;;;i;- of a Toivnsliip. 

Joseph Knight 

Thomas Knig-ht 

Cly Knight 

Jnlia Kelsey 

Alary Ladwig 

John R. Little 

William J. Leach 

William G. Lewis 

Frank Livesy 

Myrtle Leach 

Norman Leasure 

Preston Lucas 

Thurman Lewis 

John Lewis 

]\Iarie Lyons 

Matilda Lassiter 

Charles Lloyd 

Thomas Ladd 

J. D. Latham 

Morgan O. Lewis 

Daniel W. Lawrence 

Dorothy Luther 

Leonard Little 

A. R. Long 

Rachel Lee 

Columbus F. Lay 

John M. Littler 

Homer D. Long 

Lee O. Lines 

Lucinda Mendenhall 

Maggie Moore 

Thomas Morris 

Fmma Phillips Martinez 

I^'rank Monahan 

William Alodlin 

Mary Ann Taylor Morrow 

Deborah Moore 

Mina Hollis McCone 

Ed Monahan 

Morton McCormick 

[Milton Millspaugh 

Mollie Sherwood Murphy 

Earl Morris 

Jay McEvoy 

James Merritt 

Miles Moore 

C. V. Moore 

Columbus Moore 

Marion Moore 

Ada McCormick 

Nora 'Mart 

Milton McHatton 

Exum Morris 

Rachel Moon 

Sallie Merritt 

Thomas Morris 

Millie Morris 

John T. Morris 

Mrs. Miles Moore 

Elizabeth Moreland 

Benson Millard 

Mary Latham ]\IcTurnan 

Gertrude Mills 

R. Nelson 

Samuel ]\L Xolder 

William Neal 

Winslow Neal 

Thomas J. Nixon 

Annie Newby 

Alice Nixon 

Mahlon Neal 

Miss Nagle 

Dea Nolder 

Berry Oliver 

William P. Osborn 

L. M. Overman 

i\Lihlon Osborn 

Ruth Osborn 

Lydia Osborn 

George A. Osborn 

Margaret Lindley Overman 

Calvin \\\ Pearson 

Early Schools and Teachers. 


Edith Philippy 

J. W. Parker 

Frank M. Presnall 

George M. Pierce 

Thomas Pusey 

Seth T. Parsons 

Lucia Parrill 

Margaret Wright Phillips 

Rena Price 

Jane Pruitt 

Fidelia Pierce 

Levi Pierce 

Enos Presnall 

Charles T. Parker 

W. L. Pearson 

Joseph W. Parrill 

Mary Pearson 

William Pusey 

Ella Pearson Patterson 

Angelina Harvey Pearson 

Malissa Pierce Morris 

Phoebe Pemberton 

Tod E. Paulus 

Samuel Radley 

William Stover 

Otho Selby* 

John H. Simons 

Ella Exelby Steele 

Frank Sherwin 

Nancy Reece 
Jesse Reece 
Seright Roberts 
Grace Ratliff 
Russell Ratliff 
Frank H. Rigdon 
William H. H. Reeder 
Joseph A. Roberts 
Ovid Reeder 
Ancil M. Raper 
John Rush 
Ryland Ratliff 
Ancil E. Ratliff 
Milo E. Ratliff 
Anna Rush 
Calvin C. Rush 
Frederick Ranch 
Ora Searls 
Ada Scott 
(Mary Spangler 
Joseph Shugart 
Nellie Simons 
Henry Stover 
Sallie Stretch 
W. S. Seaford 
John Smithson 
Adrial Simons 
Osha Starr 
David Stanfield 

"Otho Selby, one of the prominent and successful teachers of pioneer 
days, was a native of Westmoreland County, Pennsylvania, born in 1805. 
His paternal grandfather was Samuel Selby, a native of Maryland, who 
emigrated to Pennsylvania. It was in this State that Samuel Selby, 
Jr., father of Otho Selby, was born; his mother, whose maiden name was 
Agnes Bernhard, was also a native of Pennsylvania. Her death occurred 
in Grant County, in 1855. Otho Selby died at his home in Fairmount 
Township in 1880. He was educated in the common schools of Pennsyl- 
vania, came to Franklin County, Indiana, in 1832, and later to Fairmount 
Township, where he made his home, and where he at one time owned 200 
acres of good land. Before he came to Fairmount Township he taught 
school in Franklin County thirteen years in one school house, a part of this 
time passing the summer seasons in Grant County on land which he had 
entered. In politics he was a Democrat, and was a member of the Presby- 
terian Church. His wife's maiden name was Jane C. Allen, born in Ohio, 
in 1821, who died in Fairmount Township in 1878. Her father's name was 
Joseph B. Allen. 


77/ r Makifiii, of a Tozvnship. 

J. R. Sherrick 

Prof. W. E. Schoonover 

Frances Sheppard 

Geneva Sanders 

Catherine Stanfield 

Frank Smith 

Anna Simons 

L. O. Slagle 

Katie Coahran Slone 

Irma Smith 

Martha Townsend 

Martin Tracy 

AHce Test 

Elon W. Tucker 

Maggie Tracy 

David Thomas 

George Thorn 

Aaron Taylor 

Jesse J. Thomas 

L. L. Tyler 

Solomon Thomas 

Martha Townsend 

Bert Thomas 

Delia Truman 

Jennie Phillips Whitney 

Cassie E. Wiltsie 

J. H. Wilson 

Murt Woollen 

Robert L. Wilson 

W. W. Ware 
Roland Whitney 
J. M. Wilson 
Cyrus Wilson 
Enos Wilcuts 
Helen Weston Wells 
Eunice Pierce Wilson 
Joel White 
P. H. Wright 
Asenath Winslow 
Joseph Wilson 
Millie Wilcuts 
Herman Wimmer 
Thomas Winslow 
Lillie Watson 
Margaret Neal Wilson 
David Weesner 
Flaud Wooten 
Belle \"an Arsdall 
Jennie Van Arsdall 
Myrtle Ellis Winslow 
Mary Wright 
Addie Wright 
Dora E. Wilson 
E. Leona Wright 
Carrie Wantland 
Alfred Waldron 
William Young 
Lizzie Zink 

Charles Baldwin taught in the log house at Back Creek about 1836; 
Beulah Knight Kauffman in new frame. There were no desks, only 
benches ; no backs, and a long plank for those who wrote. William 
Neal next. 

Then I went to Fairmount, as the meeting house was now built, 
and Millie Wilcuts taught there. I will not soon forget it was in this 
school I made my first public effort in speaking. They were speaking 
poems, so I asked Jennie Rush if she knew "Twinkle, Little Star." She 
said, "Yes." So we went out on the floor. She commenced with "Tinkle, 
tinkle, 'ittle 'tar," so fast I burst out laughing after saying "Twinkle" 
once, and ran to my seat. (Now, that was different from today, being 
in the Matron's Medal Contest for the W. C. T. U. work.) 

Early Schools and Teachers. 187 

We now moved to Marion ; were gone five years. Back again to 
Back Creek, close to the school house. David Thomas was teaching 
when we returned. Miriam Henley, next Quincy Baldwin, a Winslow 
(forget his given name), from another county; Melissa Pierce, Joel 
Davis, Anna Newby, Mahlon Osborn, then the war came on. I taught 
one winter at East Branch. We then went to Iowa. 

Mrs. Lydia Arnold. 
Ottazva, Kansas, February 6, 191 7. 

(Editor's Note.— Mrs. Arnold is a daughter of Nathan Morris. 
Mrs. Arnold. moved away from Fairmount more than fifty years ago. 
Since her marriage to Isaac Arnold she has lived in Missouri, Kansas 
and Oklahoma. In another part of her letter Mrs. Arnold states that 
besides herself, Thomas Morris, Exum Morris and Millie Morris were 
other members of her father's family who taught school in Fairmount 
Township. Mrs. Arnold has for years been active in work as teacher 
among the Indians, in Sunday school associations, in Women's Chris- 
tian Temperance Union matters, in suffrage organizations and other 
lines of endeavor having to do with the betterment of civic and social 

I have been reading your letters and notes which I have enjoyed 
very much. I can remember a few teachers who have not been men- 
tioned, especially my first. 

In i860 a small frame school house stood in Nixon Winslow's 
grove just across the road from his late residence east of town. This 
school was taught by Huldah Baldwin Bradford. Other teachers I 
remember going to were Anna Rush, Asenath Winslow, Joseph Wilson. 
They taught in the Quaker school across from the Quaker Church, 
Here the Quaker children went in preference to the other school. 
Fourth-day meeting was observed and teacher took her flock to church. 
Sometimes this seemed a day. and how many times we sought for 
excuses, mostly always in vain. 

Caroline Smith Pickard. 
Marion, Indiana, February 21, 1917. 

(Editor's Note.— Mrs. Pickard is a daughter of Rariden and Rachel 
(Baldwin) Smith, and a granddaughter of John and Mary Ann Smith, 
early settlers. Mrs. Pickard's grandparents were the first couple to 
obtain a marriage license in Grant County. Rariden Smith was at one 
time interested in a tanyard located here.) 

l88 The Making of a l^ozi'nship. 

My father, Exum Elliott, bou.^ht the farm north of the Solomon 
Knight farm in the fall of 1864. My mother was Solomon Knight's 
eldest daughter, therefore I am a great-granddanghter of Joseph Wins- 

Though living in Mill Township we went to Back Creek to meeting, 
and the greater part of the time from 1864 to 1874 I went there to 
school. Several have spoken of the "gads" and the "whippings," but I 
never witnessed a child whipped at school. Neither did I hear of one 
being whipped at any school I ever attended, though this may have 

Several have spoken of all the school attending mid-week meeting 
at II o'clock, a custom which was faithfully kept up at Back Creek 
until the fall of 1888. The teacher, although a Friend, decided not to 
take the children to meeting, and as the patrons did not ask him to let 
their children go, the custom of so many years was dropped. 

Now, I never remember of attending school but that it was a part 
of the program of the day to begin school with a Bible reading. A few 
of my teachers offered prayer occasionally after the reading, and 
sometimes a pupil would pray. One teacher especially I remember that 
read from the Bible and prayed every morning, often explaining to us 
children the lesson read. One morning she read the twelfth chapter of 
Ecclesiastes and gave from it such a vivid picture of an old man with- 
out God that I have never forgotten it. 

Rum T. Carey. 

Jonesboro, Indiana, April 10, 191 7. 

Once there stood a little school house in the corner of a large woods 
near where Perry Scale's house is now located. In that school house 
Elmira Dillon taught a summer term. If memory does not fail, she was 
the daughter of Sammy Dillon, and she afterwards became the wife of 
William Charles. Mr. Charles had a gift in public speaking, and was 
recorded a minister of the Friends Church in his young manhood days. 
Mrs. Charles died soon after her marriage. Arc these memories cor- 
rect? To that school among the trees went Misses Mary and Hannah 
Wilson, the writer and her sister, Emma, and it probably was the first 
school for each of us. We had great fun making clothes and hats 
during recess hours out of pawpaw leaves and oven roofing our play 
houses with the same big leaves. 

MVRA Bat-dwix. 

Fainnoutit. Indiana. March 6, 1917. 

Early Schools and Teachers. 189 

Do you have the name of Joseph Knight, son of Solomon Knight, 
as one of the early Fairmount teachers ? 

In examining my scrap book I find the following that I believe was 
published in The Neii's the middle of 1908: 

"Joe Knight is still living and is seventy-nine years old. His eye- 
sight did not fail until last winter. He has never used glasses to aid his 
sight. He can still read without them. He enjoys telling of early days 
in Grant County, and remembers many who are now living at Fair- 
mount and Jonesboro. 

"This evening he told some of us about the first license he got to 
teach school. It was in 1853. \\'illiam Neal was the Examiner. He 
asked only this question : 'Why do you invert the divisor in divisions 
of fractions?' Mr. Knight said he did not know, but he told the Exam- 
iner something, he had forgotten what, and got a two years' license. 

"He taught school at Back Creek on this license. He afterwards 
taught in Fairmount and Oak Ridge. 

"Mr. Knight is considered the best read man in the vicinity of North 
Branch, Kansas, he having an excellent memory." 

Mr. Knight died a few years ago, over eighty years old. He was 
a good citizen. , 

I well remember old Milt McHatton, and frequently heard him 
spoken of as a man of some attainments. 

My mother went to school to William Neal. She thought he was 
an excellent teacher. Has any one told you of Pike's Arithmetic and 
Talbert's Arithmetic and Pineo's Grammar? Have they told of sing- 
ing geography ? D. W. Lawrence. 

Deepzvater, Texas, April 14, 1917. 

(Editor's Note. — Prof. Lawrence is a former Liberty Township 
man, and a brother of Mrs. Jacob Briles. For many years he has been 
engaged in educational work, a profession in which he has met with 
notable success.) 

Old Liberty school house was built in 1856, on the northeast corner 
of the land now owned by Joel O. Duling. During the time the house 
was situated there I went to the following teachers : William H. H. 
Reeder, George Bowers, Milton McHatton, Columbus Lay, David 
Bowers, John Heal, Mary Taylor, Eliza Brelsford, John Daily, Frank 
Smith, John Litler, and Maria (Duling) Hollingsworth taught a sub- 
scription school. Solomon Duling. 

Jonesboro, Indiana, March 24, 191 7. 

1 90 

The Malciii^:; of a Tozvnship. 

(Editor's Note. — Solomon Duling" is a son of the late Edmund and 
Eliza Ann (Hubert) Duling, who came to Fairmount Township in 
1845 from Coshocton County. Ohio, and settled on the farm situated 
about four miles east of Fairmount, now owned partly by Solomon 
Duling and partly by Joshua Hollingsworth. Edmund Duling" served 
as a County Commissioner during the Civil War, when the county 
was paying bounties in order to induce men to enter the Union Army. 
He was an ardent sui)porter of the Republican party, and he and his 
family were affiliated with the Methodist Protestant Church. The 
Dulings have been known from the very early days of the Township to 
be active in promoting educational and church matters in their neigh- 
borhood, and foremost in supporting the best and most substantial 
things in civic affairs.) 

■ I see the folks are contributing quite freely to the list of early 
teachers for "The Making of a Township." They have missed my 

teachers entirely. I always have a 
warm spot in my heart for them. 

They were Seright Roberts and 
Martin Tracy, winter teachers, and 
Rebecca Garrison Hayden and Mrs. 
Elizabeth Hollis, summer teachers. 

They all taught at old Leach- 
l)urg prior to 1874. Miss Garrison 
taught there about the summer of 

1 will never forget my first day 
at school. The teacher stopped to 
lalk to my mother, and as I was 
not always good, mother said : 

"Harry, you go with Miss Gar- 
rison to school." 

So mother came 
Httle historv right 


I'airmount Township teacher. Miss 
Buller is a great-granddaughter of 
David Stanfield, founder of tha south 
lialf of Fairmount, and one of the after. 
Township's progressive pioneers. 

And I balked. 
nut and made a 
then and there. 

And Rebecca look me gently by 
the hand and led me to school. And 
1 always loved niv teachers ever 

1 Iakkv Suman. 

Hunter, North Dakota, February 5, 1917. 

Early Schools and Teachers. 191 

(Editor's Note. — This is a contribution which relates an experience 
famiHar, doubtless, to many others on their initial introduction to the 
school room. Mr. Suman, who is a son of Abner Suman, lived when 
a boy and young- man in the Leachburg neighborhood. Mrs. Suman is 
a daughter of the late William G. Lewis and Mrs. Emeline (Osborn) 

I have your recent favor, together with two copies of your paper. 
Glad to hear from you. 

Yes, as they used to say, I "kept school" in Fairmount Township. 
I am not so certain whether I taught anybody or not, but I did keep 

It was in the years of 1874-75. I was master over the Back Creek 
school, with Miss Fidelia Pierce as my sole assistant. It was in the old 
brick school house, with two rooms, one upstairs and one down, which 
you no doubt remember when you were a small boy. 

Since that time I have seen a lot of this old world, and now have 
the honor of holding down a seat in the Minnesota State Senate, which 
is now in session, and it is likely to be "some session" at that. 

I live two hundred miles northwest of this place, at Frazee, in 
Becker County, and a very fine country that is. 

Hoping this may answer your question, I am, 

J. H. Baldwin. 

Senate Chamber, St. Paul, Minnesota, February 6, 1917. 

(Editor's Note. — Mr. Baldwin is a grandson of Charles Baldwin, 
and a son of Lindsey Baldwin, both of whom at one time lived in the 
Back Creek neighborhood.) 

In the summer of 1852 I went to a school taught by Rachel Jane 
Fankboner, then Rachel (Moreland, who now lives in Fairmount. The 
school house stood on the Abraham Myers farm, a little more than one- 
fourth mile northwest of the present school house in Fowlerton. There 
had been schools taught there before by Thomas Duling, Edmund 
Duling, Bertley Bradfield and Joseph Broyles. You have their names. 
In the winter of 1852-1853, while George Thorn was teaching there, the 
house burned down, and was never rebuilt. 

In 1854 there was a frame school house built just one mile south of 
the Fowlerton school house that was known as Leachburg. One of the 

192 'IJic Making of a Toivnship. 

teachers who tauolit there, in 1857 T think it was. whose name I have 
not seen in the Hst. was Benson Milhird. He was a brother-in-law to 
George W. Bowers, the pioneer Methodist preacher who was known by 
all Methodist people in early times for many miles, especially as far 
north as Marion and east to Hartford City and Eaton. Millard was 
a well-educated man, from the East I think, but his ways and manner 
of teaching were so far different from what the pioneers were used to 
that his school was not as much of a success as it should have been. 

In the summer of 1854, Anna Simmons taught a subscription school 
in a log- dwelling house, which was vacant at the time and stood near 
one-fourth mile west of the present brick Leachburg school house. 

I well remember of being at the last day of her school. I remember 
of going with ni}' parents to a basket meeting held at a log school house 
that stood on the Jonesboro and Muncie road in Fairmount Township, 
about one-fourth mile west of the Gabriel Johnson farm, where the 
Hartford City pike now intersects the old road. I don't know who any 
of the teachers were that taught there. 

Gabriel Johnson and John Heavilin, east of him. were early settlers 
on the old road. Johnson kept a tavern and Heavilin had a blacksmith 
shop and did lots of work for travelers on the State Road in early times, 
such as mending wagons and shoeing horses. He also made almost 
everything in the way of hardware. I have in my possession at this 
time a pair of barn-door hinges that Byram Heavilin, son of John 
Heavilin, made in [851 for Joel Littler, then living on the farm that I 
now own. They are the hook-and-strap hinge. 

Adri.\l Simons. 

Fairtnomit , Indiana. May 16, 1917. 

Mrs. Mary R. Haisley, 

Dear Friend: Some one very kindly sent me two copies of The 
Fairmount Nezvs. In each copy there was a reference, one by yourself 
and another by your brother, to a little girl who years ago taught school 
in your neighborhood. 

You will think this statement true when I tell you that at that time 
T was less than sixteen years of age (friends told me then T was older 
than my years), and until 1 was twenty years old I taught at intervals 
in Fairmount Township. The school to which your brother refers, when 
I "boarded around," was my first school. 

"The Hoosier Schoolmaster" is no joke. There are advantages in 
boarding around, which T enjoyed. T learned my scholars better, and 

Early Schools and Teachers. 


the people generally, and they, in turn, became better acquainted with 
me. There is a friendship in this, too, not found in the school room. 

Do your remember one evening that I went home with you? On 
our wav there came up a thunder storm. We were in the woods. Other 
children were with us and we all were drenched. That was my six- 
teenth birthday, and I suppose the reason I remember it, and maybe 


Born near Fairmount, in 1853, ~is a 
son of William and Elizabeth (Wil- 
son) Cox, the parents natives of 
North Carolina. The Coxes trace 
their ancestry back to England and 
Scotland, having originally come to 
the nswr country vv^ith Friends who 
settled in Pennsylvania. Eli J. Cox 
was educated in the common schools 
of Grant County and attended Normal 
School at Marion, Indiana. As a 
young man he taught school a short 
time and then traveled West, where 
he remained for ons year. He later 
went to Florida, where he engaged in 
the business of growing, buying and 
shipping'citrus fruits, becoming an ac- 
tive member of the Florida State Hor- 
ticultural Society. He has found time 
in his busy career to, devote consid- 
erable attention to the study of as- 
tronomy, and is deeply interested in 
this science. He has kept abreast of 
the discoveries inade from time to 
time, and with the theories of lead- 
ing astronomers, never tiring of the 
study of the wonders of the heavens. 
He is a member of the Astronomical 
Society of Los Angeles, California. In politics Mr. Cox is a loyal Repub- 
lican, and affiliates with the Friends Church. Mr. Cox, who owns a home in 
Fairmount, with Mrs. Cox, spends his winters at his orange grove near 
Maitland, Florida. Mr. Cox, as a small boy, was a pupil of Mrs. Mary 
(Taylor) Morrow when the latter taught school at Wesleyan Back Creek 
in the days when the teacher "boarded 'round." 

that is why Eli remembered my age. If I remember correctly, he was 
of the younger scholars. His memory is better than mine. 

I do not recall standing him on the stove with a little girl, or of 
making him wear a dunce-cap. "Poor little man," I would say now. 
I'm glad if he has forgiven me. I suppose the punishment was not 
unjust. I know I did not like to use the whip, but usually kept a supply 
on hand, for order was requisite to my teaching. 

After teaching this first school, the following winter I went to school 
to a former teacher of mine, Cornelius Shugart. Then I taught the 
summer school again at Wesleyan Back Creek, with an increased attend- 
ance and some larger pupils. 

194 ^ /'t' Making of a Township. 

I have been told since that at the first (and I am not surprised) 
older and wiser heads thought I would not be sufficient for the place, 
as there had been some trouble in the government of the school. I do 
not recall now of having any serious trouble. 

I do not mention this to take any credit or glory to myself. Before 
I began to teach others I had learned in whom to trust for needed help. 
I believe now that I did the best I knew at the time, and lived to feel 
the "touch of His hand on mine." 

The last year I taught in Fairmount. In the fall it was arranged 
for me to continue the school and draw my salary from the district 

I well remember a pony ride down to Marion to meet the county 
superintendent and pass an examination for a teacher's certificate. 
After this, I felt better equipped for teaching, and in the winter of 1863 
I taught my last school in the Duling settlement, east of Fairmount. 

Marion, Indiana. Mrs. Mary A. Morrow. 


(By David G. Lewis.) 

WITHIN a year after Grant, as an organized county, had been 
placed on the map of Indiana, the Leach family name was spoken 
in the wilderness long since supplanted by the cultivated fields, in the 
immediate vicinity of Fowlerton. 

In their early ancestry history the Leach family is of English and 
Scotch descent. Coming to America in the Seventeenth century, like 
pioneers of other households, the ancestral members were busy with the 
every-day economic problems, and they did not leave much record of 
their effort — simply the fact that their posterity is here and enjoying 
the fruit of their labors. We have little knowledge of the family back 
of Esom Leach, father of William Leach, and great-grandfather of 
William J. Leach. Esom Leach came from Virginia to Ohio, and 
into Indiana early in the Nineteenth century. 

It is a family tradition that in 1803 or 1804 Esom Leach located in 
Franklin County, and that six children were born in his family. Wil- 
liam Leach, who came in 1832 to Fairmount Township, was the founder 
of the local branch of the Leach family. We trace hini back to the 
Franklin County family, and to the household of Esom Leach. He was 
one of the four sons and two daughters. His brothers were Reuben, 
Archibald and James. His sisters were Martha and Rebekah. Those 
who remember Uncle Billy now know whom he left behind him when 
he came to Fairmount Township. 

Privation and dire necessity, which were the common fate of all, 
must have been the portion of Esom Leach's family in the Territorial 
days of Indiana history. The Leach family was in Indiana a dozen 
years before it became a State, and in Grant County within a year after 
its organization. The name Leach appears early in the annals of both 
the State of Indiana and Grant County. 

The name Esom — the name of the family's earliest Indiana ances- 
tor — has been handed down in several Grant County families, and it 
is a name peculiar to the Leach family. Where is there an "Esom" 
outside the Leach family relationship in Grant County? 

There was a time when Leachburg seemed to describe the locality 
— the neighborhood now occupied by Esom Leach's descendants in 
Grant County. William Leach entered seven eighty-acre tracts of Fair- 



The Makiiii^ of a Toiunship. 


Located about one-half mile south of Fowlerton. This property is now 
owned by Mrs. Naomi Deeren. William Leach, father of Edmund Leach, 
was born in Virginia May 5, 1793, and when a young man moved to Ohio. 
He was married in Ohio to Sarah Harrison. Their marriage occurred on 
December 23, 1813. About 1820 they moved west to Franklin County, In- 
diana. During the thirties he left his wife and some of the children on the 
Franklin County farm and with his son, Edmund, and a daughter. Rachel, 
came to Grant County and entered a half-section of land where the town of 
Fowlerton now stands, his wife and the other children joining him later. 
William Leach and his wife remained in this Township until his death, Feb- 
ruary 23, 1851. His wife survived him until about 1865. Religiously, they 
were of the old school Baptist faith. Edmund Leach was born June 22. 
1821, in Franklin County, Indiana. He came to Fairmount Township with 
his father in 1832. Edmund Leach married Miss Emily Brewer, daughter of 
Stephen Brewer, one of the early settlers of Fairmount Township. To this 
union were born twelve children, namely: Jasper, now living in Gordon, 
Nebraska; Charles M., now living in Delaware County, Indiana; Stephen 
and Esom, living in Sullivan County, Indiana; Rachel Ann, deceased; Ed- 
mund, Jr., living in Gordon, Nebraska; Lucinda, of Culver, Indiana; George, 
of Sullivan, Indiana; four dying in infancy. Edmund Leach, Sr., moved to 
Sullivan County, Indiana, in 1864, and died there in 1901. Charles M. Leach, 
son of Edmund Leach, Sr., was born in Fairmount Township in 1846, and 
moved with his parents to Sullivan County in 1864. Charles M. returned to 
Fairmount Township in 1872, and married Miss Malissa J. Caskey. Mr. and 
Mrs. Leach are the parents of Edmund. Claud and Iva. the latter the wife of 
Leo Underwood, all of whom live at Gaston, Indiana; William O., best 
known as Wick Leach, of Fairmount Township; Addic, of Wheeling, Indi- 
ana, and Bertha, wife of Oscar Roberts, also of Wheeling. 

(Editor's Note. — Claud Leach, who kindly supplied the writer with the 

above facts, is at present the Trustee of Washington Township, Delaware 

County, an official position which evidences the esteem in which he is held 

by his neighbors and the citizens of the community where he resides.) 

William Leach and Descendants. 197 

mount Township's most fertile and productive land, all of which lie in 
the immediate vicinity of Fowlerton, and most of which are yet in the 
possession of his posterity. The peaceful village of Fowlerton nestles 
securely on one of those tracts. There was a Leach school, a Leach 
store, and a Leach saw-mill. In short, the name Leach was coupled 
with about all the industries of the community, and the name Leach 
is still a synonym for thrift and industry, the Leach family occupying 
an honorable place in the history of the community. 

William Leach married Sarah Harrison, who was born in October, 
1793. Mrs. Leach belonged to a pioneer family with an honorable his- 
tory, her brother, Lewis Harrison, father of Luther Harrison, having 
been a soldier in the War of 181 2. The span of fifty-eight years seems 
short, now that so many older men and women have succeeded him in 
the history of the Leach family. William Leach lived when the set- 
tlers of Fairmount Township were enduring hardships. Longevity 
seems to have been the rule in all families, now that the comforts of 
civilization are secured, and the men of three-score years do not 
seem old. Three score and ten is the allotted life of man, and many 
reach the four-score milestone in Grant County history. 

William Leach, who was a soldier in the War of 181 2. came when 
Fairmount Township was a dense forest, and he certainly had his part 
in its transformation. Along with the Lewis, Ward, Todd, Simons, 
Duling, Powers, Crist. Reeder, Ice, Corn. Furnish, Mason, Harrison 
and Payne families, the Leach family had its opportunity, and William 
Leach was the man of the hour in planting the family tree in the virgin 
soil of the Township. Three sons, namely, Esom, John and Edmund, 
and four daughters, Rachel, Mary, Jane and Martha, constituted his 
family circle, and his children and children's children unto the third 
and fourth generations assemble in annual reunion in the comfortable 
little grove generously bequeathed to Fowlerton, the town of his found- 
mg, by William J. Leach, who is in the second generation of his family 
in Indiana, but in the first generation as far as the history of Fairmount 
Township and the immediate family tree is concerned. Those who 
point to him as a relative are numbered among the good people of the 
community. With the coming of railroads came changes in the family 
and community history, and Leachburg became Fowlerton. 

In the days of William Leach the McCormick Tavern was a land- 
mark. The pioneers along the Mississinewa— the McCormick, Wilson 
and Coleman families — knew all about self-denial and privations. The 
pioneers in all these early-day families knew what it meant to procure 
venison from the woods, and to shoot wild turkeys if unexpected com- 

198 The Makiiii^ of a Toivnship. 

pany arrived for dinner, when the family rejiast was cooked before the 
fire. Some of those old hearth-cooking- vessels are still treasured in 
many households. 

David Lewis was not the only man who secured corn meal for fam- 
ily use from the settlers along- the Wabash when the resources of the 
Mississinewa farmers were exhausted. Our forefathers all told of the 
long trip to Wabash and the canal when they had something- to offer 
on the market. They hauled grain to Wabash until the railroads came 
and changed the whole situation. Fairmount Township was then in 
touch with the outside world. 

William Leach went the way of all the world many years before 
the whistle of the locomotive or the telephone bell had been heard in 
the land to which he brought the family name. He and his contem- 
porary neighbors should be honored, inasmuch as they made this com- 
munity a possibility. The history of the sons and daughters of William 
and Sarah (Harrison) Leach is, in a measure, the present-day history 
of Fairmount Township. 

Rachel Leach, born December 13, 1814. married Elijah Searles. and 
their children are William, Ruth and Sarah. 

Esom Leach, born December 8, 1816, married Lucinda Corn, and 
thirteen children were born to them, nanielv, William J., Nancv E., 
Sarah A., Joseph J., Edmund C, Martha P., John G., Mary E.. George 
W., Wilson T., Benjamin F., Reuben J., and Simon B. Leach, who have 
all been factors in this community. 

John Leach was born Jaimary 23, 1819, married Martha Fear. One 
son, Harvey, was born to them. Martha died and John married Mary 
Lewis. There were born to them David, who died in infancy ; Nancy. 
Esom O., Sarah J., Mary E., Edmund S., and ^Martha Ann. 

Edmund Leach, born June 22, 1821, married Emily Brewer, and 
their children are Jasper, Rachel Ann, Charles AL, James S., George 
W., Esom. Lucinda, and Edmund, Jr. 

Jane Leach, born October 26, 1823, married Stephen Brewer, and 
their children are William N.. Stephen, John, Emily, and Mary. 

Mary (always called Polly) Leach, born October 24. 1825, married 
James AlcCreery, and one son, Samuel, was born. After the death of 
McCreery, iMary was joined in wedlock to Jehu Stanley, and two sons, 
William and j()se])h, were l)orn of this union. 

Martha Aim Leach, born July 9, 1833, married Thomas lulward 
Smith, anrl their children are William Henry, James Edward, I .ouisa 
Jane, John Lewis, E.som Leach, Mary Emeline and Rachel Olive. 

William Leach and Descendants. 


The Leach family history is an open book and new pages are con- 
stantly being added to it. William Leach was a God-fearing man, and, 
with his wife, was instrumental in organizing the first Primitive Bap- 


Son of Esom and Lucinda (Corn) 
Leach, is a native of Fairmount 
Township, where he was born on 
February 2, 1840. Esom Leach, the 
father, was a native of Franklin 
County, Indiana. Esom came with 
his father, William Leach, to Fair- 
mount Township, in the early day. 
William Leach stopped the first 
night in the new country at the Mc- 
Cormick Tavern. From this friend- 
ly cabin he went forth with a com- 
pass and blazed his way through the 
forest to the location where he after- 
wards made his home. On August 
24, 1838, Esom was married to Miss 
Lucinda Corn, who was born in 
Kentucky, December 15, 1823. She 
was a daughter of Joseph and Nancy 
(Said) Corn, pioneers of Fairmount 
Township. Joseph Corn lived to be 
eighty-three years of age. His wife 
died at fifty-four. Bred to farming 
and stock raising, William J. L?ach 
has never been permanently engaged 
in any other occupation. In 1865 he 
married Miss Sarah E. Havens, the 
datighter of Jonathan and Gabrille 
(Clark) Havens. Mrs. Leach, like 
her husband, was a native of this 
county, where she was born April 
23, 1843. Four children were born 
to this union, namely: Lucinda A., Anna J., Charles E. and Martha C. 
The wife and mother died April 17, 1888. March 16, 1890, Mr. Leach was 
again married to Miss Jennie Wood, of Bluffton, who is a native of Ripley 

tist Church in Grant County. He established a pace for the family, and 
the men and women of today owe him an obligation. Harmony Primi- 
tive Baptist Church had its inception within the Leach family, having 
been organized in the home of William Leach, a large, two-story hewn- 
log house located about one-half mile south of Fowlerton. on the farm 
now owned by Simon B. Leach. Today, descendants of this pioneer 
famil}- are members at Harmony, while others are identified with the 
church in Fowlerton. 

William Leach was an Andrew Jackson Democrat, and the family 
has always clung to his political faith. In art early day he gained the 
confidence and esteem of his pioneer friends, and was chosen by them 
the first justice of the peace in Fairmount Township. He was an 


I'lic Makiui:; of a Tozvnship. 

aggressive, enterprising citizen, an obliging neighbor and a good friend, 
although firm in his convictions and determined in his stand for the 
right as he understood it. The name Leach will alwavs live in the an- 
nals of this community. The founder of this family was a strong advo- 
cate and a liberal supporter of all projects for the extension of educa- 
tional advantages in the early day. He was an especially good friend 
of David Lewis, grandfather of the writer, and proved himself a man 
of tender sympathies under many trying circumstances. William Leach 
was born May 5, 1793. and died February 23, 1851, in his fifty-eighth 

At the age of twenty-two William J. Leach was employed by Henry 
Harvey, then Township Trustee, to teach the winter term of school at 

Sugar Grove. As an evidence of 
the economical habits formed in 
early life, Mr. Leach now has in his 
possession, in the shape of a $2.50 
gold piece, a part of the first money 
he ever earned, which was paid to 
him by Henry Harvey. 

In 1855. led by William H. H. 
Reeder, who had energetically ad- 
vocated the improvement, the first 
effort was made to drain the big 
sloughs of the Leach neighborhood 
by the construction of ditches lead- 
ing to Barren Creek, and in this 
work Mr. Leach, as a boy, had a 
])art. In the winter of 1863 he split 
about five thousand rails. It was 
by means of the hardest kind of la- 
CLA.UD I E \CH ^ '^'^ ^'^'^^ '^''' gained his first start in 

A former Fairmount Township man, hte. 

meml)er of the well known pioneer \ n 1 • rr AT--ir t t u \ ,.^ 

family of that name, now a prosper- ^^" ^^^ ^'^\ ^^ '"'^'" J- ^^each has 
ous farmer of Delaware County and been a prominent factor in the de- 
Trustee of WashinLi;ton Township. , . r i • •„! i i i j 

"^ '■ velopment of his neigh torbood, and 

it is largely due to his untiring efforts and his ceaseless enterprise that 
the town of b^owlerton was built. Throughout his long and busy career 
he has, in season and out of season, with his influence, his energy and 
his purse, supported every well-directed movement wliicli promised to 
redound to the advantage of the people of his comnumity and of liis 
Township, even doing so at times when it resulted in personal and 
financial sacrifice. 

William Leach and Descendants. 


Mr. and Mrs. Leach reside at Fowlerton, where they live in comfort 
amidst the friends and descendants of many who were his associates in 
his young manhood, enjoying the surroundings of his earlier activities 
and the scenes of his boyhood, blessed with a full measure of content- 
ment and happiness, which he richly deserves in the evening of a life 
well lived. 



JONATHAX r. W l.\SL(3W, active promoter for many years of 
all movements tending to benefit Fairmount and surrounding com- 
munity, was a farmer and merchant. He was born in Randolph County, 

North Carolina, June ii, 1818, 
and died at his home in Fair- 
mount, August 18, 1899. His pa- 
ternal grandparents were William 
and Guinea Winslow, and his ma- 
ternal grandparents were Jona- 
than and ]\Iary Phelps. Jonathan 
P. Winslow was a son of Hardy 
(i. Winslow, who was born in 
Xorth Carolina August 15, 1791, 
and died December 30. 1871 ; the 
mother, Christina (Phelps) Wins- 
low, w^as born in Xortli Carolina, 
August 8, 1793, and died June 21, 
1861. Hardy G. and Christina 
( Phelps) Winslow were the par- 
ents of twelve children, namely : 
r^lary, Martha, William, Jonathan 
P., Thomas, Guinea. Jesse, James, 
Alison, Hilkiah. Griffin and Eliza, 
all deceased except the \-oungest, 
Eliza Walker, wiio still resides in 
North Carolina. Jonathan P. 
Win.slow was educated at New 
Ciarden I'oarding .School, now (iuilft)r(l College, Xorth Carolina. He 
first came to I*"ainiiount Township in 1840, when he was twenty-one 
years of age, dri\ing the horses and carriage for I )ougan (."lark, an 
uncle of Jane (Henley) Winslow. Dougan Clark, acct)mpanied by his 
wife, Asenalh, lioth recognized ministers in the hriends Church, visited 
most of the i^'riends meetings in the I'nited States, traveling either on 
horseback or by carriage. Dougan and .\senath Clark were the par- 
ents of Dr. Dougan Clark, of Richmond, and Xathan Clark, of West- 
field, ministers in ilw I'riends Church, both now deceased. Gn his 



An Influential People. 


visit to Indiana Jonathan P. Winslow remained in Fairmount Town- 
ship a few months and worked for Daniel Winslow and Matthew 
Winslow, who owned farms on Back Creek. He worked at splitting 
rails and as a farm hand. He helped to make the shingles that cov- 
ered the old brick meeting house at Back Creek. He was reared in a 
Methodist home in North Carolina, but as a matter of religious convic- 
tion joined the Friends at Back Creek, September 19, 1840, during his 
brief stay here. The same year he returned to his native State and 
attended New Garden Boarding School. He afterward taught the 
Oak Grove school, in the neighborhood where he was reared. This 
was the first term of school Sarah (Stewart) Luther, of Fairmount, 
ever attended. In politics he voted the Whig ticket until the formation 
of the Republican party. In 1884 he left the Republican party and 
supported Governor John P. St. John, Prohibition candidate for Pres- 
ident. He was loyal and enthusiastic in his support of this party until 
his death. 

In 1843, at the age of twenty-five years, the subject of this sketch 
was united in marriage to Jane Henley, at Back Creek, North Carolina. 
She, too, was reared a Methodist, 
but united with the P'riends when 
a young woman. Jane Henley was 
born in Randolph County, North 
Carolina, May 12, 1823, and died 
May 17, 1908. Her parents were 
Esquire John Henley, born Janu- 
ary 3, 1793, and died February 18, 
1854, and Margaret (Clark) Hen- 
ley, born February 7, 1794. and 
died during the Civil War. They 
were the parents of nine children, 
namely : Martha, William, Henry, 
Jane, Mary, Thomas, Rebecca, 
Alexander and John, all deceased 
except John. Jonathan P. and Jane 
(Henley) Winslow were the par- 
ents of eight children, namely : 
Mary M., Margaret L., Thomas J., 
Martha J., William Clark. John 
Henley, Joseph A. and Oreanna E. J^^'^^ (HENLEY) WINSLOW 
Mary married Jesse Bogue ; Margaret married Enoch P.eals ; Thomas 
left Fairmount in 1864 for the Civil War, and never returned ; Martha 


TJic MakUv^ of a Toivnship. 

married Henry ]\I. Shu.2:art ; \\'illiani married Adeline Patterson; John 
died at the age of forty years, unmarried ; Joseph married ^Targaret 
Gurnea, and Ora married Webster J. \\'inslow. 

By hard work and economy, which continued to characterize their 
lives, they succeeded in gaining- a competency. The first $i,ooo they 
saved, however, had to go to pay security for a friend. With un- 
daunted courage they kept right on, owned different farms and held 
stock in the Union Factory cotton mills. Just before the Civil War 
broke out he disposed of his business interests at High Point, being at 
that time a partner with Sewall Farlow in the mercantile line, and 
owning a half interest in the brick hotel at that place. This hotel was 
subsequently converted into a female seminary. 

Having always cherished a desire to return to the North, he, with 
his wife and seven children, started in the spring of i860 to their future 

home. They came via Baltimore. 
Chesapeake Bay. Cincinnati, Rich- 
mond and Anderson, thence by 
stage coach, driven by H. Walker 
Winslow to Fairmount. Arriv- 
ing at Fairmount, then a very 
small village, they met a warm re- 
ception at the home of Seth Wins- 
low, corner of Alain and Wash- 
ington Streets, where the Borrey 
block now stands. Until a house 
could be procured they found most 
hospitable entertainment at the 
homes of the Winslows, Wilsons, 
Rushes and Thomases. They soon 
located in a house on North Alain 
Street, the only vacant one to be 
found, now owned by Isaiah Jay, 
who purchased it of Dr. J. W. 

Son of W. C. Winslow and grandson ^^''- Winslow soon opened a 
of Jonathan P. and Jane (Henley) general store on South Afain 
Winslow, is a native of Fairmount ',-* >. i*. i 1 <^- ^^ 4^1 ^ 

Township. He is president and man- ^"^^reet, afterwards locatm.o at the 

ager of the Winslow Glass Company, corner of Main and Washington 
located at Columbus, Ohio. Mr. <:■>. ^ 1 i. 1 -i i- ^.i i. 

Winslow is one of the best known ^"^treets, later buildmg the two- 

manufacturers in the country, and story brick building now owned 

has amassed a fortune. u t 1 i^i "tt 1 j 

by John hlanagan. He purchased 

An Influential People. 


forty acres of land of David and Elizabeth Stanfield. This land ex- 
tended from what is now Walnut Street east to the Big Four railroad 
and south of Washington Street to the fair grounds, all of which is 
included in the town of Fairmount. In 1861 they burned the brick and 
that summer built the house in which he and his wife continued to 
reside until their deaths. The youngest daughter, Oreanna E. Winslow, 
with her husband, Webster J. Winslow, continue to reside in the old 
homestead, which was left as a part of her inheritance. Out of a family 
of eight children, four sons and four daughters, only three survive, 

(East Washington Street) 

Now owned and occupied by Mr. and Mrs. Webster Winslow. Mrs. Ora_E. 
Winslow is a daughter of Jonathan P. Wiijslow, who came into possession 

of the property as an' inheritance. 

namely : Mary M. Bogue, of Fairmount ; Joseph A., of Ontario, Ore- 
gon, and Ora E. Winslow. 

The grandparents of Mrs. Jane (Henley) Winslow on her father's 
side were John Henley and Keziah Nixon, who were also the paternal 
grandparents of Dr. Alpheus Henley. Her grandparents on her 
mother's side were William Clark and Eleanor (Nellie) Dougan. 
William Clark was a captain in the Revolutionary War. He 
lived to a ripe old age, but ever regretted the fact of having taken 
human life, although the cause for which he fought seemed a just one. 
The spectacles worn by William Clark are in the possession of the 
Winslow family and are prized by them as an heirloom of Revolutionary 


The Makiiii:; of a To^cllslnp. 

Nixon Winslow, farmer and banker, humanitarian in principle 
and in practice, benevolent in his tendencies and by inclination a com- 
munity builder, was born in Randolph County. North Carolina, June 
28, 1831, and died at his home in Fairmount, May 23, 1910. His pater- 
nal grandparents were Henry and Elizabeth Winslow and his maternal 
grandparents were John and Lydia Ilogue. He was a son of Thomas 
Winslow, born July 14, 1795, and Martha (Bogue) Winslow, bom 
August 30, 1805. Thomas and iMartha Winslow were parents of six 
children, namely, Nixon, John, Nancy, Peninah. Charles and David, all 
deceased. Nixon Winslow came with his parents to Fairmount Town- 
ship in 1836, when he was five years old. He was educated in the com- 
mon schools of the log-cabin period, when reading, writing and arithme- 
tic were about the extent of the mental training received. At twenty- 
one years of age he began to carve out a fortune of his own. His first 

investment was the purchase of 
eighty acres of land, bought with 
money earned at hard labor. He 
kept adding to this possession until 
at one time he had acquired over 
five hundred acres. He was Presi- 
(lent of the Citizens Exchange 
Bank from 1893 to 1909, being a 
heavy stockholder in this institu- 
tion. In politics he was affiliated 
with the Republican party, in later 
life identifying himself with the 
Prohibitionists. He was, all his 
life, a member of the Friends 
Church, being for many years an 
elder. During the Civil War he 
was drafted, but faithful to the 
|)rinciples of the Society of Friends 
and true to the doctrines of his 
forefathers, he paid $300 rather 
than enter the army. His wife's maiden name was Cynthia Ann Jay, 
born in Miami County, Ohio. May 5, 1832. Her jxarents were Denny 
and Mary Jay, he born .\])ril 24, 1809, and she on January 18, 1809. 
Their children were Susan Ratliff, Cynthia A. Winslow, Keturah Rush, 
Elisha J. Jay, Elvira Small, Jesse Jay, Thomas Ellwood Jay, David A. 
Jay, Mary J. Nixon, Denny Jay and Lambert B. Jay. October 25. 1854. 
Nixon Winslow and Cynthia Ann Jay were married at jonesbonx To this 


An Influential People. 



union seven children were born: Luvenia, February 24, 1856, married 
John Kelsay; Webster J., January 15, 1858, married Mary Jean, and 
after her death was wedded to Ora E. Winslow ; Mary Ella, October 
31, 1859, unmarried and at home with her mother; T. Denny, October 
28, 1861, married Anna Ellis; Ancil, December 29. 1864, married Ida 
Elliott; Clinton, June i, 1869, married Myrtle Ellis, and Marcus A., 
September 24. 1871, who passed away July 12, 1874. The sons and 
daughters of this esteemed couple all reside in Fairmount and the sur- 
rounding community. 

John Kelsay and wife are parents of seven children, three now liv- 
ing, namely, Guy Kelsay, of Anderson, and Oren and Mary, at home. 
Webster and first wife had three children, one living, Mrs. Will Jones. 
Denny and wife had four, three living; Ancil and wife, two, and Clin- 
ton and wife, one. 

Nixon and Cynthia Winslow lived together fifty-six years, w^ere 
life-long Friends, and all their 
children are members of this de- 
nomination. There are ten liv- 
ing grandchildren and sixteen 
great-grandchildren. If record- 
ed in detail the good deeds of 
this worth}' man and wife would 
fill many columns. It is enough 
to say that they built wisely and 
well in their own day and gener- 
ation. The example of their no- 
ble lives will be an inspiration to 
those who follow in the years to 

Levi Winslow, son of Henry 
Winslow and grandson of Jo- 
seph Winslow, was born in Fair- 
mount Township on July 20, 
1836. Levi Winslow remembers 
the old log meeting house which 
w^as the place of worship for 
Friends until 1841, when the red- 
brick structure was ready for 
use. Joseph Winslow sat at the 
head of the meeting for manv vears 

He was a Quaker of the strictest 

sort, very plain in manner and dress. Levi Winslow lives near Jonesboro, 


The Mak 

mg of a Township. 

on the farm formerly owned by the late Jack Winslow, who was a son 
of Thomas Winslow, another pioneer. In early life Levi Winslow was 
a carpenter and has helped to build many of the homes still standing in 
this Township. He is a member of the Society of Friends, and attends 
services as often as health will permit. 



CAPT. DAMD L. PAYNE was the son of William and Celia 
(Lewis) Payne, who lived four miles east of Fairmount. 
Payne received a rudimentary education in the schools of his bov- 
hood days. Perhaps na other man born and reared in Fairmount 
Township attained to such distinction in frontier work and in the 
buildiuLi- up of the great West as did Captain Payne, lie was as 
dashing' and pictyresque in real life as he was in his personal appear- 
ance. Long after he had departed for the West he continued to make 
visits periodically to his old home. He was born in 1836. 

(iabrille Havens, who remembers PaMie t[uite well as a small bo\-, 
relates that he was precocious, witt\-. and possessed an al)undance of 


Located about two miles southwest of Fowlertoii. Tn the foregrouml of the 
aljove picture is shown Trustee David G. Lewis, a nephew of the pioneer. It 
was on this farm that Capt. David L. Payne was born and reared to manhood. 
William Payne was born in Georgia. He was a farmer throughout his life. 
He had a common school education. He was a close observer and a strict 
disciplinarian. The original homestead comprised one hundred and twenty 
acres, entered in 1S35. 1" politics William Payne was a Democrat. He was 


2IO I he Making of a Tozvnship. 

a member of the Methodist Church, and attended services at Sugar Grove. 
His wife was Celia Lewis, sister of David L;wis. Mrs. Payne was a native 
of Franklin County, Indiana. William and Celia Payne were the parents of 
ten children, namely: Jack, Morgan L., James G.."' Wesley, David L., John, 
Allen W.. Margaret, William and Jennie. William Payn; died at his home 
September lo, 1875. Celia, his wife, passed away May 16. 1870. Their re- 
mains lie in the Fankbon^r Graveyard, where rest all that is mortal of many 
of their relatives and friends of pioneer days. 

It is related that in the early day a plant had been discovered over 
on the river that was good for rheumatism, which in that time was a 
common complaint. I^ayne had a little touch of rheumatism, and when 
it was suggested one day that he try the new remedy he replied that it 
would not do for him, though it might be good for others, as he had 
understood that the medicine w^as a Payne killer, and" he wanted to live 
a long while yet. 

Mrs. George W. Bowers was among Payne's early teachers. Cap- 
tain Payne and John W. Furnish, who until recently resided at Jones- 
boro, were intimate boyhood friends. Furnish is a grandson of Ben- 
jamin F. Furnish, well known as a pioneer associate judge of the 
Circuit Court. 

Furnish relates that his first acquaintance with Payne was formed 
when they attended a school taught by William H. H. Reeder in John 
Brewer's kitchen, about the winter of 1851-1852. There were about 
twenty other children in attendance at this school. 

In 1859, having secured what was for that day a fair education, 
Payne, accompanied by his brother. Jack, went West and located in 

*Henry Elsberry Payne was born in Fairmount Township on October 10. 
1862. His paternal grandparents were William and Celia (Lewis) Payne. 
His maternal grandparents were Henry and Mary (Parsons) Osborn. James 
G. and Louisa J. (Osborn) Payne, the father and mother, were both natives 
of Fairmount Township, the former born in 1832, and died November 2S, 
1877, and the latter, born April 22, 1833. died October 16, 1915. James G. 
and Louisa J. Payne were the parents of nine children, namely: Amanda, 
Henry E., W. Zimri, David L., Emma O., Joseph C, Minnie M., Mark and 
James G., Jr. H. E. Payne was educated in the common schools of Fair- 
mount Township. From boyhood he has always worked on a farm, and 
with such industry and ability has he applied himself that today he is the 
owner of seventy-two acr:'s of good land, situated three miles southeast of 
Fairmount. He is a stockholder f)f the Citizens Telephone Company. In 
politics he is a Prohibitionist, and his church affiliations are with the Meth- 
odist Protestant denomination. He has been honored by his party fri:^nds 
with the nomination for Township Trustee, polling the full strength of his 
party, with many accessions from other political organizations. He also 
has been frequently called upon to act as administrator and executor of 
estates, thus attesting to his sound business judgment and absolute integ- 
rity. February 29, 1884, he was married to Miss Effie C. Smith, born in 
Fairmount Township June 7, 1863, and a daughter of Roland and Nancy 
(Hasting) .Smith. Mr. and Mrs. Payne arc the i^arents of six children, 
namely: Myrtle, deceased; Stella, Wessie, Lucille, Nellie and Madeline. 
Myrtle, who married Will Leach, died October 27, 1910. 

Capt. Daz'id L. Payne. 


Brown County, Kansas. He took part in the Border-Ruffian War in 
1 859- 1 860, in Kansas and Missouri. 

In 1861, upon the outbreak of the Civil War, lie enHsted in the 
Seventh Kansas Cavalry. During his service in this command Payne 
distingtiished himself by his courageous conduct and was promptly 
promoted to the rank of captain. He was with General Fremont in 
the latter's operations through the West, and was serving under Colonel 
Sullivan at the time Sullivan was in pursuit of Price in Missouri. 
Colonel Sullivan was killed at Springfield in a hot engagement. 

After the Civil War Payne went with the command of Gen. George 
Custer and fought the fierce Comanche Indians with that brave officer 
through Kansas and Colorado. 

In 1865, having feturned to his Kansas home, Payne was elected 
from Brown County to the Kansas State Legislature. 

In 1870, having taken up his 
residence in Sedgwick County, he 
was elected Senator from this 
county in the State Legislature. 

In 1881 Captain Payne con- 
ceived the idea of starting an agi- 
tation for the opening of Okla- 
homa Territory to settlement. It 
was at this time that Furnish was 
called by Payne to the position of 
private secretary. Payne caused 
to be printed and circulated many 
thousand bills and circulars an- 
nouncing his purpose to open 
Oklahoma to settlement. Payne 
stated in his circulars that he 
would locate parties on the land, 
and proceeded to form a stock 
company for the purpose of secur- 
ing the necessary funds with 
which to push his enterprise. 
Headquarters were established at 
Wichita. The shares were sold at 
five dollars each. About three 


thousand different investors became interested in the movement, and 
in 1883, headed by Payne, these stockholders moved into the Terri- 
tory. Captain Payne, Couch, Smith and two other leaders of the colo- 

212 The Mal'.'iiti:^ of a 'J'owiisliip. 

iiists, were promptly arrested by the Government police and taken to 
I'l. Smith. I'avne offered no resistance to the orders of the Territorial 
police, and (|nictl\ instructed his ])eople to calmly snl)mit to lawful 

The arrest of Payne. Conch and Smith' had the desired effect. 
Pavne's purpose was to start an agitation which would create a senti- 
ment favorable to his project. Events which followed later showed his 
calculations to have been correct. He was at no time hostile to the 
Government. He always recop;nized the right of properly constituted 
authority to eject his jieople from the Territory, but it was his firm con- 
viction that Oklahoma should be o])ened to the public for settlement, 
and he was impressed with the idea that already this im])ortant step 
had too long been deferred by the Government. A few days after 
Pavne and his comrades were taken to Ft. Smith they were released. 

Returning to Wichita. Payne again renewed his agitation, and was 
again organizing his following for another entry into thi- d>rritory. 
Before the expedition began its march, Payne had ]^repared a j^lat for 
the location of Oklahoma City. Entering the Territory again in 18(83. 
Captain I'ayne was i)romptly arrested. The (lovernment police took 
into custody ten or twenty of the leaders, and thew with Payne, were 
confined in the prison at Ft. Smith. 

Being again released, Payne organized the third expedition for the 
trip into the Territory. Again' he was seized and sent to Et. Smith, 
this time for thirt\' da\s. when he was released under bond. 

Returning again to Wichita, he began once more to organize a 
company for another invasion. His hcad(|uarters were changed to 
Wellington, Kansas. Before his plans were fully completed for the 
fourth effort to reach Oklahoma he died suddenly in 1884 at his hotel 
in Wellington. 

During this prolonged t'iglit. which covered a period eijual to the 
duration of the Civil War. Ca])tain l^iyne became a National figure. 
He had the s\m])ath\- and sup])ort of man\- followers in various parts 
of the L'nited States. 

Plis ])rinting ])ress. on whicli he ])rinted the first newspaper ever 
published in ( )klahoma, w;is seized by the authorities and thrown into 
the Chickaskia Kiver. It is related that he was once chained behind a 
slowly moving ox-cart and compelled to walk the eiUire distance across 
eastern ( )klahoma to i"t. .Smith. 

In a short time final action was taken by the (iovernment for the 
opening of the Territory. Had Payne lived to see the Territor\ thrown 

Ca/^f. David L. Payne. 213 

open to settlement, he would undoubtedl\- have been elected (iovLrnor 
or one of the first United States Senators from Oklahoma. 

Captain Payne was a natural orator of great magnetism and con- 
siderable power. His language, though not of the finest qualitw was 
nevertheless logical and convincing. His power over men was rarely 
equaled. He was liberal to a fault. . No worthy person ever appealed to 
him in vain for financial assistance. He was a friend of the poor. In 
the West, when he was in the midst of his tem])estuous career, he was 
known among the people as "Ox-H-eart"" I'ayne. He was alwa\s con- 
siderate and courteous to all with whom he came in contact. In his 
personal relations he was always a gentleman, never (|uarrelsomc or 
rude, and it is said that he was never known to take part in an argu- 
ment of an\- kind. 

Mr. Furnish, P^ayne's secretary, who gave the writer these facts, 
served three years in the Thirt}-fourth Indiana Infantr\' during the 
Civil War under Col. Ab Steele. Furnish lost his left arm while in 
the service, at Algiers, Louisiana. 

The writer is indebted to William Z. Payne, nephew of Captain 
Payne, for the following very interesting narrative written by F. C. 
Cole, an intimate friend and follower of Captain Payne. Phe story was 
printed first in book form, in 1885, and is replete witli illustrations 
showing the camp life and the many daring exploits in wliich Captain 
Payne had a leading part. Mr. Cole says : 

"With the recent death of the Hon. David L. Pa\ ne, the great inter- 
est already agitating the people, and in fact the whole world on both 
sides of the Atlantic — the Oklahoma country and the Indian Territory 
— is increased tenfold. That the great mass of the people are crazed 
over this most beautiful country is no wonder to the average man of 

, "Among the statesmen, soldiers, and pioneers. David L. Payne's 
name stands foremost in the history of this country — Oklahoma. His 
sterling qualities, his faithful friendshi]), unwavering in devotion and 
constant as a polar star, have endeared him to those who knew him 
best. Who ever spent an hour in his friendly company without feel- 
ing his life's burdens as a feather? Conscious that you were with 
one whom you were proud to call your friend — a convivial compan- 
ion, and a true gentleman in every sense that the word implies. Rude- 
ness and vulgarity were never a portion of your entertainment in his 
company. His camp was your home : his noble heart your solace. He 
had the generosity of a prince. His purse was ever open in b-ehalf 
of those around him who were more in need than himself. When 

214 The Makiui:; of a Tozvnship. 

more was needed his industry would procure it. He had friends — in- 
deed, who was not his friend? Of his enemies, they were few, and of 
them we need not speak. He was brave and true. He had a heart, 
when touched, full of love and the pity of a woman. He had faults 
that were his own ; they were few and easily forgotten. He had more 
brains than books, more sense than education, more courage and 
strength than polish. Hatred can not reach him more. He sleeps in 
the sanctuary of the tomb, beneath the quiet of the stars. He did not 
live to see the sunshine of his dearest hope matured, but left the field 
for his successor to see his great ambition attained — that noble country 
— Oklahoma — opened up for settlement by the white man, and the mil- 
lions of acres of land made into bright and happy homes, occupied, 
free and unmolested, by the poor and struggling homesteaders. 

"David L. was born in Grant County, Indiana,- on the thirtieth day 
of December, 1836, where he received the usual country school educa- 
tion in the winter, working upon his father's farm in the summer time. 
He was bright and forcible in character from his youth, and became 
more than an average scholar. Being a lover of hunting and adven- 
turous sports, he, in the spring of 1858, with his brother, started West 
with the intention of engaging in the Mormon War, which was creat- 
ing great excitement at that time throughout the whole country, and 
especially in the West. Reaching Doniphan County, Kansas, he found 
the excitement somewhat abated. Inducements being offered, Payne 
pre-empted a body of land and erected a saw-mill thereon. This invest- 
ment, while flattering at the start, proved an unfortunate enterprise, 
and young Payne found himself entirely destitute of means. He was 
placed, so to speak, upon his own metal. With an active brain that 
would acknowledge no defeat, he soon found an occoupation of a most 
congenial character. 

"At the time of Payne's settlement, Doniphan County, now a fertile 
and thickly populated section, was the grazing ground for vast herds 
of buffalo, deer, antelope, wolves and other wild animals native to the 
plains. He became a hunter. There he hunted with much success, 
as well as profit. Pie gradually extended his field to the southwest 
until he had i)cncl rated the Magillion Mountains of New Mexico and 
explored the course of the Cimarron River through the Indian Terri- 
tory, and so became familiar and acquainted with the topographical 
situation of the great Southwest. He naturally drifted from hunting 
to that of scouting. He was soon engaged by private parties on expe- 
ditions, and after a time, by the Government. He became the com- 
rade of all the distinguished trappers, guides and hardy characters of 

Capt. David L. Payne. 215 

that wild country. His intimacy with Kit Carson, Wild Bill, California 
joe, Buffalo Bill, (ieneral Custer, and many others of national repu- 
tation, approached companionship. 

"When the Civil War came Payne was one of the first to volunteer 
his services, joining the Fourth Regiment of Kansas Volunteers, which 
was subsequently consolidated with the Third Infantry ; shortly after- 
wards the two were formed into the Tenth Regiment. He served three 
years as private, refusing during the time six different tenders of com- 
mission. At the expiratioiy of his three years' term he returned to 
Doniphan County, Kansas, and, in the fall of 1864, was elected to the 
Legislature of Kansas, serving in the sessions of 1864 and 1865, dur- 
ing which time, while never courting the part of an orator, his influence 
w'as pronounced. At the close of the Legislature he again volunteered 
as a private, taking the place of a poor neighbor who was drafted. He 
felt that he was better able to stand the hardships, and leave his friend 
and neighbor at home witli his large and dependent family. Payne, 
upon re-entering the service, assisted in recruiting a company for 
General Hancock's corps of volunteers, and succeeded in enlisting one 
hundred and nine men, all hardy frontiersmen, who were devotedly at- 
tached to him. Again Payne refused to accept a commission, jDrefer- 
ing to remain a private and with his friends. 

"Payne's services in the volunteer army extended over a period of 
eight years, first as a private in Company F. Tenth Regiment, Kansas 
Infantry, from August, 1861, until August, 1864. His second enlist- 
ment was in Company G, Eighth Regiment of Western Volunteers, 
and as a private from March, 1865, until March, 1866. His third ser- 
vice was as captain of Company D of the Eighteenth Kansas Cavalry, 
where he served from October, 1867, until November of the same year; 
and his last service was in the Regular Army, as captain of Company 
H, of the Nineteenth Kansas Cavalry, in which he served from Octo- 
ber, 1868, until October, 1869. In the meantime he performed other 
services of great value to the State. He was at one time Postmaster at 
Fort Leavenworth ; also appointed Sergeant-at-Arms, for two terms, of 
the Kansas State Senate; and in 1875 and 1876 he was doorkeeper to 
the House of Representatives in Congress, at Washington, D. C. Be- 
sides engaging in political campaigns that gave him social and acknowl- 
edged influence as a leader, he was an ardent supporter of Gen. Tom 
Ewing, who, after serving a term as Chief Justice of Kansas, sought 
the great honor of United States Senator. It is credited to Capt. D. L. 
Payne that General Ewing received his nomination through his influ- 
ence and support ; and such were his efforts in behalf of General Ewing 
that thev remained ever afterwards warm- and steadfast friends. 

2i6 '//?(■ Makiii!^ of a Toivush'ip. 

■'During' tlie Rebellion, Captain Payne was attached to the .\rni\ of 
the I'Vontier. under (ieneral lUunt, and was enu,atjed in nearly all of 
the memorable conflicts that took place in Missouri and Arkansas, dis- 
tin^q;uished for the desperate fightinj^ and mortality of men. He was 
a participant in the battle of Prairie Grove, Arkansas, which occurred 
on the seventh day of December. 1862 ; and in this enj^a^ement he per- 
formed an act of i^'allantry which entitled him to a place in histor\'. Tn 
the hottest of the fi_q"ht his first lieutenant, Cyrus Leland. was shot 
through the arm, and then through the right shoulder. The enemy, 
having recovered from the charge, and reinforced, poured a deadly fire 
into the ranks of Captain Payne's com])any. The commanding officer 
ordered his men to fall back. Captain Payne, seeing his l!ra\-e com- 
rade lying \\\)on the ground, while the maddened enemv was charging 
and ready to trample him under, stepped out of the ranks and lifted up 
the almost lifeless lieutenant and bore him u])on his shoulders for fully 
one-half mile to his own tent, where surgical attendance saved the life 
of his friend. Lieutenant Leland was afterwards appointed .Adjutant- 
General upon General Ewing's staff, and is now a wealthy citizen of 
Troy, Kansas, a living evidence of Payne's heroism and devotion. Dur- 
ing the session of 1864 and 1865 Payne opposed the S|)ccial ISounty 
Act. purely upon patriotic grounds. However, the act was passed ; but 
he refused to accept it for his own use, but donated it to the count\- 
which he represented, thus sustaining bis honestx- and . 

"After the close of the War, Payne again resumed the occu])ation of 
I)lainsman, hunting, scouting and guarding caravan trains. I'rom na- 
ture he was congenial ; from his commanding figure and ways, he wa.^ 
held in respect b\ the most daring desi:)erado and the wild Indians of 
the plains, and earned for himself the name of the Cimarron .Scout. 
The Indian Territor\ , the courses of the Cimarron River and the Great 
Salt Basin were as familiar to him as bis childhood ])layground. Cut 
few men knew as well the Indian character as he, and his numerous 
conflicts with the Cheyemies, Araj^ahoes, Kiowas and .\avajoes were 
numerous and beyond description. 

"In the year 1870 Captain Payne removed to Sedgwick County. 
Kansas, near ^^'ichita. and the following year he was again elected to 
the Legislature, from Sedgwick County ; and during that session through 
his influence Sedgwick County was divided and a new county formed 
from the northern jiortion and called Llarvey County. In the redistrict- 
ing, one of the longest townships was called Payne Townsbi]), and for 
many years it was his liome, where he owned a large ranch, about ten 
miles east of Wichita. 

Co/'f. Dtn'id L. Payne. ■ 217 

■'In 1879, Captain Faync became interested in a movement for the 
occupation and settlement of a district in the Indian Territor\- known 
as Oklahoma, which, in the Indian lanouag^e, signifies Beautiful Land. 
This Beautiful Land is located in the center of Indian Territory, and 
comprises an area of fourteen million acres of the finest land on the 
American continent. Captain Payne claimed the right to settle on this 
land under the treaty made by the Government with the luflians, in 
t866, by which this district was ceded to the L^nited States and became 
a part of the public domain, and was actually surveyed and set apart 
as such. Through his personal endeavors a large colony was organ- 
ized for the purpose of entering and settling upon these lands. The 
colony moved, early in December, 1880, and first assembled upon the 
borders of the Territory, near Arkansas City, on the banks of Bitter 
Creek ; and after organizing ujion a military l)asis moved along the 
State line to Hunnewell, where they went into camp. The colony was 
closely followed by the United States Cavalry under command of Colo- 
nel Copinger. who had previously informed the intending colonists that 
any attempt to enter the Indian Territory would be forcibly resisted, the 
' President of the L'nited States having issued a proclamation to that 
effect. At Hunnewell the troops occupied one side of the creek and 
the colonists the other. Tlie latter remained in cam|) for three days, 
receiving a great many recruits from western Kansas. On Sunday, the 
1 2th. the camp was crowded during the day with the inhabitants of the 
surrounding country, who came, some from sympathy and some from 
curiosity. In the afternoon there was a dress parade b\- tlie colonists, 
and fully six hundred men were in line. The wagons numl^ered three 
hundred and twenty-five, with a goodly numl^er of women and chil- 
dren. During the afternoon of this memorable Sabbath day the colo- 
nists held Divine service, conducted by the colony chaplain. The 
L^nited States troops were invited to attend, which they did. officers 
and soldiers. The services were opened by that old familiar air, 'Amer- 
ica,' and the text was from Exodus : 'The Lord commandeth unto 
jMoses "to go forth and possess the promised land." ' Appropriate 
hymns were sung, and the services were closed with the rendition of 
'The Star-Spangled Banner.' The feelings and emotions were visibly 
manifested on all sides, and officers and soldiers affected alike. The 
Stars and Stripes were fanning the breezes of a beautiful day from both 
camps. The wagons were covered by banners with such mottoes as : 

" 'Strike for Your Homes !' 

" 'No Turn Back !' 

" 'On to Oklahoma !' 

2i8 The Makini^ of a Township. 

"And sundry other devices. Tn the evening, council was held as to 
what course to pursue. It was decided to wait a few days for some 
modification of the President's orders. Receiving- no answer from the 
petition that had heen forwarded to the President, and getting some- 
what uneasy, some proposed to enter the land in spite of the military. 
A meeting was held on the thirteenth day of December, at which Dr. 
Robert Wilson, of Texas, was appointed a committee of one to go to 
Washington, D. C, and see if something could be done at once to re- 
lieve the critical situation of the colonists. On the fourteenth day of 
December the colony moved on to Caldwell, some thirty-five miles, 
where they were joined by five more wagons atid twenty men. The 
mayor and a long processsion of citizens escorted them through the 
town, ladies waving handkerchiefs and men and children cheering. The 
troops moved along with the colonists without interfering with their 
progress. The day following, a mass -meeting was held by the citizens 
of Caldwell, resolutions were adopted indorsing the movement to settle 
these lands, and asking the President to order the troops to accompany 
the colonists to Oklahoma as an escort. Being unable to induce Con- 
gress or the President to move in their behalf, the colonists became 
restive, and shortly afterwards — Captain Payne having been arrested 
by the United States authorities, charged with trespassing upon Indian 
lands, and thus deprived of their leader — the colonists temporarily dis- 
banded. Captain Payne was taken to Ft. Smith, before the United 
States District Court. Judge Barker presiding, and on the seventh of 
March, i88t, was tried before the Court. Captain Payne was ably 
represented by Judge Barker, of St. Louis, Missouri, who argued at 
length the Treaty of 1866. The question raised by Captain Payne's 
arrest involved directly the nature and validity of that treaty, and hence 
means were offered for testing a point u])on which the Secretary of 
the Interior and the ablest lawyers of the coimtry were at variance, the 
latter holding that Oklahoma was a part of the public domain and sub- 
ject to settlement the same as other public lands. Captain Payne at this 
trial was nominally boimd over under bonds of $1,000 not to re-enter 
the Territory, and returned home. 

"Since the above arrest Captain Payne has made four well-organ- 
ized expeditions into the Territory, each time safely landing upon the 
Oklahoma lands, and there laid out towns, located farms, plowed and 
planted, Iniilt houses, and has as often been turned out by the United 
States military, seen his property destroyed before his eyes, and forced 
to the Kansas line, and there turned loose, he each time (knianding a 
trial before the courts. His last expedition was in the spring and sum- 

Capt. David L. Payne. . 219 

mer of 1884. He had with him two hundred and fifty wagons and 
about five hundred men, all being again dispersed by the United States 
troops and escorted to the Kansas line. Captain Payne and his officers 
were arrested and dragged through the Territory to the Texas line, 
thence back to the interior of the Territory, marched on foot, and often* 
suffering for the want of food and water, the object seeming to be to 
wear them out ; and then taken to Ft. Smith, and there refused a trial ; 
then taken from there to the United States Court at Topeka, Kansas, 
where public sentiment finally demanded a trial, which he was accorded 
at the fall term of 1884, and which resulted in a decision that he was 
guilty of no crime ; that the lands upon which he sought to settle were 
public lands. Elated with this decision, he returned to Wichita, Kan- 
sas, and, though shaken in health from exposure and exhaustion, he 
at once proceeded to gather about him his faithful followers. He soon 
found himself with the largest and strongest expedition that he had 
ever yet organized ; and in a few days he would have marched at its 
head to the promised land, when, suddenly, on the morning of Novem- 
ber 28, 1884, while at breakfast at the Hotel de Barnard, in Wellington, 
Kansas, he fell dead in the arms of a faithful servant. He died with- 
out pain or struggle. His body is buried in a metallic casket at Wel- 
lington, Kansas, and was followed to its present resting place by the 
largest concourse of people that ever gathered together for a like pur- 
pose in southern Kansas. They numbered many thousands. The time 
will come when his body will find a permanent resting place beneath 
a monument erected to him in the great square of the capital of the 
State of Oklahoma. 

"Personally, Captain Payne was one of the xnost popular men on the 
Western frontier. He was a natural-born scout, and inured to the hard- 
ships of the Western frontier. His mother was a cousin of the cele- 
brated David Crockett, for whom he was named. Captain Payne was 
never married." 


DILI .\(is, ki';i-:i)i-;i<s and si.monses. 

Till ).\IAS 1>. DL'LIXei, SR.. was Ixirn in llanipshirc LuuiiL\. \ ir- 
iiinia, November 22, 1811. With his parents, Edmund and Mary 
( Dean I Dulin^, lie moved in the fall of 1815 to Coshocton County, 
( )hio. ( )n I'Y'hruary 4, i8:5f>. he was married to Xancv ]\Ieskimen, 
daugliter of William and Anna ( Shryock ) Meskimen, her father a 

merchant of Baltimore. Mar\land. 
where she was horn. John Mesk- 
imen. i^Teat-grandfalhir ^A Thom- 
as n. Dnling", Jr., was a soldier 
under (ien. Ceorge Washington, 
serving through the entire ])eriod 
of the Revolutionary War with a 
regiment of Maryland colonial 
troops. Thomas 1). Huling, Sr.. 
came to hairmount Township in 
the s])ring of 1845. ' ^<-' l><>ught of 
Xathan Dicks eighty acres of land 
located about one-half mile north 
and west of T'owlerton. Here he 
built a hewed-log cabin eighteen 
b\- twentv feet, with one door, two 
windows and a tirei)lace. Tiaving 
made jjreparations for a home, he 
returned to ( )hio. and on (October 
3. 1845, with his wife and family. 
nameh, William .M.. Mar\", John 
;ind llarbara .\nn. came in a two- 
horse wagon to settle in the 
traded to Cieorge Nose for clearing 
twelve acres cf ground. Here Tdizabeth. 'Thomas T")., Jr.. Joel O. and 
(ieorge E. W. Duling were born, hdizabelh jjassed awa\- at fifteen 
years of age. and ( leorge died Septemlier 2. 1804. The father and his 
family shared the hardships comnuMi to ])ioneers of that day. The 
first season he cleared six acres of land out of the green woods and 
])lanted a crop of corn, h^ach season he added more acreage to his 
cleared ground. T.eing industrious and ilnift\ he began to accumulate. 
I le bought, in 1841). another eighty of Aaron \ estal. anil about i860 he 

wilderness. This wauon Hiiliii'' 


Didings, Rceders and Siiiioiisc. 


])urchased of the William Chanmess estate eighty acres more. In 
politics iVIr. Dtiling was a Republican and a pronounced Abolitionist. 
The Dulings are members of the Methodist Protestant Church, and 
have given liberally of their means and have devoted their activities to 
the firm establishment of this denomination in their neighborhood. 

Thomas D. Duling, Sr., to whom extended references have been 
made in former articles, came to this Township in 1845. He taught 
two terms of school in the early, day, the attendance one winter being 
so large that he was obliged to employ an assistant, who was Oliver 
Meskimen, of Linton, Ohio. In 1846 Air. Duling was named one of the 
Township Trustees for a period of three years. ( )n October 31, i84'^>. 
he gave bond for the faithful performance of his duties, with Henry 
Simons as his surety. \[v. Duling continued to serve in this position 
until i860. The old log school house having burned in 1855, steps 
were taken at once to build a new one in his district. He offered one- 
half acre of land free as a site. This site was situated on the northeast 
corner of the west half of the northwest quarter of Section 2^. He 
provided that this school house, 
which was known as the Liberty 
school house, should be open for 
all religious meetings, no denomi- 
nation barred, when not occupied 
for school purposes. This build- 
ing was completed in 1853. It 
was in this building that Marx- 
Ann Taylor taught when a very 
young woman. Mr. Dulings 
home was the scene of niucli hos- 
pitality. It was here that teachers 
usuallx' made their home, and 
itinerant ministers of all denomi- 
nations found a characteristic pio- 
neer welcome. Thomas Duling 
was a man of considerable educa- 
tion for his day, and in a few in- 
stances young men would not un- 
dertake to teach school in his 
neighborhood unless first as- 
sured of Mr. Duling's assistance 
and advice. ft was he, witli 
the help of his sons. William 
]M. and John W. Duling, who 


Was a pioneer who settled in Fair- 
mount Townsiiip in 1845. Mr. Dul- 
ing served as Commissioner from the 
Third District during the Civil War. 
and in many ways did his part to 
make this community what it is 


1 he Making of a loivuship. 

got out the hui;c timbers, sills, posts and beams that were used in 
the construction df llic old Dulini^- home which was Ijurncd last winter. 
Tn finishing- the interior of this house the best walnut lumber obtain- 
able in that day was used. 

William M. Duling, son of Thomas D. and Nancy (Meskimen) 
Duling, is a native of Coshocton County, Ohio, where he was born on 

May 22, 1837. He came with 
his parents to Fairmount Town- 
ship in 1845. He was educated in 
the common schools of Coshocton 
County, Ohio, and Grant Coun- 
ty. Indiana, being- a pupil at dif- 
ferent times of William H. H. 
Iveeder, George W. Bowers and 
Columbus Lay. Mr. Duling has 
all his life been engaged in agri- 
cultural pursuits and has been 
(juite successful. In politics he 
first affiliated with the Repub- 
lican party, later identifying him- 
self with the Prohibtionists. He 
has been for many years a promi- 
nent member of the Methodist 
Protestant Church. During the 
Civil War he served from 1864 to 
1865 as a private with Company 
I of the Seventy-ninth Indiana 
Volunteers. On September 3, 
W ILLJAM M, DL'LIiNG 1862, he was married to Miss Ma- 

tilda J. Wilson, born in Jefferson Township, June 30, 1844. She was 
the daughter of John M. and Mary Ann (Lucas) Wilson, early set- 
tlers in Grant County. Mr. and Mrs. Duling are the i)arents of seven 
children, namely: Mary, John M., Flora L., Frank, Eva, Oliver and 
Effie, all living. They have sixteen grandchildren and five great- 
grandchildren. Much of the information appearing in this story re- 
garding the Lake Galatia neighborhood was supplied l)y, t>r has been 
verified by Mr. Duling. who is still hale and hearty, though eighty 
years old. 

Thomas D. Duling, Jr., son of Thomas D. Duling, Sr.. was born 
in Fairmount Township ( )ctobcr 22, 1849. His paternal grandparents 

Dulings, Reeders' and Sim o uses. 


were Edmund and Mary (Dean) 
Duling, and his maternal grand- 
parents were William and Anna 
(Shryock) Aleskimen. Thomas 
D., Jr., was educated in the com- 
mon schools of Fairmount Town- 
ship, one of his teachers being 
William H. H. Reeder, frequentl\ 
mentioned as a highly efficient 
teacher of the pioneer period. 
Mr. Duling has lived his entire 
life in his native Township. He 
owns a splendid farm of eight}' 
acres, and has served as director, 
part of the time as treasurer of 
the Barren Creek Gas Company, 
which he helped to organize and 
became one of the first stockhold- 
ers. In politics he identified him- 
self with the Republican party 
when he attained his majority, la- 
ter joining the Prohibitionists. 
He is an active and influential 
member of the Methodist Protest- 
ant Church at Fowlerton. On February 13, 1875, '"^e was married to 
Miss Laney Ellen Dean, born in Owen County, Indiana, July 29, 1850. 
Mrs. Duling died December 25, 1900. Mr. and Mrs. Duling were the 
parents of three children, namely: Melissa H., now the wife of Mil- 
ton A. Rich; Sina Emily, wife of Lowry Glass, and Barbara L., who 
died February 2^, 1891, aged about five years. Mr. Duling remembers 
many of the pioneers who have been mentioned in this story, and has 
lived his entire life in Fairmount Township. 


(By Bishop Milton Wright) 

Jonathan Franklin Reeder and William Henry Harrison Reeder 
were among the pioneers of Grant County. They entered the land of 
which they afterward made homes for life in the year 1837. They 
settled in the southeastern part of Fairmount Township, and did their 
part in clearing up the forests. Both of them were of Rush County, 

224 - ^ ''"' -'^"/''"'.s of a Township. 

Indiana, to which their parents had removed wlien they were young 
from Montg'omery County, ( )hio. where W'iUiam was horn, .\oveml)er 
15, 1813, I'Vanklin havincr been Ixtrn in llamiltDn Count)-, Ohio, June 
18, 1806. The removal of their parents to Rush County was in the 
fall of 1822, where the father. George Reeder, died May 13. 1843. and 
the mother, September t2. 1858, both quite aged. 

This George Reeder's ancestors, for the four generations preceding 
him, had the name of Joseph. The first Joseph Reeder was the grand- 
son of \\'illiam Reader ( \\'ilhelm Leser), of the Kingdom of Hanover, 
in (iermanv, who removed to England, probably before the }ear 1600, 
and his grandson Jose])h came to Xewt(^n (Township), Long Island, 
Xew York, about 1650. He had with him John Reeder and perhaps 
other brothers. IT'om this John is descended, in the sixth generation. 
Governor Andrew H. Reeder (1^4), of Kansas, the true Free State 
man. The descent was thus: i. John; 2. John: 3. Isaac: 4. John; 
5. .Absalom ; 6. Andrew H. 

The four successive ancestors b\- the name of Joseph followed agri- 
cultural pursuits on farms of their own, and all of them, except the- 
first Jose])h. were members of the Presbyterian Church, and citizens of 
industr\- and much respectability. The last two were deacons in the. 
church and noted for good sense, honesty and piety, as was George. 
who was an elder in the church ncarl\ all his life. All the Joseph 
ancestors had each two or more sons, wlu) married, and Irom them 
are descended manv of the Reeders of the different states. The second 
Jo.seph ancestor. ])rol)ahly late in life, removed to Morris County, Xew 
Jersev. His son. lacob, is celebrated in the earl\ history of X'ewton 
for his education, fine character and usefulness. ( Reeder was for- 
merl\- spelled Reader.) 

Joseph Reeder the third married in llopewell. Xew Jersey, about 
1740, as his second wife, Susana Gano, daughter of Daniel Gano, and 
great-granddaughter of Francis Gano, a wealth) I luguenot, of Roch- 
elle, F>ance, who. after the rev(K"iti()n of the i-'dict of .Xantes, barely 
escaped martyrdom by fleeing with his children and iheir families, 
about 1686. first to ( uiernse) Island, and thence to America, and he 
died at .Xew Rochelle, X^ew N'ork, aged one hundred and three years. 
Joseph and Susana had a large family, of whom six sons lived to have 
large families, and all of them settled in the Miami \ allc) . ( )hio. In 
1763 he had settled in Loudoun Count)', Virginia, and his son. Jose])h. 
the fourth, having married Anna Huff, in Xew Jersey, removed to the 
same count\' in ]~()(). and a number of \ears later renuived to llani])- 
shire Counl\. now in West \ irgiiiia. and lived on the Great Lacai^tMi 

Dulings, Reeders and Sirnonses. 22^ 

River, whence with all his family he removed to Hamilton County. 
Ohio, in 1789. His son, George, married in Cincinnati, June 2, 1796, 
^Margaret Van Cleve, daughter of John Van Clevc, who was killed b}' 
Indians there June i, 1791. John was descended, in the fourth genera- 
tion, from John \'an Cleve, a Hollander, who came to Long Island, 
New York, in 1650; and, in the fifth generation, from John Vander- 
bilt. also a Hollander, who settled at Gravesend the same year, and 
Xew Utrecht, Long Island, in 1659. This John \'anderbilt was the 
father of Aris A'anderbilt and grandfather of Jacol) \'anderbilt, the 
ancestor of Commodore Cornelius Vanderbilt. The foregoing is an 
abridged sketch of the ancestral history of Franklin and \\'illiam 
Reeder, pioneers in Fairmount Township. 

The Reeders had one brother and four sisters who lived to have 
families, the brother, George, the last surviving of his father's family, 
dying in Hutchinson, Kansas, August, 1900. One of the sister's hus- 
bands was Dan Wright, father of Rev. Harvey Wright, Bishop ]\Iilton 
Wright and Rev. William Wright, whose son, Ellis, resides on a farm 
owned by him east of Fairmount. Another was Prof. Ryland 1". 
Brown, of X'orthwestern Christian University, now Butler L^niversity, 
father of Capt. George Reeder Brown, who commanded the Ninth In- 
diana Battery through the Civil War. Another is John Braden, a 
retired merchant, of Greensburg, whose sons are merchants of Watseka, 

J. Franklin Reeder married in Rush County, Indiana, July 19, 1827, 
Nancy Furnish, and they had Alary Jane, ^Margaret, Phebe Catharine, 
Eliza and Asenath. all of whom married and have since died, except 
Eliza, and all had children. His wife, having died some years pre- 
viously, Mr. Reeder, about 1853. married Fanny Broyles, by whom 
he had one son, George, and a daughter, the latter d\ing within a 
few years. The son married, removed to ^Michigan, and died some 
years afterward, leaving a widow and several children. Mr. Reeder's 
descendants are scattered, but those living in Fairmount Township 
are the children of Asenath, William ?*Iillspaugh, a former merchant 
at Fowlerton, and Mrs. Horace Reeve. 

William H. H. Reeder, the pioneer, was of a fine mould mentally, 
morally and physically. Physically, of fine symmetry, handsome feat- 
ures, and of a magnetic temperament ; mentally, of an active, acute 
and strong cast ; morally, having a deep sense of the right and an abhor- 
rence of anything unjust or wrong ; with a ready tongue, accurate 
utterance and good voice, his conversational powers were fine ; and 
if they had been so used he would have made an able and eloquent 

226 'llic Makiiii:; of a 'roz^'iisliip. 

public speaker. But his ideas of the necessities of education forbade his 
entering- pul)lic hfe, and probably his taste did not incline him to it. 
He was, however, a successful school teacher a small ])art of his long- 
life. He died in honor among the best people, and having a very hum- 
ble opinion of his own worthiness of everlasting life. 

William H. H. Reeder married, in Decatur County, Indiana, August 
1 8, 1847, ^^iss Elizabeth Dealy, and they were the parents of the fol- 
lowing children, all born in Fairniount Township : Margaret Elizabeth, 
who married John ^^^ Broyles, of Delaware County ; Eliza Catharine, 
who married Joseph A. Broyles, of Delaware County ; George, who died 
at thirteen years of age ; Madora. who died at four ; William Henry 
Harrison, who married Alattie' Parks, of Jefferson Township, and 
who has served as Justice of the Peace : Flora M., who married Oliver 
A. Glass; Robert B., who married Hattie Glass. The older daughters 
have children and grandchildren. The two youngest children have 
each several children. William, who has no heirs. Flora, who resides 
on a farm of their own near Lincolnville, Wabash County, Indiana; and 
Robert all live on ])arts of the old homestead in Fairmount Township. 

(Editor's Note. — Milton ^\'right, a pioneer of h'airmount Town- 
ship, was born in Rush County, Indiana, in 1828. and died at his home. 
Oakwood, Dayton, Ohio. April 3. 191 7. His paternal grandfather was 
Dan Wright. Sr., who was a soldier in the War of the Revolution, and 
participated in the Battle of Saratoga. His paternal antecedents traced 
their ancestry back to Samuel Wright, of England, whose descendants 
probably settled originally in Connecticut. His maternal grandparents 
were George and Peggy Reeder, of Ohio, the former born September 
24, 1767, and* died May 13. 1845. Dan Wright, Jr.. father of Milton, 
was born September 3, 1790, at Centerville, Ohio, and died October 6. 
1 861. The mother, Catherine (Reeder) Wright, was born March 17, 
]8oo, and died September 24, 1866. Dan Wright, Jr., and wife were 
the parents of five children, namely : Samuel Smith Wright. Harvey 
Wright, Milton WTight, Sarah Wright and William Wright, the latter 
the father of Ellis Wright, who resides southeast of lH)wderton. Milton 
Wright passed the early part of his life on the farm, attending country 
schools and for a time was a student at Hartsville College. When 
about twenty-one years of age he was a licensed exhortcr in the United 
Brethren Church ; in 1852 he was granted a license to preach; in 1856 
he was ordained by Bishop David Edwards. In 1857 he was sent as a 
missionary to the Pacific Coast, and taught and preached in the region 
of Salem, Oregon, for two years. Returning East in 1859 he taught 
school a short time, and then served under the White River Conference 

Dulings, Rccdcrs and Simonses. 


until 1869 as pastor and presiding elder. He was the first authorized 
professor of theology in the church and taught at Hartsville College. 
He was elected to the general conference in 1861 and served forty-four 
years as a member of this body. In 1869 he was chosen editor of the 

Located about on? mile and a half southwest of Fowlerton. This hewn-loR 
cabin was bujlt by William Henry Harrison Reader out of native timber in 
1844, three years before his marriage. In the early day it was pointed out 
as the finest home in that part of the Township. Up to the time of its con- 
struction there were but very few two-story cabins m the new country ot 
like dimensions and ele-ance. This cabin is still standing on the farm, which 
is yet in the hands of members of the original family, being now owned by 
a son William H. H. Reeder. For many years the son occupied this com- 
fortable cabin, until it was recently replaced by his present modern resi- 
dence The elder Reeder served in the Indiana State Militia before coming 
to Fairmount Township. It was in this cabin that the well known pioneer 
frequently presided as the arbiter in matters which came before hmi while 
serving as Justice of the Peace. In the early day William Henry Harrison 
Reede? was known far and near as a peacemaker. Upon many occasions 
he adjusted differences between neighbors which promised endless litigation 
and bitter enmities if carried into the courts. Well poised, with a mind 
keenly analytical, of discriminating judgment, and possessing a broad view 
of justice and eauity, his upright character and profound knowledge of men 
and affairs enabled him to command the respect and confidence of all who 
knew him. In several disputes where there were prospects of contention and 
strife he proved to be the man of the hour. His tact and resourcefulness 
served him in good stead in rendering quietly and unobtrusive y a good deal 
of important service to his pioneer friends It was at this cabin home hat 
many contentions were satisfactorily settled and friendships which might 
have been abruptly ended were made permanent and beneticial. 

Religious Telescope, official publication of the church, in which capac- 
ity he served for eight years. In 1877 he was elected Bishop of the 


The Makbv^ of a Tozoiship. 

Cliurch, serving- as such the remainder of his life. He was an ordained 
minister of the (lospel for sixty-one years, a record seldom equalled 
in tlie work for religious and moral uplift. In politics IJishop Wright 
was a Republican. November 24, 1859, he was married to Susan 
Catherine Koerner. of Union County, Indiana, who died in 1889. By 
this union five children were born, namely. Reuchlin, Lorin, Wilbur, 
( )rville and Kathrin. Reuchlin was born in a two-story log cabin 
Iccated northeast of Fowlerton ; Lorin was born near Dublin, Indiana, 
and Willnir. Orville and Kathrin were born at Da}ton, Ohio. Wilbur 
and Orville ^^'right achieved world-wife fame by their invention of the 
aer(jplane. This machine is now being utilized, with telling effect, in 
.the greatest war of all history. It was an invention designed by these 
modest voung men to bless and benefit mankind. It has by the exigen- 
cies of the hour l)een diverted from its original purpose to a potential 
agency of terrorism and destruction in the fiercest of all human con- 
flicts. ) 

William H. H. Reeder was one of the most capable and conscientious 
teachers during the early period of the Township's history. The writer 

has the register of a school taught 
by this pioneer instructor in 
Union (now Fairmount) Town- 
ship, commenced December 17, 
1862. This record was kept by 
Mr. Reeder with scrupulous care. 
Mis penmanship is plain, easily 
understood, and would be a model 
for the present day. The record 
is kept on a blank arranged in his 
own way, and is concise. The 
names of his jjupils are given. In 
most cases the age is accurately 
indicated. The names appearing 
are those of the best known fami- 
lies of that dav, as follows : 


A "'e 


[{Elizabeth A. Adams 17 

Sarah D. Adams 15 

Avis Adams 10 

Timothy Adams 12 

1 lannah L. Adams 7 

Dulings, Rccders and Simonscs. 


John Wood 12 

Arnalda C. Wood 7 

Catherine E. Mann 14 

Mary J. Mann 6 

George Mann 11 

WilHam A. Mann 8 

James W. Furnish 12 

Joseph M. Furnish 11 

Thomas J. Furnish 7 

WilHam F. Ward 11 

David O. Ice 7 

John S. D. Lewis 20 

EHzabeth Lewis 17 

Susan Mason 15 

Sidney J. Mason 13 

ATatilda Burk 13 

Louisa Shields . . . .^ 17 

George Shields 13 

Alphis Shields 10 

Allen W. Payne : . . 17 

William Payne 14 

Sarah E. Wood 13 

Mary Wood' 14 

Elizabeth J. Payne 12 

Martha A. Furnish 4 

Nancy A. Payne • 13 

Martha E. Payne 11 

James Terrell 16 

William Shields 8 

John Harris 20 

Sarah A. Payne 6 

Sylvester Payne 

Andrew Mann 16 

Charles Ice 17 

Margaret Payne 16 

Catharine A. Payne 6 

Margaret E. Reeder 

Eliza C. Reeder 

John Payne 23 

John Rhoads 4 

James B. Mann 

Nancy Terrell 

Sarah Terrell 

Luther Harrison 

McGuffey's Readers, Webster's Elementary Spelling Books, and 
Rav's and Talbots' Arithmetics were used as text books in that dav. 


The Makiii^i^ of a Tcnoisliil'. 


Robert ?,. Reeder, one of the cnterprisino- farmers of Fairmount 

Townshii), resides one mile and a half southwest of Fowlerton. He is a 

son of William TTcnrv Harrison and Elizabeth ( Dcaly ) Reeder, the 

father born at CcnterviHe. (^hio, November 15, 1813. and the mother 

D lining's, Rceders and Si mouses. 


in Buckeye County, Kentucky, December 29, 1824. William Henry 
Harrison Reeder died at his home in Fairmount Township on June 
24, 1885, and Mrs. Reeder passed away on May 6, 1892. George 
Reeder, the paternal grandfather, was born September 24, 1767, and 
married ^Margaret Van Cleve, at Cincinnati, Ohio. June 2, 1796. She 


died September 12, 1858. George Reeder served as a captain in the 
American Army during the War of 1812. He died May 13, 1845. 

Robert B. Reeder is a native of Fairmount Township, where he was 
born June 13. 1864. He was educated in the Township, attending- 
school in winter and working- on his father's farm in the spring and 
summer months. He owns a farm of one hundred acres, part of which 
is the original Reeder homestead, and has been cpiite successful in its 
management. In politics, Mr. Reeder is a Progressive Republican 
and has served several terms as a member of the Grant County Repub- 
lican Central Committee. In 1912 he was the choice of the Progres- 
sive party for the nomination of Representative in the Legislature. As 
a member of Fowlerton Lodge No. 848, Independent Order of Odd 
Fellows, he passed all the chairs and was a delegate at one time to the 
grand lodge. On February 5, 1892, he was married to Miss Hattie 
Glass, a native of Rush County. Their children are Crystal, George 
S., B. Dora and Edgar C, all graduates of high school or common 


The Maki)i!^ of a Toivuship. 



( r>y John 11. Simons.) 

My father, llcnrx Simons, was l)(,)rn in Ih-aclford County, i^enns}!- 
vania, Mav 15, 1815. lie moved, with his father, ahout the year 1819, 

lo Darke County, ( )hio, wliere he 

.^rew to manhood. In the sum- 
mer of 1837, prolxihl)- July, he 
started West, on foot, to find 
sonic place to locate, where he 
could make himself a home for 
the future. Me walked to Grant 
County, where, after spending" 
some time lookinii' for a location, 
he found eighty acres in Section 
3^), Fairmount Township, which 
had not heen taken of tlie Gov- 
ernment. IMost of the land at 
that time which was thought to 
I)e of much accoimt had heen en- 
tered or bought hy peo])le hunting 
for homes. It was so wet and 
s\\am])y that it was supposed to 
he nearly worthless for agricul- 
tural jiurposes. 

After getting the description 
of tlie eighty acres, he started on 
liE.XKY SIMO.XS f'^f^'t to the Land Office at Ft. 

Pioneer farmer, was a native of Brad- \\'a\ne. He went north through 
ford County Pennsylvania. His fatli- the ' wilderness, traversing Grant 
er, Adnal Simons, was l^orn April ^ ^^ 

9. 1792, and (lied I'Vhruarv 26. 1876; and lluntington Counties, strik- 
his mother. Patsy (Merit) Simons ^^ ^ ^^. ^^^^^^_ 

was l)orn Septcnil)er ,^0, 1795. and died _ •■^ _ -^ 

March 21, 186,3. Henry Simons was ingtoii, after which he walked 
persevering, industrious and thrifty j;^ , ^ ,^], ^^.^d for the 

and at tha time of his death, Marcli t> 1 

31, 1902, owned one hundred and sixty- mules and horses pulling the ca- 
five acres of good land, lii politics , , -p,^^^^ b.^ats a^nveved 

he was a l<epul)ncan. He was a mem- 
ber of the New Light Church, and did the ])ro(lucts of the settlers to 

much in the early days of the Town- 1 . 1 i,,.irioiii.v bnrk mieb 

ship toward the organ i-/at ion and es- '"'^''-tt, and himgmg back sticli 

tablishment of this denomination. The things as they could use. It took 

influence of Henry Simons in his , ' , ,1'.,,.. , , ,,,.,1.. (i,,> n-;,, 

neighborhood was alway.s exerted for 'i'^^'^'' ^'^'^^e dax s to make the tnp 

the best interests, lioth material and from sotlthern ( iranl Lountv to 

moral, of the community. ,,j_ \y.^^.,,^_ |.-.m,,., ,.,;,, i,e never 

Dtilings, Readers and Simonses. 233 

suffered from thirst more than he did while walking- on the towpath 
on his way to Ft. Wayne. There was plenty of water in the canal, but 
it was not fit to drink, and the settlements, where he could get a drink, 
were a great ways apart. After reaching Ft. Wayne, he found the Land 
Office and closed up the deal for the eighty acres. He left as payment 
for the land $100 in gold, which he had carried all the way on his trip 
from Ohio. After his purchase was made, he started on the return 
trip to Grant County, covering practically the same ground. Reaching 
the farm, he put out a deadening, after which he returned to Ohio to 
earn money and prepare to move to his newly accpiired possessions. 

By the summer of 1,840 he was prepared to go West, he having pre- 
viously married Phebe Thomas, wdio set out with him for Fairmount 
Township. Their mode of travel was by horses and wagon. They 
brought all of their possessions with them. They arrived at the home 
of their uncle, Bingham Simons, who lived a mile north, in the edge of 
Jefferson Township. 

Leaving their goods at the home of their imcle. with the help of the 
early settlers he set out to cut logs and build a house in which to move 
his belongings. After three or four days they had logs cut and the 
house built and a door cut through the wall. Then the\' were read\- 
to move into their own home. They were obliged to prop up clapboards 
to close the doorway at night while thev slept, the wolves howling on 
the outside of their cabin. 

To Henry and Phebe (Thomas) Simons were born six children, 
five sons and one daughter, namely, Jonathan, Martha Ann, Ransom 
Ellis, William and Adrial. One infant child was buried in the Fank- 
boner Graveyard in 1841. Three others died of scarlet fever within 
one month of each other. William and x\drial Simons are still living. 
William resides in Fairmount and Adrial lives on his farm near the 
old home. 

Phebe Simons was born in 1820 and died February 3, 1852. 

In February, 1854, Henry Simons was united in marriage to Eliz- 
abeth Ann (Walker) Parrill. To this union were born seven chil- 
dren, five sons and two daughers, four of whom are living, namely, 
John H. Simons, Levi P. Simons, Mata M. Buller, and D. \\'ilson 
Simons, Morris, Arthur, Walker and a daughter having ])assed away 
in infancy. 

i'Mata Buller and her husband, Oliver Buller, own the eight}- acres 
bought of the Government bv mv father. There never has been but 
the one -transfer made — the conveyance to Oliver and Mata Buller. 

Elizabeth (Parrill) Simons died on March 29, 1899. 

234 //'(' .l/(//v'///_t^ ()/■ a Tou'iisliip. 

1 lciir\ Simons died 'March ]\. U)OJ. Ill' was ihc .^raiulfalher of 
t\voin\ -three chikh-en. seventeen stiH h\iu^-. Doinia jean Simons, first 
great-grandchild, danghter of llarr}- L. and Jessie Simons, was born 
on liis one hnndredth anniversary. 

My great-grandfather. Adrial Simons, was a soldier in the Rcvo- 
hitionar\ War. 

r>elo\v are the names of some ol the ])ioneers ol" l'\-iirmonnt Town- 
ship fifty years or more ago, as the ^\■ritcr recollects them : Jt)seph Corn, 
Ednumil Leach. 1. X. Miller. Esom Leach, William 11. 11. Reeder, John 
R. Minton, Idiomas Kstell. John Leach, David Lewis, l^dijah Ward. 
John llrewer. Stephen r>re\\er. llenjamin Ice. l^ilmnnd Dnling. Thomas 
Dnling, Cjeorge SinuMis. Cicorge Nose, John Ilca\ilin, Sr.. Abraham 
Reeve, b^lwood Smith, William ^laynard, Milton ^^'right. William 
Payne and Absalom b'nrnish. 

The only one living at the time this article is written, to my knowl- 
edge, is L>ishop INlilton Wright, who resides at Datyon, Ohio. (Rishop 
Wright has passed a\\a\ since Mr. Simcms prepared this matter.) 

One of the first chnrclus. if not the I'irst. organized in the east end 
of the Township was organized at my father's house in iS.jj. Among 
some of the old records I have in my possession T find the following: 

"September the 2(\ in the year (tt' onr Lord one thousand eight hun- 
dred and fort\-two. We this day at lTem-\ ."^^inutus'. unite (un'selves 
together as a branch ol" the Christian Church to take the Holy .Scrip- 
tures as om- (Mily rule of faith and practice, as we have hereunto set our 
names. E. S. PARKS. 

Samuel Todd. Elizabeth Todd. Sarah Aim i-'rviu. 

Henry Simons. Abraham Rader. C"hristo])hcr Mittank. 

Anna 'SI. Simons. Martha j;me Rader. hdizabcth Mittank. 
William Er\in." 

niiis organization was called I'.arren Creek Christian L'hurch. They 
bnilt a log church on my father's farm soon after this organization. 
The pews were made by taking logs and splitting them and then they 
were hewn off siuooth on the flat side, then ;i hole bored on the round- 
ing side and wooden legs ])nt in. They were then turned o\er and set 
in position readv for (KHnipancy. This organization was kejM up tor a 
number of vears. until better churches were built in the connlrx nearby. 
Then the organization was abandoned, but the old log cluuch stood near 
a half centurv. 




VCHEL WILSON was born February (), 1719, and departed this 
Hfe Taniiarv 5, 1785, aged sixty-nine years and eleven months. 
John Wilson was born January 10, 1725, and departed this life October 
23, 1776. aged fifty-one years and nine months. John and Rachel Wil- 
son were married January 16, 1758. 

Joseph Wilson, son of John and Rachel, was born November 9, 1760. 
Sarah Charles, daughter of Samuel and Abig-ail Charles, was born April 
20, 1761. Joseph Wilson and Sarah Charles were married Jtme ti, 1780. 

Rachel Wilson, daughter of Joseph and Sarah, was born September 
20, 1781, and departed this life July it,, 1784, aged two years, nine 
months and twenty-three days. 

John Wilson, son of Joseph and Sarah, was born July 13. 1784. 

Samuel Wilson, son of Joseph and Sarah, was born January 28, 1787. 

Joseph Wilson, son of Joseph and Sarah, was born September 8. 
1788, and departed this life October 17. 1788, aged one month and nine 

Henry Wilson, son of Joseph and Sarah, was born April 8, 179T. 

Mary Wilson, daughter of Joseph and vSarah, was born Aug-ust 31, 


Abigail Wilson, daughter of Joseph and Sarah, was born ^larch 

22, 1796. 

Nathan Wilson, son of Joseph and Sarah, was born November 29. 
1800. and departed this life January 3, 1801, aged about five weeks. 

Sarah Wilson departed this life October 10, 1803, aged forty-two 
years, five months and twenty days. 

Joseph Wilson departed this life October 20, 1803, aged forty-two 
years, eleven months and ten days. 

Mary Winslow. daughter of Henry and Elizabeth Winslow, was 
born July 20, 1797. 

John Wilson, son of Joseph and Sarah Wilson, was born July 13, 

John Wilson and Mary Winslow were married. 

Jesse Ewell Wilson, son of John and iMary, was born on Sunday. 
July 14, 1816, at about half after 3 o'clock in the afternoon. 


2 7^() The Makiiii;; of a Toivnship. 

Nathan Darwin Wilson, son of John and Alary, was born on Snn- 
(lay, December 21, icSi^, at abont half after 2 o'clock in the afternoon; 

Cyrns Wilson, son of John and Mar}-, was born November 21, i8i0- 

Henry Wilson, son of John and Mary, was born December 27, 1821. 

Nancy Wilson, dang;hter of John and Alary, was born December 15, 
1823, about 10 o'clock in the evening-. 

IMicajah Wilson, son of John and Alarw was born February 17, 
1825, about 9 o'clock at ni.c^ht. 

Elizabeth Wilson, daughter of John and Alary, was born February 
22, 1827, about eighteen minutes past 2 o'clock in the morning. 

Eliza Ann Wilson, daughter of John and Alary, was born Alay 2. 
1829, about half after 2 o'clock in the morning. 

John Milton Wilson, son of John and CMary, was born Friday, Jan- 
uary 8, 183 1, about half past 11 o'clock in the evening. 

Lindse}- A\'ilson. son of John and Alary, was born on W'^ednesday, 
December 19, 1832. about 8 o'clock at night. 

Samuel Charles W'ilson. son of John and Alary, was born on Tues- 
day, October 14, 1834, about five minutes after 4 o'clock in the evening. 

Abigail Wilson, daughter of John and Alary, was born Tuesday, 
December 13, 1836, about 2 o'clock in the morning. 

( By Webst.^r Parry) 
Tn eastern North Carolina, what is now Perc^uinians and Pasquotank 
Counties, the W'ilsons were a prominent family of Quakers before the 
year 1700. Among the Friends families there in very early times were 
those of Alichael, Jesse. Edward, Robert, James, Isaac and Benjamin, 
Wilson, and probably others that I know nothing of. I suspect the 
Fairmou'nt Township Wilsons were there as early as 1695 ^^ 1700. I 
cannot certainly trace xour family further back than to thy great-grand- 
parents, John and Rachel Wilson. In fact. I know nothing further 
about them than that Rachel, the wife, was born February 6. 1719. and 
died January 7, 1785, and that they had at least one child, Joseph, thy 
grandfather, who married my great-grandfather's sister, Sarah Charles, 
on June 1 1, 1780. He, Joseph Wilson, was born November 9, 1760, and 
died October 20. 1803. His wife, Sarah Charles, was born April 2, 
1761, and died either the same clay as her husband or ten days pre- 
viously. The records did not agree as to that. They were married at 
Symons Creek Aleeting and lived in Perquimans Count}-, X"orth Caro- 
lina, near Xixonton, where most all of their children were born. Later 
they moved to Randolph County, North Carolina, where they died 
and were buried. 

The Wilsons. 237 

Sanuiel Wilson and Ruth Thornburgh were married at Uwarrie 
-Meeting. Randolph County. Xorth Carohna, in 1809. They had a fam- 
ily of thirteen children, eleven of whom married and generally had large 
families. They lived in Hamilton County, Indiana, and Ruth died there 
on [March 15, i860. Samuel then moved to Leavenworth County, Kan- 
sas, where he died. His descendants are widely scattered throughout 
Indiana, Missouri, Kansas, Nebraska, California and others of the far 
Western States. I think it likely that his sons. Henry, Eleazer, Sam- 
uel and Nathan, may still be living, as I have not heard of the death of 
either of them. Henry, born in 181 5. was not long ago living at Santa 
Ana, California, almost totally blind. 

Henry Wilson settled in Washington Count}-. Indiana, and died 
there. By his first wife, who died in 1855, there were six children, of 
whom, I believe, but two daughters married. One of them, Priscilla, 
wife of Samuel Trueblood. may be still living. If so. she is eighty-one 
\ears old this month. Henry Wilson's second wife was a minister in 
the Society of Friends, and died in 1894. Henry Wilson's father and 
mother having died when Henry was a boy of twelve years, he was 
taken and reared by Benajah Hiatt, at New Garden. Guilford County, 
North Carolina. His first marriage occurred October 9. 1816, at 
Springfield Meeting, and on the twenty-eighth of the same month he 
and his bride started on the long and tedious trip to Indiana. He was 
a saddler by trade, and the shop which he built soon after arriving in 
Washington County, this State, was still standing a few years ago. 

i]y[ary W'ilson and Owen Lindley were married in Washington 
County. Indiana, on the last day of September, 181 9, and settled in 
Orange County. Indiana, where their seven children were born and 
where three of them were still living a few years ago. Owen Lindley 
came with his parents from Orange County. North Carolina, in 181 1, 
when eighteen years of age, and died in 1871. 

Abigail Wilson and Thomas Symons were married in 1818. in North 
Carolina. They moved to Indiana and Thomas died in 1839 near Dub- 
lin, in Wayne County. Abigail died near Carmel, Hamilton County, 
Indiana. They had seven children, of whom some are living, one or 
two of them in Hamilton County, Indiana. 

The ^^'ilsons are. I think, all of Irish descent, and I imagine that 
almost or quite all of the members of the family who were Friends 
(Quakers) and went to the Carolinas in early times were closely related 
to each other, but I have had no occasion to study the matter and it 
would be a task that would take both time and money to learn, if, indeed, 
it could be done at all. There were Wilsons who came with or about 


Tlic Makiii!^ of a Township. 

the time of William Penn and landed at Philadelphia. Some of these 
settled there, and in the country near there, and others moved south 
to Virginia and the Carolinas. 

Richmond, Indiana. May 29, 1905. 

(Editor's Note. — This matter was prepared by Webster Parry, of 
Richmond, Indiana, who for many years has been engaged in tracing 
the genealogy of different prominent families of Indiana for interested 
relatives. I\Ir. Parry is regarded as one of the best authorities in the 
State in matters of family antecedents, and has earned a wide reputation 
for his careful research along this line. It will be well to note that this 
letter was written in 1905. It was addressed to Samuel C. Wilson.) 

Jesse E. Wilsoji, an early settler in Fairmount Township, was ])orn 
in North Carolina, July 14, 1816, and came with his parents to Grant 

County in 1838. He made this trip 
in the saddle, driving a four-horse 

On June 21, 1838. he was mar- 
ried to Hannah Hill, daughter of 
Aaron Hill. They settled on the 
farm that remained his the rest of 
his life. It was a one hundred- 
acre farm eighty rods wide, ex- 
tending from what is now Mill 
.Street west along Eighth' Street 
and Fairmount and Western grav- 
el road for two hundred rods. 
Their home buildings were lo- 
cated on the hill, where Joe Shane 
now lives. 

Jesse Wilson was long identi- 
fied with the history of Crant 
County and Fairmount Township. 
He was for many of the later years 
of his life head of the Society of 

[■"riends in b'airmount. His seat E. WILSOX , , . / ^ 1 • 1 

was seldom vacant. ( )nly sickness 

prevented him from being in bis place at clun-ch at the stated times for 

meeting. Horses were taken from the plow in the middle of the week, 

as well as from the binder in harvest. All work ceased on his farm 

The Wilsons. 239 

on meeting dav from 10:30 a. m. to 2 o'clock p. m., and all went to 

Jesse E. Wilson's name stood at the head of the list of active tem- 
perance and Sabbath school workers. He was for twenty years an 
elder in the church, and for several years belonged to the representative 
body of Indiana Yearly jMeeting. His ability and honesty in setthng 
decedents' estates were qualities well known in the County and Town- 
ship, and his services were sought by both court and people. 

While being progressive, as shown in the lines just written, he was 
especially so in other ways. The best, up-to-date farm tools and 
machinery were always at hand on his farm. The public improvements 
in the way of ditching and road building found a ready helper in Jesse 
E. Wilson. He was for years an official in the Fairmount and Jones- 
boro Gravel Road Company, and at the same time he was President 
of the Fairmount and Western Gravel Road Company. These activi- 
ties antedate all laws for free gravel roads. 

There was a great struggle to obtain the Big Four Railroad through 
the County and Township. A tax of fifty-six thousand dollars for a 
subsidy had been voted by the people. There arose quite a talk of 
enjoining its collection. This coming to the ears of the railroad offi- 
cials, they refused to proceed with the building of the road unless this 
subsidy was fully guaranteed by reliable real estate owners. One hun- 
dred and fifty farmers signed the bond. Jesse E. Wilson was the first. 
He was liberal with his means in assisting the poor. Lending money 
and endorsing for neighbors who found themselves in close places 
for funds were very characteristic of him. His credit at the only bank 
in the County was limited only by his own judgment. 

William S. Elliott. 

Fairm ount, In diana . 

(Editor's Note. Jesse E. Wilson died at his home, near Fair- 
mount, April 5, 1883, aged sixty-seven years, nine months and twenty- 
one days.) 

Nathan D. Wilson was born in Randolph County, North Carolina, 
December 21, 1817, and with his parents came to Fairmount Town- 
ship in May, 1837. Shortly after he settled on the farm now owned 
by the heirs of John Scale, situated west of the corporation limits of 
Fairmount, he was married to Mary Hill, daughter of Aaron Hill. 

This land was heavily timbered. In clearing this farm there was 
enough good poplar and walnut burned and made into rails to pay for 


The Making of a Township. 

ihe land today. After living in a log- cabin several years he decided to 

build a frame house. He bought 
twenty-five large poplar trees of 
Xixon Winslow for twenty-five 
dollars. Either one of these trees 
would bring one hundred dollars 

Xathan D. Wilson was a man 
of considerable ability, and was 
used in both church and business 
affairs. He was an elder in the 
Friends Church for thirty-five or 
forty years and served for many 
years as clerk of Back Creek 
(Monthly Meeting. He settled 
many estates, one of which was 
David Stanfield's, giving bond in 
the sum of twenty-five thousand 
dollars for the correct handling of • 
the business. He assessed Fair- 
mount Township several times 
and served on juries in county 
courts quite frecjuently. He went 
AUNT MARY WILSON through many privations that peo- 

ple now would not know how to endure. Jonesboro had the nearest 
water-power mill. He would put a boy on a horse with two bushels of 
wheat. Sometimes they would fall off. In the dry season pioneers 
had to s-o to the nearest steam flouring mill, which, then, was at Ches- 
terfield, Indiana. When he had wheat to sell he hauled it to Wabash. 
Thirty bushels made a good load for two horses in those days. It took 
two days to make the trip, and he got a yard of calico for a bushel of 
wheat. He was one of the company that went to Cincinnati with teams 
for the equipment to be installed at James Cammack's saw-mill that 
was built in l\-iirmounl in the early day. The company was gone nearly 
four weeks, in thr winter time, when the roads were very bad. Nathan 
and Mary Wilson were parents of thirteen children, namely: Joseph, 
born February i [. 1840: Fmily, born June Ji. 1841 ; Sarah, born June 
12, 1843; Deborah. l)orn June 2(\ 1845: Anna, born July 26, 1847; 
Peninah, born April 12, 1850; Henry, born April 12. 1852; Rufus, bom 
September 10, 1854; ^largaret, born June 26, 1857; .Mvin J., born 
November 20, i85(}: Jane, born August 30. 1862: Thomas, born Octo- 

The Wilsons. 


ber 7, 1865 ; Hannah, born June 24, 1868. All are deceased except 
Joseph, who lives at Newberg-, Oregon ; Thomas, who resides at For- 
mosa, Kansas; Henr}-, who lives in Fairmount, and Alvin J., former 
Township Trustee, who owns a good farm northwest of Fairmount, 
where he lives. 

Nathan D. Wilson died at his home, near Fairmount, February 14. 
1881, aged sixty-three years. His wife, Mary, who was born February 
II, 1822, died on November 19, 1909, aged eighty-seven years, surviv- 
ing her husband more than a quarter of a century. 

The influence of this worthy man and wife will extend into the 
future generations, and their piety and rectitude are a memory and a 
heritage of which their progeny may be justly proud. 

Samuel C. Wilson, farmer and pioneer, was born in Randolph 
County, North Carolina, October 14, 1834. His paternal grandparents 
were Joseph and Sarah (Charles) Wilson, also natives of North Caro- 
lina, and his parents were John 
and Mary (Winslow) Wilson, 
who came to Fairmount Town- 
ship in 1837 from Randolph 
County, North Carolina. John 
Wilson was born July 13, 1784, 
and died in Fairmount in 1864, 
lacking one day of being eighty 
years old. Mary, his wife, was 
born July 20, 1797, and died in 
1 87 1. They were parents of 
twelve children, namely : Jesse 
E., Nathan D., Cyrus, Henry,' 
Nancy, Micajah, Elizabeth, Eliza 
Ann, John IMilton, Lindsey, Sam- 
uel C, and Abigail, all deceased 
except Samuel C. 

It is a tradition in the Wilson 
family that their early ancestors 
came to this country with William 
Penn, landing at Philadelphia. 
From this point members of the 

familv drifted to different sec- 

.• , '^r .1 <- 1 • 1 c^ ^ SAMUEL C. WILSON 

tions 01 the Colonial States, somq 

to New Jersey, others remaining in Pennsylvania, while many settled 

J4- The Making of a Tonmshif'. 

in \'irg-inia and North Carolina. The Fairmount Township family of 
Wilsons are descendants of the North Carolina hranch. 

Samuel C, Wilson attended the common schools of this Township, 
his first teacher being- David Stanfield, about the winter of 1S40-1841. 
Stanfield had charge of a school in a log cabin southwest of where 
Fairmount now stands. John Wilson had settled on a three hundred 
and sixty-acre farm about two miles southwest, now partly owned by 
Joel B. Ware and partly by John Dare, Ed Woolen and Lon Payne. 
The first recollection Samuel Wilson has of the new country as a child 
was when a clock peddler came through the forest selling Seth Thomas 
clocks, driving from cabin to cabin with an ox team. . His father bought 
a twenty-four-dollar clock. Another incident he recalls was the noisy 
approach of several Indians, with painted faces and wearing their 
moccasins and blankets. They came dashing; up to his father's cabin 
one day. whooping and yelling like mad. The Indians announced that 
they were hungry and demanded something to eat. After a short par- 
ley the fatlier provided each one with a case knife and turned them into 
his turnip patch. After satisfying their hunger they mounted their 
horses and single file galloped away in good humor. 

'T was five years old at the time." remarked Mr. Wilson, in speak- 
ing of this visit of the red skins, "and to my childish mind the hideous 
noises made by this band of Indians were terrifying. I could not see 
much chance for a Tar Heel or a Hoosier in tliis country if that sort of 
thing happened very often. We got our mail at Summitville. where 
John Kelsay. uncle of John and A. W. Kelsay. was then serving as 
postmaster. ^Nly father was for many years a subscriber of the Louis- 
z'UIc Journal, edited in that day by George D. Prentice, one of the great 
American journalists and a contemporary of Horace Greeley. The 
Jonrnal printed many descriptions of fugitive slaves, mostly copper- 

"Wlien we were getting our mail at Summirville. Solomon Thomas 
estabhshed a postoffice called AI in his cabin about two miles south- 
east of Fairmount. We then changed our postoffice, as it was nearer 
to the Thomas cabin. It was while we were getting our mail here that 
James Cammack came into the neighborhood in quest of a location for 
a saw-mill. The building of this saw-mill in Faimiount was really the 
first start of the town. 

"In 1S47. Grant Postoffice was established at Fairmount and John 
Scarry was then in charge of it. Scarry went to Indianapolis from 

*T recall, as a boy twelve years old. in 1S46. I went to Wabash with 

The Wilsons. 243 

father. We traveled in a foiir-horse wagon. We took a load of ba- 
con. It required four days to make the trip. Once we stuck in the 
mud in front of Ehzabeth Rogue's house on North Main Street. 

"Father sold a great deal of stuff in Cincinnati. He sold wheat 
there for forty-five cents per bushel and brought back salt. Tt took 
twelve days to make this trip with a four-horse wagon. 

"'My brother, Cyrus, who had a good education for that day. taught 
school in a log cabin southeast of Fairmount, then at the Benbow 
cabin. I recall the Underground Railroad station at Aaron Hill's quite 
well. One station was also located at Solomon Knight's." 

Mr. Wilson bought one hundred and three acres of land, now owned 
by his son. Lin Wilson, as productive a farm as there is in this Town- 
ship, which he drained and cleared. With the exception of fourteen 
months spent in Carthage, he has lived in the Township practically his 
entire life. He was one of the original stockholders in the Jonesboro 
and Fairmount Turnpike Company. He served four years as Trustee 
of Fairmount Academy. Believing that women should have representa- 
tion on the board, he finally withdrew in order that a place might be 
provided for Mrs. Anna K. Rook. 

Mr. \Mlson is a Republican in politics. His first vote was cast for 
John C. Fremont. He has served as Township Assessor, and was a mem- 
ber of the Indiana State Legislature during the session of 1890-1891. 
serving on six important committees, among them being the committee 
on railroads, the committee on swamp lands, and the conunittee on 
natural gas. He has been a lifelong member of the Society of Friends. 

Mr. Wilson's first wife was Rachel Overman, born near Marion, 
who died in 1865, aged twenty-two years. On January to, 1867, at 
Carthage, Indiana, he married Elizabeth Jessup, a native of Rush 
County, who died in June, 1913, aged seventy years. Her parents were 
Thomas and Rebecca Jessup, to whom were born four children, namely, 
Elizabeth, Ann, Sarah, and Micajah, the latter being the only one now 
living. Samuel and Elizabeth (Jessup) Wilson were parents of thre(? 
children, namely: Lin, born March 19, 1870; Jessup, 1x)rn November 
21, 1872, and Thomas, born December 19, 1874. Thomas died in 1880. 

Lindsey Wilson, who lived during the last fourteen years of his 
life in Fairmount. was by training and occupation a farmer. He 
was born in Randolph County, North Carolina, December 19, 1832, and 
died at his home in Fairmount on May 20, T906. His ancestry for 
nearly two hundred years has been traced. 

Lindsey Wilson attended the common schools of the Township, and, 
considering the advantages of his early life, was well educated. He 


77/t' Malaiiii' 'V " I <>:ciisliip. 

was industrious and tiirifty and owned a splendid farm of one hundred 
acres south nf I'^airniount. retiring from active pursuits only when ad- 
vancing- years and failing health required him to do so. In politics he 
was a Republican. lie was a birthright member of the Society of 
Friends. After his marriage he joined the Wesleyan Methodist Church, 
his wife being a member of this denomination, and for many years they 
were among the leading members of the Back Creek congregation, 
southwest of Fairmount. He entered the Union army as a member of 
Com])anv D. Thirt\-third Indiana Infantry, but was taken sick, and 


afterwards assigned to hospital wtM-k. he being physically unable for 
army service. On December 13, 1854, he was married to Miss Jane 
Davis, born in Wayne County, Indiana, February 0, 1836. She died 
July 26, 1908. Her parents were Harvey and Maria Davis, and their 
children were Thomas, Philip, Henry, Foster, Jane, Harvey and Mary, 
all now deceased. 

Lindsey and jane (Davis) Wilson were parents of nine children, 
namely: John H. Wilson, of Fairmount, born October 5, 1855; Mary 
M. Harvey, born l""ebruary 8, 1858, wife of Rev. Enos Harvey, of 
Noblesville, Indiana : Lucy Rush, born February 28, 1861, wife of 
Miles Rush, of h'airmount ; Rachel, deceased, born December 13. 1863; 
William F. Wilson, of Huntington. Indiana, born August 22, 1866; 

The Wilsons. 


Elizabeth, deceased, born March 22, 1869, married John Dobson ; 
Charles S., deceased, born March 30, 1872; iMartha J., born April 24, 
1874, married Carson Payne, deceased; and Merton L., deceased, born 
April 2, 1878. There are sixteen grandchildren and nine great-grand- 

John Wilson and family left North Carolina in April, 1837, to find 
a home in the State of Indiana. Their journey was not attended by the 
difficulties which so frequently beset the path of other pioneers. It is 
evident that the circumstances of the Wilsons, from a material point 
of view, were more prosperous than those of a great many who settled in 
Fairmount Township and Grant County at that early date. They 
located on Section 6, of Fairmount Township, where the father bought 
360 acres of land. 

Lindsey Wilson was a good citizen, seeking to promote that which 
is best in government and best for his country and his comnumity. He 
was a good neighbor, kind and ac- 
commodating to all. He was a 
man of sturd}- characteristics, ex- 
ceedingly conscientious and scrup- 
ulously honest. He gave good 
quality and full measure in what 
he sold and paid promptly for 
what he bought. Every contract, 
whether verbal or written, he en- 
deavored to fill to the letter. He 
was always willing and anxious, 
when convinced of error, to make 
confession and proper restitution. 
He welcomed the stranger and vis- 
ited the sick and needy. He was 
a kind father, an indulgent hus- 
band and a splendid t\])e of 

Mrs. Eunice (Pierce) Wilson 
came to Fairmount Township 
\vith her parents, William and Pru- 
dence (Pemberton) Pierce, on 

November 10, 18 Si. When the 

... • , r ^ ., ■ , • MRS. EUNICE (PIERCE) WILSON 

family arrived, from their home in 

Ohio, the weather was cold and they found acres of water and ice as 

they passed along the winding roads of the forest. 

246 I'lic Mak'i)ig of a Township. 

"There's land that will never be worth an\thin£^," remarked one 
member of the party, as they traveled on their way to the site of the 
new home near Back Creek. And the prospects were not the most 

Mrs. Wilson was born near West Milton, in Miami County, Ohio, 
July 8. 1848. She began teaching school at fifteen years of age, and 
taught several terms at Back Creek, Oak Ridge, and near Greentown, 
Indiana. On September 30, 1871. she w^as married to Robert L. 

About 1886, a local organization of the Woman's Christian 
Temperance Union was formed at Back Creek, Mrs. Wilson becom- 
ing one of the charter members and served as President for sev- 
eral years. In 1889 she was chosen President of the Grant County 
Woman's Christian Temperance Union. She filled this position with 
such skill and ability for eighteen or twenty years that her reputation 
as organizer and speaker spread to other sections of the State. Under 
her splendid guidance the Grant County organization attained to a 
prominent position in reform work in Indiana. She was honored by 
her associates in this movement, and in 1900 was elected President of 
the Indiana Woman's Christian Temperance Union. For three years — 
igoo, 1901, 1902 — she was President of the Indiana Woman's Christian 
Temperance Union, declining re-election because of pressing household 
duties requiring attention. In this position she again demonstrated 
her capacity as a leader, and under her intelligent guidance the mem- 
bership grew and the power of the women of the State became more 
potent and their sphere of work and usefulness w^as broadened and 
deepened. Mrs. Wilson recently stated that the Woman's Christian 
Temperance Union has given the best opportunity for the development 
of woman's talents of any reform organization ever created. Discuss- 
ing this matter, she said : 

"What is wanted in the Legislature, in the Congress and on the 
school boards is the home influence, and that is represented by the 
women. This is why w'oman needs representation on the various 
boards which have to do with the welfare of w^omen and children." 

Mrs. Wilson has done a vast amount of good work for humanity, 
and her official connection with the Woman's Christian Temperance 
Union of the County, State and Nation has been of benefit in a large 
way to this splendid organization, which has played so important a 
part in making this a Prohibition State. 

TJie Wilsons. 



Lin Wilson, son of Samuel C. and Elizabeth (Jessup) Wilson, is 
one of Fairmount Township's prominent farmers. Born March 19, 
1870, he has lived all his life on the home place. He was educated in 
the common schools of the Township and attended Fairmount Academy. 
He has always affiliated with the Republican party, is a member of 
Masonic Lodge No. 635, of Fairmount, and of the Friends Church. On 
December, 1894, he was married to Miss Effie G. Davis, a native of 
Fairmount Township, born August 8. 1869, and a daughter of Foster 
and Dorinda (Rush) Davis. To this union two children were born, 

248 77/t' MaL'iitt:; of a Township. 

namely, Dora E., now a member of the faculty of Fairmount Academy, 
and Hubert D., a graduate of Fairmount Academy. Lin Wilson is inter- 
ested in all phases of up-to-date farming-, and has for several years done 
his part in promoting the agricultural welfare of the Township. He has 
served as President of the Fairmount Township Farmers' Institute, sec- 
retary of the Grant County Farmers' Institute, treasurer Grant County 
Farmers' Mutual Insurance Company for several years and also a di- 
rector of this organization. His farm shows the energetic and pains- 
taking care given to it, and the results of his labor from year to year 
bespeak the diligent student of agricultural matters combined with the 
capacity of applying in a practical way the best and most modern meth- 
ods of farming. 

Nathan D. W. Elliott, son of Elijah and Deborah (Wilson) Elliott, 
was born at Marion, Indiana, August 28, 1866. His paternal grandpar- 
ents were Isaac and Rachel (Overman) Elliott and his maternal grand- 
parents were Nathan D. and ^lary (Hill) \\^ilson. The subject of this 
sketch was educated in the Fairmount Public Schools and at the Holmes 
Business College, Portland, Oregon. He learned the printer's trade, 
working- in the office of The Fairmount News, being employed later at 
Warren and Marion. In 1887 he went West, working on The Neivberg 
{Oregon) Graphic, and later on The Daily Statesman and in the State 
printing office at Salem, the capital of the State. In 1903 he engaged 
in the printing business at Salem, and has been quite succesful. In poli- 
tics he is a Republican, serving as Secretary of the Republican Count}^ 
Central Committee 1914-1918; member of Salem City Council iqo8- 
1912, and again elected for the term of two years, 1916-1918. In 1910 
he was chairman of the committee that installed a seven hundred and 
fifty thousand-dollar sewer system; in 1917 he is chairman of the com- 
mittee that is building over one hundred thousand dollars' worth of 
new pavement. He is a member of Pacific Lodge No. 50, Ancient Free 
and Accepted Masons ; Multnomah Chapter No. i, Royal Arch Masons ; 
Hodson Council No. i, Illustrious Royal and Select Masters, and the 
Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks, No. 336. He is a member of 
the Society of Friends at Salem. He was a charter member of the 
Marion Light Infantry, in 1886, and was first sergeant in 1891 and cajv 
tain in 1892. Mr. Elliott was married in Newberg, Oregon, April 19, 
1898, to Miss Clara E. Hodson, born at Carthage, Indiana, a daughter 
of Gideon and Delphina (Coffin) Hodson, both natives of Indiana, and 
of the same family of Coffins that played an important pan in the 
L^nderground Railroad in early days. For generations back I lie 1 lod- 

The Wilsons. 


sons and Coffins were Quakers. Mr. and Mrs. Elliott are parents of 
one daughter, Maxine, born February 20, 1899, at Salem. They have 


an adopted daughter, Marjorie Elliott, born September 8, 1907, and a 
granddaughter of Dr. Henry Charles, pioneer Eairmount physician. 


The Malciiiij; of a Toiimship. 

Clyde N. Wilson,, son of Alvin J. and Margaret (Ncal) Wilson, 
and a grandson of Nathan D. Wilson, is a native of Fairmount Town- 
ship. Mr. Wilson now holds an excellent position as head of the Busi- 
ness Department of the Shehoygan (Wisconsin) High School. 

Jesse Webster Wilson, son of C. AI. and Olive (Charles) Wilson, 
was born at Fairmount. Indiana, October 23, 1884. He attended the 
common schools, finishing his education at St. Louis and Paragould, Ar- 
kansas. While at Paragould he graduated in a business college and then 
accepted a position on The Paragould Soliphonc, a daily newspaper 
published there. He remained with this paper until he was seventeen 



years of age, at which time he accepted a position as assistant book- 
keeper with the Stewart-Alexander Lumber Company at Gifford, 
Arkansas, and was soon promoted to assistant manager and was later 
transferred to Memphis, Tennessee. Air. Wilson proved his efficiency 
and was soon again promoted, this time to the main office of the firm 
at St. Louis. Vov a time he was manager of their jilanl at Maugham, 
Louisiana. Since May, 1913, he has occupied the important position 
of manager of the Mississippi Lumber Company; he is now located at 
Meridian, Mississippi, at which place lie resides w ith Iiis family. 



Isaac Sudduth, buried in East Bethel Graveyard. 

WAR OF 1812. 

*Lewis Harrison. 
*William Leach. 
*James Martin. 
*Capt. George Reeder. 


*John Hubert, corporal. Com- 
pany B, Third Ohio Infantry. 

*John Plaster, private. Com- 
pany I, First Indiana Infantry. 

*John Vetor, private. Third 
Michigan Infantry. 

While the Society of Friends do 
not encourage war and strife, as 
a denomination, but stand, instead, 
as a church, for peace and arbi- 
tration among nations, this com- 
munity, where peace principles 
then largely predominated, con- 
tributed as many volunteers to 
the Union Army during the Civil 
War as any other locality of sim- 
ilar population. 

Following are the names of 
Union soldiers who lived in Fair- 
mount Township at the time of 
their enlistment or who have re- 


sided in this community since the close of the Civil War : 

Elijah Alexander, private. Company I, One Hundred and Thirtieth 
Indiana Infantrv. 



252 77/ (' Ma kill i:; of a Towiisliip. 

Geor.Qe X. Allred, corporal, Company K, One Hundred and Thir- 
tieth Indiana Infantry. 

*Moses Allred, private, Company F, Thirty-fourth Indiana Infan- 

^^Lindley Arnett, private, Company K, Forty-seventh Indiana In- 

-^L. D. Baldwin, sergeant. Company C, Eighty-ninth Indiana In- 

Henry Barber, private. Company D, One Hundred and Thirty-sixth 
Indiana Infantry. 

Ephraim Bartholomew, first sergeant. Company A, Nineteenth In- 
diana Infantry ; first lieutenant. Company I, Twentieth Indiana Infan- 

*George Bates, private. Company D, Second Indiana Cavalry. 

*Enoch Beals, private, First Indiana Cavalry. 

Newton Beals, private, Company K, First Indiana Cavalry. 

'''James W. Beidler, i)rivate, Company A, One Hundred and Fifty- 
sixth Indiana Infantry. 

^Joseph Bennett, private. Twenty-fourth Indiana Battery. 

^Randolph Boggess, private. Company C, One Hundred and Fifty- 
third Ohio Infantry. 

'•'Jonathan Bogue, unassigned. 

'•'James Brewer, private, Company Iv, One Hundred and Thirtieth 
Indiana Infantry. 

*Willis Brewer. ]jrivate. Company C, Eighty-ninth Indiana Infantry. 

*Jesse Bright, |)rivate. Company H, One Hundred and Forty-sec- 
ond Indiana Infantry. 

Thomas l>rookshire, corporal. Company E, Ninth Indiana Cavalry. 

James Brown, ])rivate. Company I, Second Ohio Cavalry. 

^Charles F. lUtck, private. Company C, Thirty-third Massachusetts 

Frank I hick, ])rivate. C()m])any C, Thirty-third Massachusetts In- 

"•'Harmon BuUer, ])rivate. Coni])any C, One Hundred and Eighteenth 
Indiana Infantrw 

'•'John lUillcr. private. Com])any K, Forty-seventh Indiana Infantry. 

'^Gabriel J Rumpus, private, Company I, Thirty-lhird Indiana Infan- 

'■^John 1 '.using, private, One Hundred and Fifty-third Indiana In- 


Fairmount Toimiship Soldiers. 253 

'■■'Isaac Carter, private, Company G, Thirty-third Indiana Infantry. 

Robert Carter, private, Company C. Fifty-first Indiana Infantry. 

Nathan D. Cox, private, Company A. Thirty-third Indiana Infantry. 

*Cyrus Crawford, first lieutenant, Company I, Sixteenth Indiana 

*H. M. Crilley, corporal, Company C, Fourteenth New Jersey In- 

*Milton Crowell, private, Company H, Twelfth Indiana Infantry; 
Company K, One Hundred and Thirtieth Indiana Infantry. 

*William P. Crowell, Company H, Twelfth Indiana Infantry. 

James W. Curtis, private, Companies M and A, Sixth Indiana 

Robert Dare, corporal. Company G, Sixty-ninth Indiana Infantry. 

*Foster Davis, private, Company H, Twelfth Indiana Infantry ; 
second lieutenant. Company G, One Hundred and Fifty-third Indiana 

'■'G. W. Dealy, private, Company F, Thirty-second Indiana Infantry. 

^Harrison Dean, private. Twenty-second Indiana Infantry. 

'■'Alex Deerin, private. Company C, One Hundred and Seventy-sec- 
ond Ohio Infantry. 

"Amos Deshon, private. Company D, Seventy-ninth Indiana Infan- 

R. H. Dickerson, private. Company F, Thirty-second Indiana In- 

\A'. A. Dolman, private. Company C, Eighty-ninth Indiana Infantry. 

"''John L. Douglass, private. Company F, Fortieth Indiana Infantry. 

Levi Dove, private. Company A, Nineteenth Indiana Infantry. 

William S. Elliott, corporal. Company C, Eighty-ninth Indiana In- 

'■''M. S. Friend, private, Company K, Seventy-ninth Ohio Infantry. 

*John Gambriel, Company D, Thirty-fourth Indiana Infantry. 

'■'Henry Gardner, private, Company K, One Hundred and Thirtieth 
Indiana Infantry. 

Henry Garrison, private. Company A, Eighth Indiana Infantry. 

Leander Geeding, private. Company G„ One Hundred and Thirty- 
sixth Indiana Infantry. 

*John Gibson, private, Company K, One Hundred and Thirtieth 
Indiana Infantry. 

'•'Charles Gift, private. Company I, One Hundred and Fifty-ninth 
Ohio Infantry. 



The Making of a Toiciisliip. 

Jesse Haislcx , private. Company F, One Hundred and Thirty-ninth 
Jndiana Infantry. 

Ivetired monument dealer, was born 
in Hudson County, Ohio, August 5, 
1836. His grandparents were natives 
of Pittsburgh, as were his parents, 
William Hollingsworth, born June 
_'5, 181 1, and Lucinda, born May 8, 
1814. William and Lucinda' Hol- 
lingsworth were the parents of six 
children, namely: Wesley B., John 
1!., Gilmore, Mariah, Isabel and Wil- 
liam. In 1856 John B. Hollings- 
worth came to Fairmount Town- 
ship with his parents, locating in 
Fairmount, then a village of about a 
dozen houses. The father opened 
the first cabinet shop in the Town- 
ship, making household furniture of 
all kinds by hand, and supplying pio- 
neers with coffins for their dead. 
John B. went to school at White 
Hall and also at Summitville. He 
started to learn the carpenter trade 
with his uncle, William Wellington, 
then living at Summitville, remain-' 
ing with his relative about one year, 
then returning to Fairmount and 
working at odd jobs until the spring 
of 1861. On April 23, 1861, he en- 
listed in Company K, Eighth Indi- 
ana Volunteer Infantry, for the 
three months' service, remaining 
with this regiment until the com- 
mand was mustered out on August 6, 1861. He, with Smith Kelsay and 
Isaac Smithson, were the first three Fairmount Township men who at the 
outbreak of war responded to President Lincoln's call for troops. October 
I, 1861, Hollingsworth enlisted in Company H, Twelfth Indiana Volunteer 
Infantry, serving seven months in this regiment. With this command he 
was discharged May 18, 1862. On August 10, 1862, he volunteered for the 
third time, enlisting in Company H, Eighth Indiana Volunteer Infantry, for 
three years, or until the close of the war. The Eighth was mustered out 
June 14, 1865. He was with his regiment at the battle of Rich Mountain. 
West Virginia, July 12. 1861. During his second enlistment his regiment 
was on guard duty, being stationed near Sharpsburg, Maryland, guarding 
the Potomac River. During his third enlistment he saw hard service with 
the Eighth Indiana Infantry, participating with his command in the battles 
of Blackwater. Missouri. Port Gibson, Champion Hills, Jackson, Big Black, 
Vicksburg, second battle of Jackson, Hall Town, Oppcquon, New Market. 
Cedar Creek and T'isher's Hill. At Cedar Creek, on October 19, 1864. just 
before Gen. Phil Sheridan arrived to rally his deinoralized army, Hollings- 
worth met Harry Norton, who was then sick. Hollingsworth helped his 
comrade along as far as Norton was able to go. The Confederates had at 
this point flanked the Union forces and it was a case of every man for him- 
self. Norton insisted that Hollingsworth go on and take care of himself, 
explaining, after much effort, that he was too sick and too weak, to go far- 
ther. Hollingsworth reluctantly left his comrade. The Confederates were 
upon them. Hollingsworth wheeled around, fired at his pursuers as he re- 
treated, and took to his lucls. making his escape to the Union lines as 

Foirinouiit Tcmviship Soldiers. 255 

bullets were "throwing up dirt all about him." Norton fell into the hands 
of the Confederates, and was taken to Libby Prison, where h^ died. In 
June. 1865, Hollingsworth returned home and for many years successfully 
carried on a monument business in Fairmount. - On February 17. 1876, he 
was married to Mrs. Hary Hall Hathaway, daughter of William and Han- 
nah (Stanfield) Hall, who was born February 11, 1844, in Fairmount Town- 
ship. To this union four children were born, namely: Martin L., Morton, 
Joseph B. and Sarah L., all deceased except Morton. 

Robert Hart, private, Company G, One Hundred and First Indiana 

*Cyrus W. Harvey, sergeant. Company C. Eighty-ninth Indiana 

F. M. Haynes, private, Second Indiana Light Artillery. 

*John Helton, private. Company C, Eighty-ninth Indiana Infantry. 

Alpheus Henley, private, unassigned. Eighty-ninth Indiana In- 

*Daniel Hill, private. Company C, Eighty-ninth Indiana Infantry. 

"'Thomas Hobbs, private, unassigned, Thirty-second Indiana In- 

^Joseph Hockett, private, Company F, One Hundred and Thirtieth 
Indiana Infantry. 

Joseph Hoggatt, private. Company C, Seventy-ninth Ohio Infantry. 

J. B. Hollingsworth, private. Company H, Eighth Indiana Infantry. 

Cyrus Hollingsworth, private. Company I, One Hundred and First 
Indiana Infantry ; private, unassigned. Thirty-second Indiana Infantry. 

*Wesley Hollingsworth, musician. Company K, One Hundred and 
Thirtieth Indiana Infantry. 

*Gilmore Hollingsworth, musician. Company H, Twelfth Indiana 

*Abner Holloway, private. Company E, Eighty-third Indiana 

Polk Hosier, private. Thirty-sixth Indiana Infantrv. 

*John Hubert, corporal. Company C, Fifty-fourth Indiana Infantry. 

J. M. Hundley, private. Company E, One Hundred and Fortieth 
Indiana Infantry. 

Nathan W. Hunt, private. Company C, Twelfth Indiana Infantry. 

*Henry Jeffrey, corporal. Company H, One Hundred and Eight- 
eenth Indiana Infantry. 

*Gabe Johnson, private, Company A, Eighth Indiana Infantry. 

*John F. Jones, private, Company H, Twelfth Indiana Infantry; 
captain. Company C, Eighty-ninth Indiana Infantry. 

Hiram Jones, private. Company C, Eigthy-ninth Indiana Infantry. 


256 The Making of a Toivnship. 

Jolin Jones, private, Company C, Eig'hty-ninth Indiana Infantry. 

*Thomas Jones, ])rivate. Company G, One Hundred and Twenty- 
ninth Ohio Infantry. 

*Thomas Jones, private. Forty-second Indiana Infantry. 

'''Smith Kelsay, private. Company K, One Hundred and Thirtieth 
Indiana Infantry ; Company H, Eighth Indiana Infantry. 

A. W. Kelsay, private. Company H, Twelfth Indiana Infantry ; cor- 
poral Company K, One Hundred and Fifty-third Indiana Infantry. 

*Henry D. Kepler, private. Company E, Fifty-seventh Indiana 

*Lawson Kimes, private. Company A, Fourteenth Indiana Infantry. 

William G. Lamm, private. Twenty-fourth Indiana Battery. 

Andy Leverton, private. Company C, Tenth Indiana Infantry. 

*John S. D. Lewis, private, Company H, Twelfth Indiana Infantry. 

*Eli B. Lightfoot, private. Company G, Twenty-sixth Indiana 

*Albert Lytle, private, Company C, Eighty-ninth Indiana Infantry. 

*Enoch Lytle, private. Company H, Twelfth Indiana Infantry. 

*Henry Lytle, private, Company H, Eighth Indiana Infantry. 

Newton Lytle, private. Company LI, Eighth Indiana Infantry. 

*Stanton Lytle, Company G, Eighty-ninth Indiana Infantry. 

*John Lillibridge, private. Company F, One Hundred and Thir- 
teenth Ohio Infantry. 

Alex Little, private, Company H, Twelfth Indiana Infantry ; pri- 
vate Company B, Seventh Indiana Cavalry. 

*Azel Little, private. Company H. Twelfth Indiana Infantry ; 
Twenty-fourth Indiana Battery. 

^Thomas Little, private. Company H, Eighty-fourth Indiana 
Infantry ; private. Company B, Seventh Indiana Cavalry. 

*r>yram Love, private, Comj^any D, Thirty-fourth Indiana Infantry. 

^Joseph Mahoney, private. Company F, One Hundred and Forty- 
seventh Indiana Infantry. 

^Andrew Mann. |)rivate. Company V., One Hundred and First 
Indiana Infantry. 

Frederick Mason, private, Company G, One Hundred and Fortieth 
Indiana Infantry. 

*Jacob McCoy, Company D, Thirty-third Indiana Infantry. 

*Jesse Milner, Company V , One Hundred and Thirty-ninth Indiana 


Fairmonnt Toz^"iisJilp Soldiers. 257 

Michael Mittank, private, nnassigned. Thirty-second Indiana 

*George ModHn, private, Company C, Eigthy-ninth Indiana 

Caleb Moon, corporal, Company K, One Hundred and Thirtieth 
Indiana Infantry. 

Lewis Moon, private. Company C, Seventy-ninth Ohio Infantry ; 
captain. Company G, One Hundred and Eighteenth Kentucky Infantry. 

*Albert P. )Mott, corporal, Company H, Twelfth Indiana Infantry. 

*William Newby, private, Company C, Eigthy-ninth Indiana In- 

Daniel Nicholson, private, Company G, Sixty-ninth Indiana In- 

A. F. Norton, private. Company C, One Hundred and Eighteenth 
Indiana Infantry ; private. Company D, Thirty-third Indiana Infantry. 

^George Norton, private. Company H, Eighth Indiana Infantry. 

'^Harry Norton, private. Company H, Eighth Indiana Infantry. 

*James Norton, private, Company D, Thirty-third Indiana Infantry. 

*Henry Odell, private. Company K, Thirty-fifth Ohio Infantry. 

J. H. Parker, private. Company G, One Hundred and Fifty-third 
Indiana Infantry ; private. Company K, Sixteenth United States In- 

*Harper Parsons, private, Company I, One Hundred and Forty- 
seventh Indiana Infantry. 

B. S. Payne, private. Company K, One Hundred and Thirtieth In- 
diana Infantry. 

*Ephraim Payne, private. Company H, Twelfth Indiana Infantry ; 
sergeant. Company K, One Hundred and Thirtieth Indiana Infantry. 

*James Payne, private. Company C, One Hundred and Fortieth 
Indiana Infantry. 

*Thomas Payne, private. Company G, One Hundred and Fortieth 
Indiana Infantry. 

*Wesley P'ayne, private. Company H, Twelfth Indiana Infantry. 

*Lemuel Pearson, private. Company K, One Hundred and Eight- 
eenth Indiana Infantry. 

James Phillips, private. Company A, One Hundred and Twentieth 
Indiana Infantry. 

*Alex Pickard, private, Company K, Sixteenth Indiana Infantry. 

*William Powell, private, Thirty-ninth Indiana Infantry. 



The Mah'iiijj; of o Township. 

*A. W. Ray, private, Company D, Seventy-ninth Indiana Infantry. 
*Joe Reeves, private, Company C, Eighty-ninth Indiana Infantry. 
^Andrew Rhoads, private. Company G, Fifty-seventh Indiana In- 


Who was a shoemaker, was a native 
of Pennsylvania, where he secured a 
coinmon school education. He was a 
splendid mechanic. It is said of him 
that he could take a man's measure 
for a pair of boots one morning and 
have them ready to wear the next. 
In politics he was a Republican. He 
was a member of the Methodist Epis- 
copal Church, and took an active part 
in religious work; he was very con- 
scientious and always endeavored to 
do what was right. At the beginning 
of the Civil War he closed his shop 
and volunteered his services, going at 
once to the front. He was killed De- 
cember 31. 1862, at the Battle of Stone 
River, being the first man from Fair- 
mount Township to lay down his life 
in defense of his country. His re- 
mains were buried in the Stone River 
National Cemetery. Andrew Rhoads 
married Sarah Mann, born in Indi- 
ana, and a daughter of Andrew and 
Martha Mann. To this marriage was 
l)orn John L. Khuads and Jennie (Rhoads) Thorn. John L. Rhoads was 
born November 19, 1858. He was married November 14, 1887, and his chil- 
dren are Glen, Bessie, Alta, Blanche and Lillian. Their present home is at 
Fairmount. Jennie was born December 6, i860; married August 17, i88q, 
and her children are Hassel, Walter and Lloyd, all of whom reside near 
Gaston, Indiana. Sarah (Mann) Rhoads had two brothers in the Civil 
War, namely, John and Andrew. They contracted the measles while in the 
service and died. Andrew Jackson Mann, father of Sarah, John and An- 
drew, also served in the Union Army during the War. 

*Lewis Ricks, private. Company K. One Hnnch-ed and Thirtieth 
Indiana Infantry. 

'''Ehas Roney, private, Company A, Fifty-seventh Indiana Infantry. 

Calvin Scott, j^rivato. Company C, Twelfth Indiana Infantry. 

Jesse Scott, private, Company F, One Hnndrcd and Tliirty-ninth 
Indiana Infantry ; private, Company G, One Hnndrcd and Mfty- third 
Indiana Infantry. 

*John Scott, private, Company C, Twelfth Indiana Infantry. 

Levi Scott, private. Company C, One Hnndred and Eighteenth In- 
diana Infantry. 


Fairmount Toimiship Soldiers. 259 

John Selby, private, Company F, One Hundred and Thirty-ninth 
Indiana Infantry. 

WilHam Simons, private, Company C, Eighty-ninth Indiana In- 

Ichabod Smith, sergeant, Company C, Eighty-ninth Indiana In- 

Jason B. Smith, private, Company B, One Hundred and Twenty- 
third Indiana Infantry. 

Leander Smith, private, unassigned. Eighty-third Indiana Infantry. 

Moses Smith, private. Company G, Sixth Indiana Infantry. 

Roland Smith, sergeant. Company H, Twelfth Indiana Infantry. 

'^'J- B. Smithson, private, Company B, One Hundred and Thirtieth 
Indiana Infantry. 

*Seth Smithson, private. Company E, One Hundred and Fortieth 
Indiana Infantry. 

Caleb A. Starr, private. Company K, One Hundred and Thirtieth 
Indiana Infantry. 

B. F. Stevens, private. Company I, Sixtieth Indiana Infantry. 

John H. Stewart, private, Company C, Twelfth Indiana Infantry. 

*Samuel Stewart, private. Company G, One Hundred and Fifty- 
third Indiana Infantry. 

*Elijah Stover, private, Company D, Thirty-fourth Indiana Infantry. 

R. Sutton, lieutenant. Company B, Seventy-second New York In- 

Isaiah Thomas, private, Company F, Thirty-fourth Indiana Infantry. 

*George Thorn, lieutenant, Company K, One Hundred and Fifty- 
third Indiana Infantry. 

James Thorn, private, Company B, Thirty-sixth Indiana Volunteer 
Infantry ; private. Company I, Nineteenth Veteran Reserve Corps. 

George Turner, private, Company I, Thirty-third Indiana Infantry. 

James Turner, private. Company C, Eighty-ninth Indiana Infantry. 

Lewis Turner, private. Company F, Thirty- fourth Indiana Infantry. 

*E. Vancanon, private. Company B, Thirty-third Indiana Infantry. 

*Philip Waggy^ Company H, Twelfth Indiana Infantry. 

*Alfred Waldron, private, Company K, One Hundred and Thirtieth 
Indiana Infantry. 

*John B. Wells, second lieutenant. Company C, Eighty-ninth In- 
diana Infantry. 

*Tom Wilson, private. Company C, Eighty-ninth Indiana Infantry. 


26o The Makiui^ of a Tozcnsliip. 

*Cyrus Winslow, private, Company D, Thirty-third Indiana Infan- 

*Henry Winslow, private, unassi^ned, Thirty-seeond Indiana In- 

*Walker Winslow, private, nnassigned, Seventy-ninth Indiana In- 

Joseph Wrii^ht. private. Company I, Sixty-third Indiana Infantry. 

Jnlian Wright, Company K, One Hundred and Thirtieth Indiana 


The following is a list of names of old soldiers that we have never 
seen named in your reports, who were from Fairmount Township : 

William Fogleman, of the Twelfth Indiana Infantry. 

John Evans, of the Eighth Indiana Infantry, who was poisoned at 
Otterville, Missouri, with a numher of other Indiana soldiers. Evans 
was the l)oy whom mv father reared and who came to Fairmount 
with us. 

Thomas Heavenridge, of Company A, Thirty-sixth Indiana Infantry, 
who was an uncle of mine. 

Samuel Puckett, of the First Indiana Cavalry, who was an own 
cousin, and a brother of Cyrus Puckett, who was drowned, and William 
Wright was a grandson of William Said. His mother will be remem- 
bered as Susan Wright, who married Frank Lytle, Sr. 

T. B. McDonald. 

Lovilia. lozva. March 21, 1917. 

I am sending you some additional names of soldiers and think I 
may have duplicated a few of your names on printed list. I am sure 
I have omitted many names. 

The names of Andrew Mann and Andrew J. Mann are two differ- 
ent persons — father and son. 

The names of John P)uller and John Buller, Sr., are different per- 
sons — uncle and nephew. 

Lewis Payne is father of llailey S. Payne. 

George Brewer, \A'illis Brewer and James Brewer are brothers and 
sons of William Brewer, and all lost their lives in the service. 

Josejih Little, Azel Little and Zachariah Little (you have it Zimri) 
are brothers, and sons of Nathan and Nancv Little. 


Fairmount Tozmiship Soldiers. 261 

Joseph Bennett and Josephns Bennett are father and son. 

Milton Crowell and WilHam P. Crowell are brothers and sons of 
John Crowell. 

John B. Hollingsworth. Wesley Hollingsworth and Gilmore Hol- 
lingsworth are brothers and sons of William Hollingsworth. 

The Norton boys are brothers, and sons of Major Norton. 

The Montgomery boys were brothers, as were also the Lytles, Paynes 
and Thorns, with the exception of Bailey S. Payne and Lewis and 
Wesley Payne. 

The Smith boys, William, Roland and Leander, are brothers and 
the sons of John Smith. 

I could furnish 3'0ii much more information, but find it hard and 
slow work. 

I omitted to say that John B. Wells, James A. Wells and Newton 
Wells are brothers, as are also the Stewart boys, John and Samuel, 
and the Beals boys. 

I hope what I have written may be of some assistance to you. 

J. M. Hundley. 

Swnmitville, Indiana, May 6, 191 7. 

Here are the names sent in by Mr. Hundley : 

William McCombs, corporal. Company F, Thirty-fourth Indiana 

Iredell B. Rush, second lieutenant, Company F, Thirty-fourth In- 
diana Infantry. 

Charles Felton, private, Company F, Thirty-fourth Indiana In- 

*David Y. Hoover, corporal. Company F, Thirty-fourth Indiana 

John F. Furnish, private, Company F, Thirty-fourth Indiana In- 

*John Garrison, Company F, Thirty-fourth Indiana Infantry. 
Died February 13, 1862. 

Milford Jones, private. Company F, Thirty-fourth Indiana In- 

Lewis Jones, private, Company F, Thirty-fourth Indiana Infantry. 

Josephus Bennett, private, Company K, Thirty-fourth Indiana 

John R. Harrold, private, Company D, Thirty-fourth Indiana 


262 Tlic Making of a Tozvnsliip. 

Jacob D. Cry, private, Company D, Thirty-fourth Indiana In- 
fantry. Wounded. Leg amputated. 

Nelson Thomas, corporal, Company K, One Hundred and Thir- 
tieth Indiana Infantry. 

Lemon Jones, private, Company K, One Hundred and Thirtieth 
Indiana Infantry. 

Andrew J. Smith, private, Company K, One Hundred and Thir- 
tieth Indiana Infantry. 

Stephen Morman, private. Company K, One Hundred and Thir- 
tieth Indiana Infantry. 

Caleb McCoy, private, Company K, One Hundred and Thirtieth 
Indiana Infantry. 

'•'William Dillon, captain, Company K, One Hundred and Thir- 
tieth Indiana Infantry. 

*William Smith, sergeant, Company K. One Hundred and Thir- 
tieth Indiana Infantry. 

'■"Andrew J. Mann, private. Company E, One Hundred and First 
Indiana Infantry. 

John Mann, private, Company E, One Hundred and First Indiana- 

'^John C. ]\Iontgomery, private, Company E, One Hundred and 
First Indiana Infantry. Died November 27, 1862. 

"Solomon Montgomery, private. Company E, One Hundred and 
First Indiana Infantry. Died February 22, 1863. 

*John R. Henley, private. Company I, One Hundred and First 
Indiana Infantry. 

John A. Horner, private. Company I, One Hundred and First In- 
diana Infantry. 

William H. H. Conger, private, Company' I, One Hundred and 
First Indiana Infantry. 

*James S. llradbury, private. Company I, One Hundred and First 
Indiana Infantry. Killed at Chickamauga, September 19, 1863. 

Mansfield Felton, private, Company I, One Hundred antl First 
Indiana Infantry. 

'•'James A. Wells, private, Company I, Eighty-fourth Indiana In- 

Newton j. Wells, private. Company C, Eighty-ninlh Indiana In- 


Fairmoiuit Tozenship Soldiers. 263 

'"''George Brewer, private, Company C, Eighty-ninth Indiana In- 
fantry. Died December 15, 1862. 

WilHam A. Bradbury, private, Company C, Eighty-ninth Indiana 

*John B. Wells, second lieutenant. Company C, Eighty-ninth In- 
diana Infantry. 

*Lewis Payne, wagoner. Company C, Eighty-ninth Indiana 

*Hugh Weston, captain. Company A, One Hundred and Twenty- 
third Indiana Infantry. 

*Marion Wood, private. Company K, Eighth Indiana Infantry ; 
lieutenant. One Hundred and Forty-seventh Indiana Infantry. 

Jacob M. Plow, private, Company B, One Hundred and Thirtieth 
Indiana Infantry. 

*John Lytle, private. Company H, Eighth Indiana Infantry. 
Killed at Cedar Creek, Virginia, October 19, 1864. 

^Robert W. Hasting, private. Company H, Eighth Indiana In- 

*Williani J. McNabney, private. Company A, Eighteenth Ohio 

Abner Leach, private. Company H, Eighth Indiana Infantry ; also 
Company B, Eighth Indiana Infantry. 

William Sapp, private, Thirty-second Indiana Infantry. 

Frank Furnish, Thirty-second Indiana Infantry. 

-'"John Buller, Sr. Died in service. 

*Isaac Smithson, private, Company B, Eighth Indiana Infantry. 
First three months' call. 

James Terrell, private. Company G, One Hundred and Fortieth 
Indiana Infantry. 

*Hubbard Stanley, Thirty-second Indiana Infantry. Substitute. 
Killed by accident. 

* Jonathan Winslow, private, Compan}- C, Eighty-ninth Indiana In- 

*Lindse_\- Wilson, private, unassigned. Thirty-third Indiana Infan- 

Emanuel Duncan, private. Fifth Indiana Cavalry. 

Thomas Milholland, private, Company B, Fifty-second Indiana 

'''James Monahan, private, Company K, Thirt\--third New Jersey 


264 The Makuv^ of a Tozvnsliip. 

*John IManning, private, Company G, Thirt3-fourth Indiana In- 

*David L. Payne, private, Company F, Tenth Kansas Infantry ; 
Company G, Eighth Regiment Western Volunteer Infantry; captain, 
Company D, Eighteenth Kansas Cavalry. 

* Simeon Rader, private. Company B, Eighty-fourth Indiana In- 

"Daniel Richards, unassigned. Thirty-second Indiana Infantry. 

John Roberts, private. Company I, One Hundred and Seventeenth 
Indiana Infantry. 

*Theodore Stansbury, first sergeant, Company K, Second Ohio In- 
fantry ; first sergeant. Company D, Sixty-sixth Ohio Infantry. 

*George W. Vaughn, private. Company C, Seventh Michigan In- 

William M. Duling, private, Thirty-second Indiana Infantry. 

*John W. Duling, private. Company D, Thirty-third Indiana In- 

The writer is indebted to Jesse Haisley for the additional names 
given below of men who served in the Union Army during the Civil 

\\'illiam Penn Beals, second lieutenant. Company F, One Hundred 
and Thirty-ninth Indiana Infantry. 

*Joseph Rush, sergeant, Company F, One Hundred and Thirty- 
ninth Indiana Infantry. 

*Lindley Hockett, sergeant, Company F. One Hundred and Thirty- 
nintli Indiana Infantry. 

^Thomas Cox, private, Company F, One Hundred and Thirty-ninth 
Indiana Infantry. 

*Hezekiah Miller, private. Company F, One Hundred and Thirty- 
ninth Indiana Infantry. 

'^'Ephraim Poole, private, Company F, One Hundred and Thirty- 
ninlli Indiana Infantry. 

Henry (Tobe) Winslow, private, Company F, One Hundred and 
Thirty-ninth Indiana Infantry. 

*Tiiomas Mann, private, Company F, One Hundred and Hiirty- 
ninth Indiana Infantry. 

'■M lenry Nichols, private. Company F, One Hundred and Thirty- 
ninth Indiana Infantr\-. 


Fairmount Toivuship Soldiers. 265 

John J. Carey, private, Company C, One Hundred and Eighteenth 
Indiana Infantry. 

Hiram Reel, private. Company F, One Hundred and Thirty-ninth 
Indiana Infantry. 

Charles A. Carey, private, Company C, One Hundred and Eight- 
eenth Indiana Infantry. 


Please correct the statement about the Smithson boys who were in 
the army. There were four in the army during the Civil War, namely, 
Judiah, Jehu, Isaac and Seth. Jonathan was drafted and got exempt 
on account of a crooked finger. Jehu and Seth died in the army. 

Lydia Smithson. 

Fairmount, Indiana, March 22, 1917. 

(Editor's Note. — Mrs. Smithson is the widow of Jude Smithson, 
and although eighty-six years old, is enjoying good health for a person 
of her age. Her father was the late Mahlon Neal. She was born in 
Miami County, Ohio, and came to Grant County with her parents in 
1839, when she was about eight years old. In her father's family there 
were six children, namely : William, Margaret, James, Eli, Lydia and 
Caleb. Judiah and Lydia Smithson commenced housekeeping in Fair- 
mount in 1 85 1, shortly after their marriage.) 

Joseph Whybrew, unassigned, was drafted in September, 1864. He 
reported at Indianapolis, took sick and died in Camp Carrington Hos- 
pital in October or November, 1864. I went to General Carrington's 
residence at late bed time and procured an order to take the body home 
for burial, with a detail for two comrades, Henry Winslow and Thomas 
Hobbs, to accompany the remains and see that he had a soldier's burial, 
which instructions were carried out, and he was laid to rest in Back 
Creek Graveyard. 

John Winslow, a brother of Nixon, was drafted, reported at Indi- 
anapolis, obtained a furolugh to return home, and hired Silas Cook to 
substitute. When they both reported at headquarters at Indianapolis 
Cook was examined and accepted and Winslow was released. So we 
have Silas Cook, Elisha Elliott, Henry (Tobe) Winslow and David L. 

266 I'hc Making of a Tozcnsliif'. 

Have you Frank Jones's brother? I believe his name was Clark. 

A. Henley. 
Melbourne. l-Iorida. May 29, 1917. 


(By John L. Rhoads) 

In speaking of the early shoemakers of Fairmount will say that my 
father, /\ndrew Rhoads, had a shoeshop at the time the Civil War 
broke out, which he closed up and went to the front. 

The building he was in was a low. wooden structure, located where 
the John Flanagan store now stands. He had the shop in the front 
and we lived in the rear rooms. Our living room door faced Wash- 
ington Street. 

Just across from us, where the Hahne drug store is now located, 
lived Uncle Seth and Aunt Mary Winslow, as I always called them. 
Their south door faced our north door, and Uncle Seth often coaxed 
me over there with a nice red apple or something tempting, and I will 
always remember them as jolly good friends of my childhood days. 

I have been told that father would take the measure of a man's foot 
one morning and by the next morning the man would be wearing his 
boots. My father taught the round notes in early days, also played 
the violin by note. Sometimes they would bring a violin to the shop and 
have him play, but, after he was converted and joined the Methodist 
Church and jjecame a class leader, they did not sanction such things, 
so he quit playing. 

I was a small boy, but remember quite well when the stage brought 
the letter to mother saying my father had been killed at the Battle of 
Stone River, on December 31, 1862. Uncle George Mann was staying 
with us at the time. My sister, now Mrs. ^^'ill Thorn, of Gaston, and 
myself, were the only children in our family. 

After father's death mother sold the shop. He belonged at his death 
to Company G, h'ifty-seventh Indiana \'olunteers. We have in our 
home an enlarged picture of him, taken in his uniform. 

Fairmount, Indiana, April ly, 1917. 

JCphraim liarlholomew, retired farmer, is a native uf I )c•\•()n^llir^■. 
England, where he was born on July 29, 1842. With his mother he 

Fairmount Township Soldiers. 


came to Fayette County, Indiana, 
in 1854. In i860, with his par- 
ents, he located in Liberty Town- 
ship, on the farm now owned by 
Wihiam Lindsey, about seven 
miles southwest of Fairmount. He 
went to school in Devonshire be- 
fore leaving his native land, and 
also attended the common schools 
as a boy in Fayette County. In 
politics he is a Progressive Re- 
publican. Mr. Bartholomew is 
Commander of Beeson Post, No. 
386. Grand Army of the Republic, 
having become a member of this 
Post in 1903, by transfer from 
Andrews, Indiana. He is a mem- 
ber of the Baptist Church. On 
Jul\- 28, 1861, he enlisted in Com- 
pany A, Nineteenth Indiana Vol- 
unteer Infantry, then organizing 
at Camp Morton, Indianapolis, 
Col. Sol. Meredith commanding. 
No regiment, perhaps, saw more 
hard fighting during the Civil War than the Nineteenth, which was 
mustered into the service July 29, 1861. On August 9 the command 
arrived at Washington, D. C. In an engagement with Confederates at 
Lewinsville, Virginia, September 11, 1861, three men were killed and 
wounded. The winter was passed at Fort Craig, brigade headquarters 
being established at Arlington House, formerly the home of Gen. Rob- 
ert E. Lee, now known as the National Cemetery. On March 10, 1862, 
moved with the First Army Corps, under General McDowell, to Fred- 
ericksburg, Virginia, and on August 5 made a raid to Spottsylvania 
Court House, reaching Cedar Mountain August 10. August 28, 1862, 
the Iron Brigade, of which the Nineteenth Indiana formed a part, and 
General Gibbons' brigade, six regiments in all, withstood General Jack- 
son's corps of twenty-six regiments from 5 p. m. until 9 p. m., the regi- 
ment losing one hundred and eighty-seven killed and wounded and 
thirty-three missing, Maj. Isaac M. May being among the killed. On 
August 30, at Groveton (second Bull Run), they were engaged with 
slight loss. September 14 the Iron Brigade was engaged to carry the 


268 The Making of a Township. 

pike at South Mountain, center of the position under General Hooker, 
losing forty killed and wounded and seven missing. On September i/, 
at Antietam. the regiment went into battle with two hundred officers 
and men and came out with but thirty-seven officers and men. Colonel 
Meredith was promoted to brigadier-general and Lieut.-Col. Samuel J. 
Williams promoted to colonel. Participated in the Battle of Fredericks- 
burg, December 12 and 13. April 28, 1863, was in the fight at Fitz 
Hugh Crossing. The Nineteenth was one of the first regiments to 
launch pontoons and carry the rifle pits, losing four killed and wounded. 
May 21 went to West Moreland Court House to relieve some cavalry 
on a raid. June 12, 1863, crossed the Potomac River at Edwards' 
Ferry. The Iron Brigade was on picket dut}' June 30 in front of the 
Army of the Potomac. July i this brigade was the first infantry to 
engage the Confederates at Gettysburg, capturing Archer's Brigade and 
General Archer during the forenoon. On this day Bartholomew was 
promoted to the rank of first sergeant. About 3 p. m. Gen. A. P. Hill's 
corps in full force attacked the First and Eleventh corps. The Eleventh 
corps had arrived at about 12:30 p. m. The Nineteenth Indiana went 
into the engagement with two hundred and eighty-eight men, losing 
two hundred and ten killed, wounded and missing. July 2 and 3 the 
regiment was entrenched on Gulp's Hill, near Cemetery Ridge. Its 
loss was but two wounded. Moved to Culpepper, Virginia, then to 
Mine Run, in November. While in winter quarters at Culpepper the 
regiment re-enlisted and was granted a furlough to Indiana. 2\ loving 
with General Grant's army May 4, 1864, was engaged in the battles 
of the Wilderness. Laurel Hill, North Anna. Spottsylvania, and Cold 
Harbor. May 5 Colonel AA'illiams was killed and Lieut.-Col. John ^l. 
Lindley was given command of the regiment. Losses from May 4 to 
July 30 : Killed, thirty- six ; severely wounded, ninety-four ; slightly 
wounded, sixteen ; missing, sixteen ; total, two hundred and twenty. In 
the seige of Petersburg, Virginia, the regiment was constantly under 
fire. August 19-21 was in the capture of the Weldon railroad below 
Petersburg. September 2^ the Seventh Indiana was consolidated with 
the Nineteenth Indiana. October i8 they were consolidated with the 
Twentieth Indiana and Bartholomew was promoted to first lieutenant 
of Company I. and served as such until the Twentieth Infantry was 
mustered out of the service Jul\- 12, 1865. Bartholomew was wounded 
twice, the first time in front of Petersburg, on June 16, 1864, and again 
on April 6, 1865, while leading his company at Amelia Court House, 
Virginia a few days before (icneral Lee surrendered at Appomattox, 
Bartholomew was severelv wounded and left on the field to die. He 

Fairmowit Township Soldiers. 


regained consciousness, was picked up and moved by his men to the 
hospital. And this is the story of a man and of a regiment which did 
their part in the great Civil War to restore the Union. On February 
4, 1864, Mr. Bartholomew was married to Miss Sarah E. Gibson, 
daughter of George Gibson, she a native of Hamilton County, Indiana, 
born June 26, 1845. They were the parents of six children, namely: 
Frances Ann, George, William, Mary, Linnea, Albert and Annie Gus- 
sie, all deceased except William and Albert. Mrs. Bartholomew died 
in March, 1903. In 1913 Mr. Bartholomew was married to Miss Emma 
F. Davis, of Tipton, and they now reside on North Buckeye Street, 

James C. Thorn is the son of Stephen and Jane (Lewis) Thorn, 
who settled in Van Buren Township, Madison County, about 1840. 
The' Thorns came from Boone 
County, Indiana. Stephen and 
Jane Thorn were parents of five 
children, namely, Joseph, George, 
Charles, Jacob and James, all de- 
ceased except the latter. On Au- 
gust I, 1 86 1, at Fairmount, he 
enlisted in the Thirty-fourth In- 
diana Infantry, but on August 16, 
of the same year, was transferred 
to the Thirty-sixth Indiana In- 
fantry, commanded by Col. Wil- 
liam Grose, of New Castle, and 
Lieut.-Col. O. H. P. Carey, of 
Marion. Thorn served with this 
regiment until April 12, 1864. He 
was transferred from the Thirty- 
sixth on April 13, 1864, to the 
Nineteenth Veteran Reserve 
Corps, at Washington, D. C, and 
on November 16, 1865, was mus- 
tered out at Buffalo, New York, 
having completed a service of 
more than four vears in the Union 


army. He was one of the youngest men who volunteered during the 
Civil War, being but sixteen years old at the time of enlistment. Before 

270 ' The Makiiii:; of a Township. 

tendering- his services he had taken the precaution to prepare for any 
objections on account of his youth. He had marked the figures 18 
on the soles of his shoes. When the recruiting officer inquired his 
age he repHed that he was "over 18," and no further questions were 
asked. The Thirty-sixth Infantry took part in several important en- 
gagements, among them Chickamauga, Stone River, Pittsburg Land- 
ing and Mumfordsville. 

"At Washington, on July 12, 1864," stated Mr. Tliorn to the writer. 
"the Confederates under Gen. Jubal A. Early and General Breckin- 
ridge, had they known it, could easily have taken the capital. Outside 
the city about three miles the breastworks were held by a small force 
of hundred-days' men, imseasoned and without military experience. 
The Confederates came up Saturday afternoon, but on account of 
heavy marching stopped to rest over Sunday. By Monday, when the 
attack was started. Early and Breckinridge found themselves con- 
fronted by a considerable force of Union troops, who had in the mean- 
time manned the works with artillery and seasoned infantrymen. Gen. 
Lew Wallace and his Sixth Army Corps coming up in time to save the 
day. The Confederate attack, which occurred at a point about three 
miles north of Washington, was repulsed." 

During the four years Thorn was in the service he was injured 
four different times. He was wounded at Chickamauga, where he 
lost a finger on his left hand. The Thirty-sixth was under fire one 
hundred and twenty-eiglit days in succession on the Atlanta campaign. 

On October 7, 1868, Mr. Thorn was married to Miss Elizabeth J. 
Dame, in Clinton County, Indiana. In 1882 he located in Fairmount, 
and in 1884 they moved to his farm, situated two miles and a half south- 
west of Fowlerton. x-Xssisted by John George and Jacob Dame he cir- 
culated a petition for the building of the Thorn pike, extending from 
the Interurl)an line to John W. Himelick's corner, a distance of four 
miles. When Mr. Thorn first moved to his farm, land in that neighbor- 
hood was valued at fifty to sixty dollars per acre. He constructed 
timber ditches and j)ut in about seventy rods of tile to get an outlet to 
Barren Creek and the Harrison ditch. In a few years his land was 
worth one hundred and fifty dollars per acre. The farm developed 
into a splendid oil territory, four good producing wells being put down. 
Thorn and Capt. David L. Payne were relatives and schoolmates. He 
speaks of Captain Payne as a boy of considerable native ability, always 
fond of jokes and pranks. These characteristics were not entirely 
lacking when Payne became a man. Mr. Thorn relates llial upon one 
of his visits to his old neighbors, while on his way from \\'ashington, 

Fairiuount Toivnship Soldiers. 


D. C, to his Western home, Captain Payne brought with him a quantity 
of what he described to be very choice yam sprouts. Two of his old 
friends were eager to try out this new variety for a change, and pro- 
ceeded to plant the sprouts. The result was a pestiferous growth of 
wild morning glories, which are still found in spots in the vicinity of 
Payne's old home. Captain Payne had simply resorted to this plan of 
getting even with some of his old school-day friends who had on many 
occasions in the past played tricks on him in his boyhood. Mr. and 
A'Irs. Thorn are now comfortably situated at their home in Fowlerton, 
where they are passing their last years in peace and plenty. 

Alson M. Bell, who lived in Fairmount Township for many years, 
was born June 7, 1842. He was a Confederate soldier during the Civil 
War, serving in Company H, 
Thirty-eighth North Carolina In- 
fantry, in the Army of Northern 
Virginia, under Gen. Robert E. 


*J. Frank Deshon. 
John H. Crow. 
Burl W. Cox. 
*Leroy R. Smith. 
Murton Woolen. 
"^Hollis R. Hayworth. 
Louis O. Chasey. 
Allen D. Parker. 
*David Tappan. 
Charles T. Payne. 
Edgar M. Baldwin. 
All members of Company A, 
One Hundred and Sixtieth In- 
diana Volunteer Infantry. 

Hal V. Dale, Sixth United 
States Cavalry ; Ed Stover, J. D. 
Latham, Dr. C. B. Vigus. 

Cyrus Pemberton, Company F, ALSON M. BELL 

Twenty-ninth Lmited States Volunteer Infantry. 



The Making of a Toztmship. 

W. Hort Ribble, sergeant, Company H, Thirty-fourth Ignited States 
Volunteer Infantry. 

Residence of Xen H. Edwards on North Wahiut Street 


Clyde Scott 
Louis h"reital 
Burr Stephens 
J. Dyson Stuckey 
Ora Alberts 
Ouincy Cox 
Alfred Gore 
Marion A. McCorkhill 
Lewis Cline 
Charles Creek 
Troy Eaton 
George Ellison 
Cecil M. Payne 
Ray Lynch 
Henry Stradtman 
Mark Leach 
William Owens 

Edwin Tomlinson 

Lewis Brunker 

Floyd Payne 

Watt Fallis 

Roy Collins 

Roscoe George 

Alva Huston 

Frank A. Beasley 

Paul N. Fred 

Ira Anderson 

Lieut. -Col. Allen Parker 

Russell Dale 

Russell Ricks 

Raymond Barr 

Xen Creek 

Francis Hardesty 

Rov Frank f(^rd 

Fairmount Township Soldiers. 


C. \'. Hearn 
Will Gregg- 
Wayne Sizelove 
Floyd Woodruff 
Bert Ward 
Carter Helms 
Earl Ricks 
• Garl Munsell 
Cleo Thomas 
Clyde Monahan 
Ray Myers 
William Archer 
William C. Powell 
Harold Griffin 
Austin Fear 
Archie Curtis 
Adam Bates 
Raymond Dicks 
Paul Whitely 
Emil Most art 
John Oakley 
Fred A. Smiley 
Charles Hill 

Frank AUred 
Ora Cline 
Kenneth Huston 
Harry Foster 
Ray Odell 
Robert Winslow 
Ora A. Eiler 
Richard Bright 
Fred Langsdon 
Daniel R. Payne 
Leo Bundy 
Russell Wright 
George Foster 
William Benner 
John A. Painter 
Leslie Winslow 
Dale Nicholson 
Jesse W^elch 
Forest Frantz 
Harry Fitzpatrick 
Bloomer McCoy 
Basil LTnderwood 
Charles Heater 


W. Hort Ribble is a native of 
Delaware County, Indiana, grad- 
uating from the Muncie High 
School. In April, 1899, ^^ ^^'^' 
eblo, Colorado, he enlisted in 
Company H. Thirty-fourth I'nited 
States Volunteer Infantry. In 
Julv following he was promoted 
to corporal, and in 1900, while 
serving in the Philippines, he was 
again promoted to sergeant. Ser- 
geant Ribble took part in seven- 
teen skirmishes and participated 
in the engagement at San Ouin- 
tin, in the Island of Luzon, where 
he saw service for nearly two 


The Making of a Township. 

Lieut. -Col. Allen Parker is a native of Fairmount, where he was 
born April 9, 1877. He was educated in the Fairmount public schools, 

attended school at Marion during 
one year while his father, Joseph 
H. Parker, was serving as County 
Treasurer, and for over three 
years a student at Fairmount 
Academy. In April, 1898, he en- 
listed as a ])rivate in Company A, 
One Hundred and Sixtieth In- 
diana X^olunteer Infantry, Col. 
George W. Gunder. commanding. 
When this regiment returned 
from Cuba, at the close of the 
Spanish-American War, Colonel 
Parker was ordered to Fortress 
Monroe, where he passed a rigid 
examination and was commis- 
sioned, on his twenty-first birth- 
day, as second lieutenant in the 
United States Army. He has 
LIEUT. COL. ALLEN PARKER been promoted several times since 
that date. In 1917 he was assigned to duty with the new army and 
brevetted lieutenant-colonel, the only Fairmount Township man to 
attain to this military honor. 



IN SEPTEMBER, 185 1, Fairmount Township was organized by au- 
thority of an order issued by the Board of Commissioners of Grant 
County. This Board consisted of Robert H. Lenfesty, WilHam C. Miles 
and Spencer Reeder, the latter being the Commissioner from the Third 

The territory set aside for this purpose had been included within 
the boundary lines of Liberty Township since May, 1839. The Town- 
ship lines were then indicated as follows : 

"Commencing at the northeast corner of Section 16, in Township 23 
north, Range 8 east ; running thence south on section line to the south- 
east corner of Section 4, in Township 22, in Range 8 ; thence west to 
the southwest corner of Section 6, in Liberty Township and Range; 
thence north to the northwest corner of Section 18, in Township 23, 
Range 8 ; thence east on the section line to the place of beginning." 

In describing the topography of Fairmount Township, William 
Neal, who for many years followed his occupation, that of a Surveyor, 
and was reputed to be familiar with practically every section of land in 
the Township, in 1886 wrote as follows: 

"This Township presents some variety on the surface, but is gen- 
erally level except in the neighborhood of the streams, where it is some- 
what rolling, the greater portion consisting in a state of nature of black, 
level lands, where the ash, elm and maple grow in great abundance, 
yet a great deal of the soil produced the walnut, poplar, beech, sugar 
and lin, all growing together in the fullest perfection, and arriving at 
great size. Along Back Creek grew the poplar (tulip) in large propor- 
tion. Along Barren Creek grew the oak in full size and perfection. In 
the eastern and southeastern portions grew in great plenty all timber 
mixed in together, so that the lumberman could get whatever he might 
want without going off the section where he might be located. The 
surface along Barren Creek and along the prairies is peculiar, and more 
or less uneven as compared with the other parts, and is almost exclu- 
sively covered with oak, mostly white oak mixed in with black and red 
and even some jack oak. Barren Creek enters the Township in Section 
4, Township 22, Range 8, and has a general northeasterly course and 
leaves the Township a little south of the northeast corner of Section 
24, Township 23, Range 8; then comes the prairie on the west of the 



llic Makin;^ of a Toi^'uslup. 

creek and extending to the lake, a distance of four and a half miles, 
and the valley of one is sometimes not more than forty to sixty rods 


Who lives on Route 3, southeast of 
Fairmount, is one of the Township's 
splendid farmers. He was born Au- 
gust 25, 1854, near Linwood, in Mad- 
ison County. His paternal grand- 
father was Malachi W. Relfe, born in 
Perquimans County, North Carolina, 
who died March 5, 1870, aged fifty- 
nineyears, five months and seventeen 
days. The maternal grandfather was 
George Smith, who died in 1858. Al- 
liertson Relfe, the father, was born in 
Perquimans County, North Carolina, 
October i, 1833, and died at his home 
in Marion County, Oregon, October i, 
1899. The mother, Virginia (Smith) 
Relfe, was born in Madison County, 
Indiana, May 22, 1834, and died at the 
family home southeast of Fairmount. 
February 2, 1879. To Albertson and 
Virginia Relfe were born three sons, 
namely: Joseph Warren and Wilson 
Worth, who now live in Fairmount 
Township, and Grant, who lives in 
Jefferson, Oregon. It is a tradition 
in the Relfe family that through the 
maternal side of the house they are 
descendants of Captain John Smith, 
the founder of Jamestown. Warren 
Relfe attended school near Linwood, in Madison County; near Amboy, in 
Miami County, and after his parents moved to Grant County, in October, 
1869, he went to the Fairmount Township schools. When he left school he 
engaged in farming, in which occupation he has been successful. He was 
one of the original stockholders of the Barren Creek Gas Company. In 
the spring of 1896 he was elected Township Assessor, serving in this posi- 
tion until 1900. Again, in 1904, the people turned to Mr. Relfe, and he was 
for the second time honored by their confidence, the term of Assessor being 
by act of the State Legislature extended from four to six years, making the 
total length of time ten years for the two terms for which he was elected. 
In politics Mr. Relfe is a Progressive Republican. He is a member of 
Pleasant Grove Methodist Protestant Church. February 22, 1877. Mr. Relfe 
was married to Miss Mary Ann I>uller. born in Liberty Township, January 
5, 1857. '<^ daughter of John and Jane (Thomas) Duller. She died January 
12, 1912. Four children were born of this marriage, namely: George M., 
January 22, 1878; Nellie, June 16, 1880; Frank E.. February 16, 1882, and 
Mary E., March 10, 1887. George died April i, 1881; Nellie died October 
25, 1914; Frank E. and family reside on the Hubert farm, in the northeast 
corner of the Townsiiip. March 20, 1915, Mr. Relfe married for his second 
wife, Miss Ida Ink. daughter of a well known pioneer family of the 'i'ownship. 

from the other. The space between lies high and is covered w ith oak, 
as are also the eastern and western banks of creek and prairie." 

In June, 1855, the Board of County Commissioners made a general 
reorganization of the Township. Union and Ivairmoimt Townships 

Fairuiouut Township — Corporation. 


were consolidated, the territory comprising the new (hvision taking the 
name of Union Township. Again, before the close of the year 1855, 
another change was ordered, and the old lines restored. Being again 
consolidated in 1858, the new arrangement re-established the original 
boundaries and the territory thus created was called Fairmount Town- 

At the September session of the Board of Commissioners, in 1863, 
a part of Township 25, situated west of the Mississinewa River, was 



Courtesy of Marion Title & Loan Company. 

added to Center Township, and at a later period that part of Sections 1 1 
and 12, in Township 23, Range 8, which lies south of the ]\Iississinewa, 
was annexed to Fairmount Township. There has been no change in 
the boundary lines of the Township since 1863. 

It may be remarked, in passing, that inasmuch as Fairmount Town- 
ship, while yet in her infancy, partook freely of the soil of Liberty and 
Union, seed fell upon good ground. The natives of this community 
point with a pardonable pride and satisfaction to the unusuall}- heavy 


I'lic Malciiia; of a Toivnship. 

enlistments from Fairmount Township in the Union Army during the 
Civil \\^ar and the War with Germany. 

Considering territorial area there is comparatively little or no un- 
productive land in the Township. Practically every foot of cleared 
ground is under cultivation. The earnest labors of the pioneer, re- 
enforced at a later period by the industry and enterprise of his sons and 
daughters, have transformed the bogs and the beaver dams of the 
early day into the fertile farms of the present. 

The corduroy roads of more than half a century ago have been 
replaced by good pikes. The open ditches are practically a thing of 

the past. Chills and fever, relent- 
less enemies of our ancestors, have 
disappeared before the sweep of 
modern scientific knowledge and 
correct sanitary conditions. The 
percentage of mortality is now in- 
significant as compared with the 
appalling death rate of former 
times, when large families were 
invaded and homes almost broken 
up within a few weeks by diseases 
known to the pioneer. 

At a meeting of Township Trus- 
tees held April ii, 1853, the bond 
of William Hall, as Township 
Treasurer, was accepted as suf- 
ficient and filed. The Trustees at 
that date were Jesse Brooks, 
Nixon Rush, Sr., and Joseph Hol- 
lingsworth. Ezra Foster was the 
Township Clerk. At this session of the Trustees seventy-five cents 
was allowed as compensation for one full day's service. This is the 
first meeting of Township Trustees, the law then providing for the elec- 
tion of three, instead of one, as shown by the official records of the 
Township now in possession of the present incumbent. Trustee David 
G. Lewis. 

In April, 1854, there were six road districts in the Township. The 
list of road hands eligible for service was classified as follows : 

District No. i, James M. Ellis, Supervisor— Joseph W. Hill, Jesse 
Harvey, John Carey, Thomas Harvey, Jr., Henry Winslow, Linden 
Osborn, Joseph Carey, Robert Carey, Robert Corder, Samuel Radley, 


Fairnwunt Tozunship — Corporation. 279 

Allen Wright, George Rich, Samuel Dillon, Seth Winslow and James 
M. Ellis. 

District No. 2, William Pierce, Supervisor — William Pierce, Clark- 
son Pierce, Thomas Newby, James Harrison, Andrew Lytic, John 
Phillips, Joel Phillips, Jesse Pemberton, IMordecai Davidson, Moses 
Larkin, James Davidson, Milton W^inslow, Jesse Dillon and John 

District No. 3, Hopkins Richardson, Supervisor — William Wins- 
low, Isaac Wright, Henry Level, Aaron Kaufman, Charles Stanfield, 
George Lewis, John Benbow, Isam Portice, Walker Winslow, Daniel 
T. Lindsey, Henry Winslow, Jonathan D. Richardson, Zimri Richard- 
son, Simon Kaufman, Isaac Roberts and James Quinn. 

District No. 4, Phillip Patterson, Supervisor — Andrew BuUer, Car- 
ter Hasting, James Nixon, Judiah Smithson, Daniel Thomas, John 
Scale, Nathan D. Wilson, Jesse E. Wilson, Jonathan Baldwin, Nathan 
Little, Isaac Hawkins, David Baldwin, Phillip Patterson, Mahlon Cook, 
John Henley, Joseph W. Baldwin, Isaac Stanfield, James Cammack, 
William Hundley, William Wright, Nixon Rush, Sr., Nathan Vinson, 
Seaberry Lines, William Hall, Solomon Parsons, Joshua Foster, An- 
drew Leverton, Calvin Dillon and Iredell Rush. 

District No. 5, Lindsey Wilson, Supervisor — Hanley Broyles, Henry 
Wilson, Eli Neal, Micajah Wilson, Henry J. Reel, Andrew J. Mann, 
Albert Dillon, James Lytic, Calvin Bookout, Clayton L. Stanfield and 
Alfred Waldron. 

District No. 6, William Fear, Supervisor — William Fear, John 
Smith, John W. Ridge, Aaron Cosand, James Williams, Isaac Thomas, 
William Parsons, Isaac Johnson, Clark A. Johnson, Jr., Henry Osborn, 
Jonathan Osborn, Charles A. Johnson and Nelson Thomas. 

April 7, 1856, Phineas Henley was elected Justice of the Peace, 
William Hall, Treasurer, A. R. Williams, Clerk, and Samuel Dillon, 
Daniel Thomas and Micajah Wilson were chosen to serve on the Board 
of Township Trustees. 

In 1858 Thomas D. Duling, Samuel Dillon and Seth Winslow were 
elected to the Board of Township Trustees, John S. Carey, Township 
Clerk and William Hall, Township Treasurer. This was the last year 
that a Board of Township Trustees was elected. 

In 1859 the law was amended so as to provide for the election an- 
nually of one Township Trustee, for a term of one year. 

On April 4, 1859, Henry Harvey was elected, being the first man to 
serve under the new law. 

28o The Making of a Toiunship. 

The following Township Trustees have served since the election of 
Harvey : 

1 860- 1 865 — Jonathan P. Winslow. 

1865— M. C. Wilson. 

1866 — Jonathan P. Winslow. 

1867 — Samuel Dillon. 

1868 — Jonathan P. Winslow. 

1869 — J. F. Jones. 

1870 — Morgan O. Lewis. 

1871-1872— J. Nixon Elliott. 

1873-1874 — Joseph H. Wilson. 

1875-1877— Eli Neal. 

1880 — Lemuel Pearson. 

1884— Joseph Ratliff. 

1888 — Lemuel Pearson. 

1890 — John Kelsay. 

1894 — Joseph Ratliff.'^ 

1900 — Joel O. Duling. 

1904 — Alvin J. Wilson. 

1908— John R. Little. 

1914 — David G. Lewis. 

The census of i860 shows that Eairmount Township had a popula- 
tion of one thousand, three hundred and six, two colored. In 1870 the 
census shows a population of one thousand, five hundred and seventy- 
three, one thousand, five hundred and forty-three native, thirty foreign ; 
one thousand, five hundred and twenty white and fifty-three colored. 

The taxable property of the Township in 1876 amounted to five hun- 
dred and sixty-three thousand, three hundred and twenty-five dollars. 

'^Joseph Ratliff, for many years Trustee of Fairmonnt Township, serving 
in this important office at different times, was a native of Henry County, 
Indiana, born March 27, 1838. His parents wer.^ Gabriel and Catherine 
(Pearson) Ratliff, natives of North Carolina, who came to Indiana and 
settled with their parents while small children, near Richmond. Joseph 
Ratliff came to h'airmount Township in 1870, and bou.nht the farm one mile 
northeast of Fairmount, which he owned until his djath. He was educated 
in Miami County, Indiana, where he was married, in 1859, to Miss Mary 
A. Lamb, a native of Madison County, Indiana. They were the parents of 
eight children, but two of whom, Ancil E., a prosperous Liberty Township 
farmer, and Dr. Milo E. Ratliff, a prominent citizen and d^^ntist of Casso- 
polis, Mich., are the only survivors. Joseph Ratliff and family were con- 
sistent members of the Society of Friends, and were always active and 
influential in the church. He was during his entire lifetime engaged in 
farming. His broad experience and strict integrity in all the affairs of life 
soon won the confidence of the people of the Township and this confidence 
was fully justified by a number of years of faithful and efficient service 

Fairmouiif Tozvnship — Corporation. 


In 1876 four hundred and forty votes were cast in the Township for 
the different candidates for President, of which number Rutherford B. 
Hayes received two hundred and ninety-six ; Samuel J. Tilden, one hun- 
dred and twenty-one, and Peter Cooper, twenty-three. 

Township Trustee, was born two 
miles and one-half southeast of Fair- 
mount, on what was known as the 
John Leach farm, August 16, 1862. 
His paternal grandparents were David 
and Nancy (George) Lewis; his ma- 
ternal grandparents were Morgan and 
Susan Lewis. Morgan O. Lewis, the 
father, and a former Township Trus- 
tee, was born in Fairmount Township, 
January 21, 1836, and died January 18, 
1884. The mother, Maria Lewis, was 
born at Narvou, Illinois, May 4, 1844, 
and died in November, igoi. David G. 
Lewis was educated in the conimon 
schools of Fairmount Township. In 
1868 he attended his first school at 
Sugar Grove, which was taught by his 
father. All his life he has followed 
farming. For twenty-five years he has 
studied tree culture. His nursery on 
South Mill Street is an evidence of his 
perseverance and industry. For sev- 
eral years he was a stockholder and 
director in the Fairmount Fair Asso- 
ciation. Mr. Lewis is a self-made man. 
By his own unaided efforts he has met 
with success from humble begin- 
nings. As Trustee of Fairmount Township he was the first to secure State 
aid for vocational training, which enables boys over fourteen and under 
twenty-five to secure competent instruction in various vocations. In politics 
he is a Democrat, and has served his party as precinct committeeman. Sec- 
retary of the Township Committee, and as a member of the Finance Com- 
mittee. He has been active in all organized movements looking to the elim- 
ination of the saloon from County and Township. The esteem in which 
he is held is evidenced by his election as President, repeatedly, of the Grant 
County Township Trustees' Association. He was reared in the Methodist 
Protestant Church. In June, 1899, he was married at Jonesboro, to Miss 
Mintie Ward, only child of Austin P. and Lucinda A. Ward, and a grand- 
daughter of Elijah Ward, who helped to organize the first Methodist Church 
in Fairmount Township. Mr. and Mrs. Lewis are the parents of one son, 
Iliff Ward Lewis, born January 30, 1903. All his life, with the exception 
of eleven months spent in Hand County, South Dakota, has been passed in 
Fairmount Township. 

In September, 1870, a petition, properly drawn, and signed by a 
sufficient number of voters of Fairmount, was presented to the County 
Commissioners, requesting that an election be authorized for the pur- 
pose of determining whether or not the town should be incorporated. 

The election was held on September 26 of that year. The total 
vote cast was sixty-five. Of this number, forty-four were in favor of 
incorporation and twenty-three voted against it. 

282 The Making of a Township. 

The first election of officers, on December 10, 1870, resulted as 
follows : Trustee First Ward, Enoch Beals ; Trustee Second Ward, 
Elwood Haisley ; Trustee Third Ward. Milton Gossett ; Trustee Fourth 
Ward. Dr. P. H. Wright ; Trustee Fifth Ward, C. T. Schooley. A. M. 
Raper was elected Clerk ; Micajah Wilson, Town Assessor, and Fos- 
ter Davis, Marshal. 

The Board of Trustees met January 23, 1871. and adopted By- 
Laws. At a meeting- held on April 4. 1871, William Hall, Alex Pickard 
and Joseph N. Rush were elected School Trustees. 


Fairmount, Indiana, Monday Evening, January 23, 1871. 

The Board met by call of the President and the following members 
were present, viz. : 

First District — Enoch Beals. 

Second District — Elwood Haisley, President. 

Third District — Milton Gossett. 

Fifth District— C. T. Schooley. 

P. H. Wright, of the Fourth District, was absent. 

The Clerk then presented the bonds of Clerk, Treasurer, Marshal 
and Assessor, which were accepted by the Board. 

On motion the Board adopted the following By-Laws, viz. : 

Article One. — It shall be the duty of the President to call the mem- 
bers to order and conduct all business before the Board to a speedy and 
proper result. 

Article Two. — He shall state all questions to the Board before put- 
ting it to vote, shall ask, "Are you ready for the question?" Should 
no member of the Board offer to speak, he shall rise to put it and after 
he has arisen no member shall be allowed to speak on it without the 
consent of all the members present. 

Article Three. — A motion must be seconded and afterward repeated 
from the chair or read aloud before it is debatable. 

Article Four. — The Pfresident shall have a casting vote in case of 
a tie, but in ordinary cases shall not vote. He shall announce all votes 
and decisions and his decision shall not be debatable, unless he invites 

Article Five. — He may speak to points of order in ])refcrcnce to 
other members, rising from his seat for that purpose, and he shall de- 
cide points of order subject to an appeal by any member of the Board. 

Fairmount Township — Corporation. 283 

Article Six. — When an appeal is taken from the decision of the 
President, he shall put the question thus : "Shall the decision of the 
chair be sustained?" 

Article Seven. — It shall be the duty of the presiding officer to call 
any member to order who violates any established rule of order. 

Article Eight. — It shall be the duty of the Secretary, or Clerk, to 
call the roll of the members at each meeting, note absentees, and read 
the minutes of the previous meeting, and keep a true and accurate rec- 
ord of the proceedings of the Board of Trustees. 

Article Nine. — When a member is called to order he shall take his 
seat until the point is settled. 

Article Ten. — When two or more members rise to speak at the same 
time, the presiding officer shall decide who is entitled to the floor. 

Article Eleven. — No member shall speak more than twice, nor 
longer than five minutes each time, without conseot of the Board. 

Article Twelve. — While the member is speaking no one shall inter- 
rupt him, except for the purpose of an explanation. 

Article Thirteen. — Any conversation by whispering or otherwise, 
which is calculated to disturb a member while speaking or hinder the 
transaction of business, shall be deemed a violation of order and if 
persisted in shall incur censure. 

Article Fourteen. — When a question is before the Board the only 
motion in order shall be, first, to adjourn ; second, the previous ques- 
tion : third, to lay on the table ; fourth, to postpone indefinitely 

Article Fifteen. — A motion to adjourn shall always be in order, 
except, first, while a member is in possession of the floor ; second, 
while the yeas and nays are being called ; third, while the members are 
voting, and fourth, when any business of importance is before the 

Article Sixteen. — The Board shall be called to order by the Presi- 
dent within fifteen minutes of the time the Board agreed to meet at its 
last session, or if he is not present, the Board will be allowed to call 
one of its members to the chair, for the transaction of business. 

Article Seventeen. — It shall be the duty of the Treasurer to receive 
all money assessed by the Board, and pay it out on an order from the 
Board attested by the President and Clerk. 

Article Eighteen. — It shall be the duty of the Marshal to exe- 
cute and put in force all the ordinances and laws passed by the Board 
of Trustees, and perform all the duties prescribed by law for the action 
of the corporation. 

284 The Maki)ig of a Tozoiship. 

Article Nineteen. — It shall be the diit} of the Assessor to make a 
true and correct assessment of all the ])roperty, both real and personal, 
within the corporation limits, and make a return to the Board of the 
same, according to law. 

Article Twenty. — The Marshal shall be allowed one dollar per each 
arrest he may make and sustain, and for serving subpoena, or other 
writs, such fees as are allowed constables by law, and for collecting 
taxes he is allow^ed five per cent, on the amount collected. 

Article Twenty-one. — The Assessor shall be allowed one dollar and 
a half a day for each da}- he may be occupied in making the assessment 
of the corporation. 

.Article Twent}-two. — The Clerk shall be allowed one dollar and 
fift\- cents for each regular meeting and for each called meeting and 
for other services he shall receive a reasonable compensation to be al- 
lowed by the Board. 

Article Twenty-three. — The Treasurer shall be allowed a reasona- 
ble compensation by the Board for his services. 

Article Twenty-four. — It shall be the duty of each member to vote 
on every question before the house, either for or against. 

On motion the Board adopted Ordinance No. i, which is recorded 
in Ordinance Book, Page i ; also Ordinance No. 2, recordetl in said 
Book, Page 2 ; also Ordinance No. 3, recorded in said Book, Pages 2 
and 3 ; also Ordinance No. 4, recorded in said Book, Pages 3 and 4. 

On motion Ordinance No. 3 should not take effect until thirty days 
after its publication. 

On motion the Clerk was requested to ascertain whether two Ijlank 
books for the use of the Board could be obtained for an order from 
the Board for their cost, and if so to order such books. 

On motion the Board adjourned to meet on Thursday evening. 
January 26, 1871, at 6:30 o'clock p. m. 

E. Haislf.y, President. 
A. M. R..\PKR, Clerk. 

The 1870 census shows that Fairmcmnt liad a total population of 
three hundred and thirty-four native and three foreign ; three hundred 
and thirty-one white and six colored. 

In 1875 there were two hundred and fifty-three children of school 
age in the corporation. The amount of tuition fund draw n din-ing the 
year was seven htmdred and eighty-nine dollars and thirty cents. 

Fairmount Township — Corporation. 


In 1876 Fairmount corporation had enumerated two hundred and 
thirt}' children of school age, one hundred and twenty male and one 
hundred and ten female. The average daily attendance was one hun- 
■dred and thirty-five. There were three teachers, one male and two 
females. The teachers' wages per day average, male four dollars and 
female two dollars and a half. Days taught during the year, one hun- 
dred. One frame school house was sufficient to accommodate the 
pupils. The estimated value of the school building and school appara- 
tus was two thousand and fiftv dollars. 


77/c' Making of a Toivnship. 


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Tlw Makiiti:; of a 1 oi^'iisliil'. 

From 187 1 to 191 7 

Apr. 1871 to Apr. 1873 
Apr. 1S73 to Apr. 1S74 

April 4, 1874 
April 3, 1875 
June 6, 1876 (c) 
August 15, 1376 
April 24, 1877 
June 10, 1878 
Juno 3, 1S79 
Juno 1, 1880 
Juno 0, ISSl 

June 3, 1882 

Juno 11, 1883 

June 7, 1884 

Juno 1, 1885 

June 7, 1886 

.Tune G, 1887 

June 4. 1888 

Juno 3, 1889 

June 9, 1890 

June 1, 1891 

June 9, 1892 

June 7. 1S93 

June 6, 18:i4 

June 1, 1895 











































June 7, 1910 

June fi, 1911 

June 4, 1912 

June 3, 1913 

June 2, 1914 

.Funo 1, 1915 

.lune 0, 191G 

June 5. 1917 

William Hall 

William Hall* 

Jos. K. Bennett (a) 

J. N. EllioU, 

J. N. Elliott 

J. N. Elliott 

J. N. Elliott 

J. N. Elliott 

J. N. Elliott 

J. N. Elliott 

Foster Davis 
Foster Davis 
Foster Davis 
Mrs. Alice Nixon 
■Mrs. Alice Nixon 
-Mrs. Alice Nixon 

A. H. 
A. R. Liong' 
A. R. Lon.? 
Oliver R. Soott 
Oliver R. Scott 
Oliver R. Scott 
Oliver R. Scott 
Oliver R. Scott 

(■liver K. Scott 
Gabriel Johnson 
Ctabriel Johnson 
Gabriel Johnson 
Dr. J. \\' Patterson 
Dr. J. W. Patterson 
Dr. J. W. Patterson 
Dr. J. \V. Patterson 
Dr. J. AV. Patterson 
Dr. J. W. Patterson 
Dr. J. W. Patterson 
Dr. J. W. Patterson 
Dr. J. AV. Patterson 
Dr. J. AV. Patterson 

Dr. J. AA'. Patterson 

Alexander Plckard 

Jo.uso Rceco 
Isaac Smithson 

Isaac Smithson (b) 

Andrew BuUer 

Andrew Buller 

Andrew Buller 

.'■.ndrew Buller 

.Andrew Buller 

Andrew Buller (d) 
Thomas J. Nixon 

Thomas .1. Nixon 

Enoch Beals 

Enoch Beals 

Enoch Beals 

Enoch Beals 

linoch Beals* 
Clarkson D. Overman 

Clarkson D. Overman 
Clarkson D. Overman 
Clarkson D. Overman 
Clarkson D. Overman 
John H. Wilson 
John H. AVilson 
John H. AA^ilson 
Gurney Lindley* 
Fred H. Macy 
Fred H. Macy 
Fred H. Macy 
Fred H. Macy 
Fred H. Macy 
Fred H. Macy 
.Tohn Flanagan 
John Flanag'an 
John Flanagan 
John Flanagan 
John Flanagan 
John Flanagan 
Oscar M. Bevington 
Oscar M. Bevington 
Oscar M. Bevington 

Joseph N. Rush 
Dr. Henry Charles 

Dr. Henry Charles* 
James Tuttle 
Knoch Beals 
Enoch Beals 
P. H. Wright 
P. H. Wright 
P. H. Wright 
Alpheus Henley 

Vlpheus Henley 
;^;phcus Hetiley 
-■Vlpheus Henley 
Alpheus Henley 
Alviheus Henley 
El wood Davis 

Elwood Davis 
Elwood Davis 
N. AV. Edwards 
N. AV. Edwards 
X. AA'. Edwards 
N. W. Edwards 
N. AV. Edwards 
N. AA'. Edwards 


Oscar M. Bevington* 
Oliver R. Scott 

J. A\'. Patterson Oliver R. Scott 

Xen H. 
Xen H. 

AValter L. Jay 

AValter T.. Jay 

VA^alter I^. Jay* 
Mrs. Helen AVells 

V. A. Selby 

V. A. Selby 

V. A. Selby 

Oliver R. Scott 

Oliver R. Scott 

Oliver R. Scott 

Oliver R. Scott 

Oliver R. Scott 

Oliver R. Scott 

W. Edwards 

AV. Edwards 

A\'. Edwards 

A\'. Edwards 

AA'. Edwards 

■\A'. Edwards 

AV. Edwards 

AA'. Edwards 

W. Edwards 

AA'. Edwards 

AV. I«;d wards 

\V. Edwards 

A\'. Edwards 

W. Edwards* 



Asa Driggs 

Asa Driggs* 
Oliver Buller 

Oliver Buller 

Enos M. leafier 

Enos M. Lafler 
Enos M. I-.afler 
Dr. Charles N. Brown 

* Resigned. (a) Removed from corporation. (b) Moved to Marion, Tnd. 
August 15, 1876, Board of Trustees declared all school board offices vacant, 

(c> On 
(d) De- 

Fa inn oil lit Township — Corporation. 






Jan. 1S71 to May 1872 

May 1872 to May 1873 

May 1873 to May 1874 
May 1874 to May 1875 
May 1875 to May 187G 

May 1876 to May 1877 

May 1877 to May 1878 

May 1878 to May 1879 

May 1S79 to May 1880 

May 1S80 to May 1881 

May 1881 to May 1882 

May 1882 to May 1883 

May 1883 to May 1884 

May 1884 to May 1885 

May 1885 to May 188G 

May 1886 to May 1887 

May 1887 to May 1888 

May 1SS8 to May 1889 
May 1889 to May 1890 

May 1890 to May 1891 
May 1891 to May 1892 
May 1892 to May 1893 
May 1893 to May 1894 
May 1894 to May 1895 
May 1895 to May 1896 
May 1896 to May 1897 
May 1897 to May 1898 
May 1898 to May 1899 
May 1899 to May 1900 

May 1900 to May 1901 
May 1901 to May 1902 
May 1902 to May 1903 
May 1903 to May 1904 

May 1904 to Dec, 1905 
Jan. 1905 to Dec. 1909 
Jan. 1910 to Dec. 1911 

Jan. 1912 to Dec. 1913 
Jan. 1914 to Dec. 1915 
Jan. 1916 to Dec. 1917 

Foster Davis* 
Joel O. White* 
D. H. Crawford 

D. H. Crawford* 
James R. Smith* 
Prank Norton 

Henry Winslow 

John Ried 

El wood Haisley 

Elwood Haisley* 
.1. P. Jones 

J. P. Jones* 
David B. Mason 

Charley Hasty (a) 
George Modlin* 
Jonathan McDonnell 

John Kelsay* 
Adam M. Miller 
Adam M. Miller 
Elwood Gardner* 
Adam M. Miller 
Adam M. Miller 
Adam M. Sillier 
Adam M. Miller 
Adam M. Miller 
J. W. Kester (b) 

J. W. Kester 
Alexander Little 

Adam M. Miller (c) 
Sylvester Smithson* 
J. "W. Kester 

John W. Symons 
John W. Symons* 
William M Kennedy 

William M. Kennedy 

William M. Kennedy 

Scth Cox 

David O. Ice 

Elmer E. Hiatt 

Elmer E. Hiatt 

Riley Jay 

E.som O. Lieach 

Esom O. Leach 

Esom O. Leach* 
W. E. McCoy 

Thell Crabb 
Esom O. Leach 
Esom O. Leach 

James J. Payne (c) 
C. V. Hadley 

C. V. Hadley 

James A. Jones 

George Bannister* 
.Tames L. Collins 

William H. Eastes 

James A. .Tones 

A. M. Seright 

Micajah Wilson* 
Foster Davis* 
D. H. Crawford 

D. H. Crawford* 
James R. Smith* 
Prank Norton 

Henry Winslow 
.lohn Ried 
Elwood Haisley 
Elwood Haisley* 
J. P. Jones 

Resigned (a) Removed from town. (b) Moved away. (c) Deceased. 


The Making of a Township. 

From 1873 to 191 7 

July 2, 1873, to January 2, 1882 — Dr. Alpheus Henley. 
May, 1883, to May, 1884— Dr. P. H. Wright. 
May, 1884, to May, 1887— Dr. C. V. Moore. 
May, 1887, to May, 1889— Dr. William B. Thomas. 
May, 1889, to May, 1 891— Dr. Allen Moon. 

May, 1891, to May, 1893— Dr. J. O. Lowman,* Dr. J. W\ Patter- 
son,! Dr. A. F. Marlow. 

May, 1893, to May, 1894— Dr. A. F. Marlow. 

May, 1894, to May, 1895 — Dr. Alpheus Henley. 

May, 1895, to May, 1901 — Dr. Joseph W. Patterson.! 

May, 1901, to May, 1903 — Dr. J. P. Seale. 

May, 1903, to May, 1905 — Dr. S. G. Hastings.! 

January, 1906, to December, 1909 — Dr. William M. Warner.! 

January, 1910, to December, 191 1 — Dr. J. P. Seale.! 

January, 1912, to December, 1917 — Dr. C. N. Brown. 

• Moved to Anderson, Ind. 
t Resigned. 




IN 1846 William Hall built and operated a tannery south of town on 
the ground where the late J. W. Parrill lived for many years. 
In 1853 Daniel Ridgeway started a tannery at the northeast corner of 
Second and Main Streets. In 1856 Micah Baldwin purchased an inter- 
est of Ridgeway. They operated the tannery until i860, when James 
R. Smith took over the interest of Ridgeway. Baldwin & Smith con- 
ducted the business until 1876. In this year William Thomas bought 
Smith's interest and the enterprise was thereafter managed by Baldwin 
& Thomas. After disposing of his interest to his partner, Ridgeway 
started a tannery southeast of Fairmount, where John H. Caskey now 


Nathan Little, who had been employed by Ridgeway, in 1861 
opened a tannery on East Washington Street. A striking object dis- 
played over the south door of this tannery attracted considerable atten- 
tion from passers-by. A lynx had been killed by Billy Brewer on land 
now owned by Charles Allred, situated one mile and a half northeast 
of Fairmount. The lynx was skinned, prepared, stuffed and mounted, 
and used as an advertising device for the business carried on within. 

It required about a year to tan, properly, a cowhide. The skin was 
first placed in a lime-vat. After it had remained in this vat a few 
days it was taken out and the hair removed with a scraping-knife, 
then to a vat of clean water, where the lime was thoroughly soaked 
out, and then through a succession of vats containing hen manure, 
weak oak ooze, strong oak ooze, this process being continued until the 
skin was thoroughly tanned and turned over to the finishing-room, 
where an application of "dubbin" was put on, one side blacked and 
dressed and made ready for the market. The hair was saved and sold 
to put in mortar for plastering. 

Oak bark, called tanbark, was plentiful in those days. Farmers 
would peel this bark off of trees and cord it up to dry. When thor- 
oughly dried, it was hauled in, and found a ready cash market. The 
price ranged between two and four dollars per cord. At the tanyard 
it was corded up under sheds so as to be kept perfectly dry. When 
needed, it was taken to the grinder, located upon the upper floor, known 
as the bark-mill. In the center of this room was a large iron hopper, 


292 The Makiiii:; of a Township. 

something' near three feet in diameter at the top and eighteen or twenty 
inches at the hottom, and about three feet deep. Inside was a succes- 
sion of iron teeth, and there was fitted in the hopper another iron small 
in proportional size and iron teeth fitted on it. This hopper was used 
to g'rind the tanbark into a fine powder. It was operated by a large 
beam, to which was attached one horse going about in a circle. This 
mill was usually operated by a boy, sometimes the proprietor's son. 
His work was to get the bark up into the mill and with a wooden mal- 
let break the bark over the edge of the hopper in small pieces two or 
three inches in length. After being ground the powder fell below^ into 
another room, and from there taken out in a wheelbarrow to the yard 
and placed in the vats. 

The tannery was in that day an important institution. It was head- 
quarters in War times for men who were interested in the issues of the 
day. Abolitionists, especially, would meet here to discuss the slavery 
question and the progress of the \\'ar. It was the stopping-place for 
refugees, both white and colored, and during the entire War was the 
center of interest for people from miles around. It was in 1867 that 
Thomas Harvey, one of the prominent anti-slavery men of his day, 
suddenly died in the beam-house of the Baldwin-Smith tannery. 

According to older residents, it was the housing-place for quanti- 
ties of arms and ammunition of the Fairmount Company of Home 
Guards, organized to maintain law and order in the community and to 
assist in repelling any stray bands of guerrillas that might happen to 
ride in this direction. 

There were one hundred members of this organization. Roland 
Smith, who had served in the Union army, was the captain ; Joseph 
Macey, first lieutenant, and Dennis Montgomery, second lieutenant. 

Regular drills were practiced every Saturday afternoon in the north 
part of town, which was then known as Christianville. Here on sev- 
eral occasions the coni])any was divided into two forces and sham l)at- 
tles were fought. Often during the week the company would l)e assem- 
bled for military drills, conducted in the evenings after supper on the 
yard of the school building which then stood on North Walnut Street, 
near the present home of George Montgomery. 

The corner building of the tanyard shown in the picture came to 
be known as the Quaker Arsenal. 

Roland Smith, retired farmer, son of John and Mary Ann (Thomas) 
Smith, was born four miles northeast of Fairmount, on a farm then 
owned by his father, on .\pril 20. 1839. On liis mother's side he is a 

The Tanyard — Saw-Mill lisplosioii. 


erandson of Solomon Thomas. 
His paternal grandfather was 
Judge Caleb Smith, both grand- 
parents natives of North Caro- 
lina. Roland Smith was educated 
in the common schools of Fair- 
mount Township, his first teacher 
being John T. Morris, who, in 
1845, was in charge of the school 
at Back Creek. For many years 
Mr. Smith owned ninety-six acres 
of land located south of Fair- 
mount, now known as the Cal 
Dean farm, which he managed 
successfully. He has always voted 
in Fairmount Township, his first 
ballot being cast for Abraham Lin- 
coln. In politics he is a Progres- 
sive Republican. For twelve 
years he served as road super- 
visor. He is a charter member of Beeson Post, Grand Army of the 
Republic. For many years he has been a member of the United Breth- 
ren Church. In May. 1861, he enlisted in Company H. Twelfth Indiana 
Infantry, serving with this regiment twelve months. For meritorious 
conduct he was promoted to sergeant. Returning home in 1862 he 
organized a company of infantry and was elected captain. ^^ hen he 
called upon Governor Oliver P. Morton to tender his services and 
arrange for his commission, the Governor suggested that he remain at 
home for duty in Grant County. Accordingly, Smith formed a company 
of Home Guards, known as the Fairmount Militia Company, composed 
of one hundred volunteers, and on July 16, 1863, was given a commis- 
sion for four years as captain of this company. The Home Guards did 
duty in Fairmount Township during the period of the Civil War, the 
organization disbanding in 1865, with the close of the Rebellion. The 
members of the company, so far as Captain Smith is able to recall them 
from memory, follow : 


Captain, Roland Smith • 
First Lieutenant, Joseph Macey 
Second Lieutenant, Dennis Mont- 

William Hasting 
Nelson Thomas 
Alfred Waldron 
Berry Farrington 


I'hc Makiiiij; of a Tozvnship. 

Eli J. Scott 
Jesse Scott 
Jesse Haisley 
A\'i]liani Smith 
Andrew Buller 

Elias Rich 
Samuel Kirk 
T. B. McDonald 
Morgan O. Lewis 
Moses Adams 

< ^ 


Above is an excellent picture of the finishing- room of the tanyard which 
stood at the northeast corner of Main and Second Streets, on the lot now 
owned by Victor A. Selby. The house was occupied for many years by 
Ben Thomas and his sister, Mina. The picture shows Ben Thomas standing 
in the foreground. Here the pioneers of the early day brought their cow- 
hides and here they hauled oak bark and sold to the tanner at two dollars 
per cord. Tn the Garfield campaign, 1880, it was used as a voting place. 

Evander Farrington 
Levi Scott 
Stephen Scott 
Elwood Scott 
J. M. Hundley 
Charley Howell 
Jonathan Smithson 
Calvin Dillon 
\\'esley B. Hollingsworth 
TMiilip Davis 

Ziniri Richardson 
Leandcr Jjaldwin 
( lilmorc Hollingsworth 
Solomon Duling 
Jesse Milner 
Harvey Davis, Jr. 
David V. Hoover 
Azel Little 
William Dillon 

The Tanyard — Smv-Mill Explosion. 295 

Many of the men named volunteered their services and were 
at the front in the Union army. In the fall of 1863 a dozen shots were 
exchanged between unknown parties and members of the Home Guard 
on the Jesse Winslow farm, now owned by Foster Davis, about a mile 
east of Fairmount. In 1862, Captain Smith was married to Miss Nancy 
Hasting', daughter of Carter and Elizabeth (Roe) Hasting, pioneers of 
Fairmount Township, where Mrs. Smith was born, in May, 1844. 
Eight children were born to this marriage, namely, Effie, Mary Eliz- 
abeth, Dailey Henley, Cora, Bertha, Thomas Edwin and Clista. Effie 
married H. E. Payne ; Mary Elizabeth married W. H. Underwood ; 
D. H. married Elizabeth Gimmer ; Cora married Lon Payne ; Bertha 
married C. B. Fry and Thomas Edwin married Grace Brattain. 

(By J. M. Hundley.) 

I was a member of the Fairmount Militia Company referred to as 
the Home Guards for a short time in 1863, and while I belonged we 
took our equipment home with us. This equipment consisted, as I now 
remember it, of a Belgian musket, bayonet, cartridge-box and sixty 
rounds of fixed ammunition. Very few of this company had uniforms. 
They were boys from fifteen to sixteen and men from forty to fifty- 
five, most of them clad in homespun, with straw hats made from straw 
plaited by mother, and now and then would be seen a coon-skin cap. 
Some one, whose name I do not now remember, would come to drill 
practice wearing a stovepipe plug hat. Several of the members had 
been in the service and had been discharged for disability or because of 
expiration of term of service, and had a fairly good idea of military tac- 
tics. The Belgian muskets with which they were armed were quite as 
dangerous to the man behind the gun as to the man in front. The boys 
at the front used to say that there was death at one end and six months' 
sickness at the other end of these weapons. 

I am reminded that some time in June, 1863, I was ordered to report 
Avith my blunderbuss for immediate duty. We were drawn up in line 
and told that Fairmount was to be invaded and burned on that night. 
Details were made and a cordon of men established around the town. I 
was placed on duty southeast of town, in the shadow of a dense woods, 
situated on the farm which formerly belonged to James Tuttle, and told 
to shoot anything that approached me from the east or south. Captain 
Smith failed to relieve me during the night and I remained there from 
6 o'clock in the evening until 7 o'clock the next morning. I never could 

296 ilic Malcinii of a Tuwitship. 

quite understand the action of the captain in this matter, as I should 
have been reheved in two hours ; but perhaps the captain thought I 
mig'ht shoot him if he came my way in the darkness of the night. I 
think it perfectly certain that had any luckless liovinc or elm-peeler hog' 
strayed in front of me there \vouId have been an explosion and a hasty 
retreat, and I am not quite sure what other casualties might have ensued. 
I think it perfectly safe to say that the men who were suspected with 
intentions of making war upon your town were soundly sleeping in their 
homes, with no intention of doing harm to anyone while I stood there 
alone in the darkness. 

I want to say in conclusion that some of these Home Guards had 
seen service and many of them went to the front and remained until the 
close of the War. The writer had seen service before and left this organ- 
ization after some three or four months and again entered the service 
in the field. I am sure that I left my (luard equipment at the home of 
my father when I entered the volunteer service and never at any time 
had it in the Quaker Arsenal. 

SunimitviUc, Indiana, April 2, 1917. 

James Canimack, who came in the winter of 1848, built a saw-mill 
the following year on the ground at the southeast corner of Washington 
and jNIill Streets. Cammack had been induced by Iredell and Elizabeth 
Rush to come to Fairmount. They had lieen neighbors in Wayne 
Count)-. Indiana. In 1857 the saw-mill was owned by Albert and x\llen 
Dillon. Jonathan P. Winslow later i)urchascd the mill of the Dillons, 
and a grist-mill was started in connection. The two occujiied a frame 
1)iiil(ling, the grist-mill using the lower floor and the saw-mill the upper 
one. Jn 1870, J. X. Wheeler & Company purchased the property of 
Winslow, and it was for many years successfully operated bv [. X. 
Wheeler and George \Y . Butler, his father-in-law. mider the firm name 
of J. X. Wheeler & Company. 

In August, 1861, occurred the first jjig sensation that the people of 
the sparsely settled community had known. The boiler in a grist-mill 
exploded, scattering fragments of iron and I)rick and timber in every 
direction. The mill, which was located on tlie west side of Mill Street, 
just north of where Jesse Bogue's house now^ stands, had been built a 
few years before by Clayton and Isaac Stanfield and Thomas I.vtle. 
\Vard McXeir, of Anderson, known in that day as a trader, owned the 
mill. A man named Frank Brindle was the miller. John P.randon was 
the engineer and Hugh Finley was in charge of the mill. 

The Tanyard — Sazv-Mill Explosion. 297 

It appeared that Brandon had neglected to keep the proper amount 
of water in the boiler, and the result of his carelessness was disastrous. 
The heavy balance-pea was sent by the force of the explosion to the 
creek bottom on Nathan Wilson's farm, a distance of a quarter of a mile. 
A piece of the boiler was blown a distance west of the creek on Daniel 
Thomas's farm. John Smith was passing- by at the time in a wagon 
with his son, William Smith. The father was struck in the head by a 
piece of brick and the sight of one eye was temporarily destroyed. Dr. 
Elliott was summoned to take care of Smith, the physician extracting 
particles of bone and brick from Smith's face. George Doyle, at the 
time, was conducting a grocery store in a frame building located at the 
northeast corner of Mill and Adams Streets. A fragment of the debris 
passed through this building, leaving a hole in its path 18x24 inches 
square. The mill was so completely demolished that it was never 


"Fairmount was scared for once," writes M. A. Hiatl. under date 

of January 29, 1917- 

"In the year 1861 the writer was standing on the front porch at the 
f. P. Winslow residence. Although I was only eight years old, I can 
remember the time well. It was a fairly warm, still day, in the afternoon. 
Everything was quiet. Some were taking their naps. The corner whit- 
tler had left his box and retired to the shade, when all at once a very 
loud noise was heard. It sounded as though there was a great earth- 
quake, or a great volcano had broken loose on the banks of quiet Back 
Creek. I do not know how high I jumped, but I landed on my feet. I 
looked down Main Cross (now Washington) Street toward town, and 
I could see people running and coming from all directions. You should 
have seen this boy scooting into the house where my mother and Mrs. 
J. P. Winslow were. Mrs. Winslow said it nuist have been a keg of 
powder that had exploded at the store. My mother said she would 
o-uess it was the steam mill that had blown up. And she was right. 

"If ever a mill blew up that one did. It stood a little south of where 
Van Arsdall's coal office now stands, on West Washington Street. The 
boiler blew up while the engineer was up town. If he had been attend- 
ing to his business it might not have happened. The lower story was 
blown all to pieces, letting the roof down on it, making it look like a one- 
story building. It is a wonder no one was killed. The miller and one 
boy were in the mill. I do not know their names, as I did not live here 
then. I was visiting here for a few weeks. They were rescued from 
the mass of broken timbers, and, strange to relate, they were not dan- 
gerously hurt. 


77^- .l/((A-/7/c ('/ d roii'iislii[>. 

"l^nclc John Sniilli. Ii\in_i; soulli o\ tewu. had just driven U[) in 
front of the mill. A hrickhat strnck liini in the face and broke his jaw. 
1 le was hnrt the w lU'st oi any. The pea off the safety-valve was thrown 
a loiiii' ilistanee. alii;htini;" in a field on the Jesse \\'ilson farm. C^nc end 
of the boiler fell into a pii;" pen. killing- two hogs." 

CliAi'l ER XXVI. 


TRANSPORTATION was a problem hard to solve in the first set- 
llcinent of Fairmount Township," writes T. 15. McDonald. 

"Hiey were compelled to go to Cincinnati for their supplies, such 
as coffee, salt, powder and lead. This was hauled in wagons drawn by 
four and six horses over all kinds of roads. They would start from the 
settlement with what barter they might have to sell, such as fur. gin- 
seng', beeswax, tallow, dry hides, etc. This they would exchange for 
such goods as were really necessary — sIkjc pegs and boot and shoe lasts. 

'Tf the men of Fairmount today could see the harness that the 
teamsters of the early days used they would wonder where all the 
leather came from. It took an able-bodied man to put the harness on a 
horse. The back band was frcjm six to eight inches wide. The hames 
were of wood, three to four inches wide, with high tops, on which bells 
were often placed. This was done by having an iron arch on which 
three bells w^ere fastened. There were staples driven in the hames to 
receive the arches. The collars were immense — leather, usually stuffed 
with corn husks. The bridles were very heavy with big blinds. The 
tugs were iron chains hc^used or covered with leather. The breeching 
was heavy to match the balance of the harness. A large leather housing 
went on the top of the collar, and this was for the protection of the 
horse's neck and shoulders. 

"All harness and wagons were made at home. By this I mean they 
were made by local talent. A saddle was placed on the near, or pole 
horse, from which the driver directed the lead horses by a jerk line 
(a single line). An immense leather whip called a black snake was 
always to be found on the driver's saddle horn. This was used more as 
a reminder than to punish the horse. 

"The wagons had wooden axles and wooden spindles. Pine tar 
was used as a lubricator. A bucket of tar was always found suspended 
from the coupling pole at the rear end of the wagon. A feed box was 
fastened on the rear of the wagon and a tool box on the front. The 
wagon was always covered to protect the contents. The men who 
drove these freight wagons usually calculated to reach a given point 
to stay over night, but if they failed to reach the desired point they 
would camp out, as they always carried feed and provisions for an 


300 TJic Makiu!^ of a Tozvnship. 


"In those days almost every house was open to the traveler. If but 
a one-room house, all were welcome as long as there was room to lie 

"We have tried to describe the method of transportation in the early 
days of Fairmount Township. The farmers, however, as a rule, did not 
have many wagons or horses. The ox team was used because they cost 
less and were better adapted to clearing the immense forests. There 
were no harness to buy, nothing but a yoke and a log chain. A team of 
oxen could be driven where a team of horses could not go with 
safety. An ox team was perfectly reliable except when thirsty. An ox- 
would go to water at any cost. Often, in cases of necessity, a cow 
would be broken and used as an ox, as well as supplying milk for the 

"When we moved to Fairmount Township carriages were scarce. 
In fact, I do not now remember one. No doubt there were a few, but 
I failed to recollect it. Most people went horseback or on foot. Sad- 
dles were not plentiful. You would often see a sheep skin fastened on 
with a surcingle. A young man who was fortunate enough to have a 
saddle horse thought nothing of going to call on his sweetheart, and, 
if there was cliurch, spelling school or any other social function that she 
wanted to attend the}' ^vould go. The young lady would be mounted 
behind the young man and they would strike out, care free." 

I have read with much interest the contribution of T. B. McDonald 
describing early transportation facilities. I think the Wabash and Erie 
Canal was built in the thirties, writes J. M. Hundley. I know the canal 
had been in operation many years before the Indianapolis & Bellefon- 
taine (or Bee Line) Railroad came to Anderson, and this was in 1852. 

The Pan Handle (or Pennsylvania) Railroad came to Anderson in 
1856. Many men now living will remember that there was no railroad 
in Grant County during the Civil War, and that soldiers going to the 
front were transferred in wagons to Anderson, where they took cars for 
the State capital. What would our military authorities of today think 
of that kind of mobilization? 

I think that for many years after the railroads came to Anderson 
the farmers of Fairmount Township hauled their wheat to Wabash, 
probably because the cheap transportation afforded by the canal enabled 
the buyers to pay a better price for this commodity. Sure I am that 
this was the chief market, and quite well I remember of having made 
the trip with my father and some of his neighbors. It required three 
days to make the round trip, and they generally went four or five 
teams together, so they could splice and pull up llic liills. especially 

Transportation Problem — Pioneer Merehants. 301 

Deer Creek hill, just this side of Marion. The first day they would 
drive to the Indian village and camp. The next day they would drive 
to Wabash or Lagro, dispose of their grain, do their trading, and return 
to the place where they camped the night before. On the third day 
they would drive home. 

I wish to speak of one of the primitive methods of transportation — 
"The Mill Boy of the Slashes," and his gray mare. I have no reference 
here to the historic character distinguished by the above sobriquet whose 
life and character your schoolboys and girls will no doubt recall. I 
have reference to the Hoosier boy, who, mounted on the gray mare 
with a bag of shelled corn under him, rode through the slashes of Fair- 
mount Township to mill. 

It was in January, 1861, and the weather was intensely cold. The 
slashes were covered with a coating of smooth ice. I then lived on the 
John Eaton farm, near what is now Hackleman. It was necessary to 
go to mill at Little Ridge, some two or three miles away. The road 
was an angling track through the woods, following the high ground in 
ordinary times to keep out of the water, and at this time to keep off 
the ice. I was mounted on the gray mare with a bag of corn, and in 
due time reached the mill, which was, I think, operated by Joel B. 
Wright, an honored and long time resident of your city. 

When I reached the mill a number of Hoosier lads had preceded 
me, and I was compelled to await my turn, which came after the sun 
had gone down and darkness was approaching. The jolly miller put 
my grist (I mean the corn meal) on the mare, and me on top of it, 
and I started for home. I got along quite well until darkness came 
and I reached the ice in the woods. The mare missed the wav, got 
on the ice and slipped and fell with me and the bag of meal. For- 
tunately, I was not injured, but my plight can better be imagined than 
realized. There I was, in the dense woods, in the bitter cold, surrounded 
by darkness, and unable, for want of strength, to put my meal back on 
the mare. 

I was crying, bitterly, when there came to my aid a good Samaritan, 
Eli Smook, a pioneer preacher, who was passing through the woods and 
heard my cries and came to my rescue. He put my meal on the mare, 
mounted me on top of it, and led the mare to high ground and safety. 
I reached the cabin in the clearing about nine p. m., and after a good 
supper of mush and milk was ready to forget the hardships of my 

Mike Beck and Benny Adams hauled freight from Anderson in the 

302 riic Makiuii of a Toivnship. 

early day, this being- their occupation in i860 to 1865. Reck brought 
the remains of the first Union soldier home from the War on the cold 
New Year in 1864. The body was taken to the residence of John Smith. 

As some indication of the severe weather it is stated that this was 
the first time in his career that Walker Winslow left the harness on his 
horses all night for fear they would be so stiff from freezing as to 
make it impossible to harness the horses next day. 

In 1866 David Baldwin commenced hauling freight from Anderson, 
which was then the nearest shipping point. He used a two-horse 
wagon. In 1868 the Pan Handle was l)uilt to Harrisburg. This 
being then the nearest railroad station, Baldwin continued to transport 
freight by wagon from that point, until 1872. During this year he met 
with an accident which left him a cripple for life. In 1873, J. W. Patter- 
son, nephew of Baldwin, quit school and at the age of thirteen succeeded 
his uncle in the work. Patterson continued to haul merchandise from 
Harrisburg until 1875, when the Cincinnati, Wabash & Michigan Rail- 
road was luiilt to Fairmount, this line then taking over the freight 
business. In. 1875 Patterson purchased a dray outfit and continued to 
carry on this business in Fairmount until 1878, when he sold the dray 
line to Eli J. Scott and Uriah Ballard. 

Before the Civil War O. H. P. Carey owned and operated a stage 
coach for passengers and freight between Marion and Anderson. His 
drivers were Coon Slagle and Caleb May. These men were occa- 
sionally relieved by Thomas Hobbs and Henley Winslow. They 
changed horses at Johnny Moore's, just north of Summitville. at a 
point called Wrinkle. Upon the outbreak of the war Carey volun- 
teered his services, becoming in a short time the colonel of a regiment. 
He sold his stage coach to Rode Hammill. 

About the same year a stage line was established and in operation 
on the State road from Marion to Muncie. This line changed horses 
at Wheeling. 

About i860 Walker Winslow bought the stage of Hammill and 
continued the business. It was not a great while before he owned two 
Concord stages. One he named ".\rtemus Ward," after the famous 
humorist, and the other he called the "Lincoln." In those days it re- 
quired four horses to pull the load, and occasionally, in bad weather, it 
required six. 

In 1861 Winslow secured a contract fr<»in the Government to carry 
the mail. The compensation agreed U])on for this service was three 
hundred dollars a vear, and his mute was from Marion to Anderson. 

Transportation Problem — Pioneer Merchan ts. 


While the. work of carrying the mail was important, Winslow soon 
discovered that the profitable part of his business was the transpor- 
tation of passengers and express 
between these points. The coach 
left Marion every Monday morn- 
ing, and he made three trips to 
Anderson every week. The stage 
would comfortably accommodate 
twelve passengers, but he has 
hauled as high as twenty-four 
when travel was heavy. 

Winslow handled large sums of 
money by express and never lost a 
dollar. Upon one occasion he had 
charge of thirty-five thousand dol- 
lars in gold and silver, which was 
billed to Jason Willson's bank, at 

At that time but nine miles of 
the thirty- four lying between An- 
derson and Marion were piked, 
and it frequently required eight 
hours to cover the distance be- 
tween the two towns, with six „ . ^ , , t-i- , 1 /tt 1 ^ 

Son of John and iLuzabeth (Henley) 

horses puUmg every pound they Winslow, was born in Randolph Coun- 


could. In the summer months the 
distance could be covered in much 

ty, North Carolina, January 16, 1827. 
With his parents he came to Fair- 
mount Township and resided here un- 

less time. The old corduroy roads til his death, except for a brief time 

•^ passed m Mmnesota and Iowa, the 
became at times almost impassable, minutes of Back Creek Monthly Meet- 
In such an emergency as this he j,"^ of Friends show that on Septem- 
'^ - ber 19, 1840, a certificate was received 
would be compelled to leave his for John Winslow and sons, Jesse H., 

coach behind and use a lighter ve- Hugh W., Henry William and Heze- 

. ^ kiah, from Back Creek Monthly Meet- 

hicle to proceed with the mail, rid- ing. North Carolina. On February 

ing horseback. ^-' /^-^\.^- ^Y" Y^i"?!^^ ^''^^ "i^^" 

ned to Miss Martha Newsoni, a na- 

In an interview given to the tive of Randolph County, North Caro- 

, ,, , r 1 . lina, born July 24, 1826. Mr. Wins- 

newspapers shortly before his j^^ ,1;^,, ^^\^^ Home in Fairmount on 

death, in 191 1, Mr. Winslow re- September 6, 191 1, and Mrs. Winslow 

1 , iu- • i. .-• J. passed away February 4, 1912. 

lates this interesting story : 

"In addition to being carrier of the mail I invariably carried all 

important news northward from Anderson, and my route was lined 

with people daily asking for the latest news from the War. I brought 

304 The Making of a Toivnship. 

the first news of President Lincoln's assassination into Marion, and I 
can tell yon it was a sorry task for me. People along the route became 
so excited that frequently men mounted horses and galloped ahead of 
mc for miles, spreading the news to their neighbors. 

"In coming through Alexandria that day a big soldier was occupy- 
ing the seat b}- my side, and upon reaching the main part of town I 
called out to the waiting crowd that I had sad news for them, imparting 
the information of the President's death. The words were scarcely 
uttered before a man in the crowd shouted : 

" 'It should have been done long ago!' 

"The Union soldier, angered, looked at the man a minute, then 
crawled down from his seat, and, grabbing him by the throat, fairly 
hissed into his ear that he and several other passengers in the stage 
had just come from the South, where they had been very busy shooting 
such reptiles as he was, and that if he did not get down on his knees 
and apologize and give a loud cheer for the American flag he would 
kill him in his tracks. The man fairly groveled in the dirt at the 
soldier's feet and gave a lusty hurrah, as instructed. This action un- 
doubtedy saved his life." 

\Vinslow continued his stage line until the Cincinnati, Wabash & 
Michigan Railroad was built, in 1875. 

I have read all the articles in the "Making of a Township" with 
great interest, as I remember so many of the things mentioned in the 
write-up. It brings back memories of long ago, of friends that have 
gone beyond, till it occasionally makes one homesick for yc olden 

If my father, IT. W. Winslow, was living, he could give you many 
thrilling accounts of his life during the War, as he drove the stage 
coach from Marion to Anderson. He carried the United States mail, 
also passengers, for that was the main transportation in those days. 
It was he who brought the War news. He carried The Indianapolis 
Journal and sold them readily at ten cents a piece. He always carried 
a brass horn on the stage, which he blew when about a mile from town. 
Then tlic men would gather, ready to get the ])apers for the War news. 
He would get into Fairmount at i or i 130 p. m., when the roads were 
good. Then he would change his team, which consisted of four horses, 
and get the other driver started on to Marion. He would stay there till 
the next morning, gather up the passengers (for they would leave word 

Transportation Problem — Pioneer Merchants. 305 

the night before) and the mail. Then, when they would get to Fair- 
mount, change horses again. Father would then drive to Anderson. 

Father was the first person to burn a coal oil lamp in Fairmount. 
A\'hen thev came to Anderson he bought one, and when he got home 
with it people came in to see it burn. They were afraid of it. for fear it 
would explode. Then he was the first person to burn natural gas after 
it was drilled in at Fairmount. 

In reading the article about David Stanfield I well remember being 
at church one day when he was the only one who preached, and his ^ser- 
mon was this : 

"The young may die and the old must die." 

That was all that was said at meeting that day. 

Jennie W. Jones. 

Xiles, Ohio, March 2y, \()\'J. 

(Editor's Note.— Mrs. Jones is the daughter of Walker Winslow 
and the widow of Capt. John F. Jones. Mrs. Jones lived through the 
trying times of the Civil War, when most Fairmount people had rela- 
tives or friends at the front. It was a period of great' anxiety. As 
the fortunes of war would shift from time to time, and the destiny of 
the Nation seemed to be hanging in the balance, interest was intense. 
Walker Winslow was a prominent figure in those days. He was the 
principal means of communication and the only medium of news which 
connected the great outside world with the isolated settlement in the 

In 1896, when promoters first began to talk about building an Inter- 
urban line to connect Marion and Anderson, the scheme was put down 
as a foolish project, fantastic, chimerical and visionary, the dream of a 
poetic mind. 

A meeting was called of men interested in the matter at the Clay- 
pool Hotel, in Indianapolis. There were present at this conference 
Noah Clodfelter, William R. Pearson. Dr. Sullivan, Dan Mustard, Burr 
Sweetser, John H. Winslow, V. C. Quick and Harvey Painter. Three 
New York financiers met with this party. Arrangements were made 
with a New York Trust Company to underwrite $500,000 worth of 
bonds to begin the work of construction. The conditions arising from 
the panic of that year rendered it impossible for the Trust Company 
to sell the bonds. 

At a subsequent conference William R. Pearson was directed to go 
to Chicago to interview the President of the Trust Company of Iowa. 


The Making of a Township. 

This man's father was a Wall Street capitalist. An attorney and one 
other representative of the Iowa people were sent to inspect the route- 
of the proposed line. After going over the ground carefully these men 
returned to Chicago and reported the prospects first class. The Pres- 
ident of the Iowa Company went to New York to see his father re- 
garding the matter and the father turned down the proposition on ac- 
count of the financial stringency then generally prevailing. 

L. N. Downs was then interested by the promoters of the enterprise, 
and he went to Kalamazoo, Mich., where a $92,000 loan w^as arranged 


All that remains of the equipment bought by Noah Clodfelter, original pro- 
moter of the Interurban line between Marion and Summitville. This old 
building stands on the Jonesboro and Fairmount turnpike, opposite Park 


for. Immediately upon the consummation of this deal. William R. 
Pearson went to Cleveland, Ohio, wdiere seventeen carloads of rails 
were purchased to begin construction work. While at Cleveland Mr. 
Pearson received a telegram to return at once. Upon his arrival home 
announcement was made that a proposition had been submitted by INTr. 
McWhiney, Eli and Charles W. Halderman and Phil Matter for the 
purchase of the property, the proposition having been accepted. These 
men financed the enterprise, and in 1898 the line was opened for pas- 
senger traffic between Anderson and Marion. 

In 1 85 1, Joseph W. Baldwin built a small frame house at the north- 
east corner of Main and Washington Streets, where the I*>orrey block 

Transportation Problem — Pioneer Merchants. 


now stands. Here a store was opened, and Baldwin became the first 
merchant in the town. 

Other merchants of the early day were Joseph Hollingsworth, Isaac 
Stanfield, Aaron Kaufman, Paul Williams, William and Vincent 
Wright, Solomon Parsons, George Doyle, Skid Home, Seaberry Lines, 
Henry Harvey, J. P. Winslow, Micajah Wilson, Harmon Pemberton 
and Robert Bogue, Milt Crowell, Eph Wilson, John Busing, Joshua 
Hollingsworth, William P. Osborn, A. D. Bryan, Charlton Thomas, 
Nathan Johnson, John Lillibridge, Thomas Baldwin, B. S. Payne, Mrs. 
Maria Hollingsworth, Charles W. Hasty, Frank Norton, A. P. Harvey, 


(Down by the saw-mill) 

Looking north from the West Eighth Street bridge. 

D. M. Nottingham, Wilson, Dove & Co., Winslow & Co., H. H. Wiley, 
Fields & Co., woolen-mill ; Winslow & Beals, warehouse ; Charles R. 
Fleming, hotel, and Parker & Relfe, hardware. 

A business directory prepared and printed in 1877 shows the fol- 
lowing : 

William Azbel, proprietor hotel ; Enoch Beals, grain dealer ; Henry 
Charles, physician; Asa Carter, carriage and wagon maker; Foster 
Davis, justice of the peace; W. J. Dove, miller; William S. Elliott, 


llic Makiiii:; of a 'J'oiciisliip. 

farmer and tile maker; Alpheus Henley, physician: John B. Holhngs- 
worth, monument dealer; Cyrns Haisley, farmer; Jabez H. Moore, re- 
tired farmer and mechanic ; Eli Neal, farmer and Townshi]i trustee ; 
jNIaj. B. \*. Norton, farmer; Thomas j. Parker, dealer in I)oots and 
shoes ; Samuel Radley. farmer ; Aaron Taylor, farmer and teacher ; 
James Underwood, farmer; J. P. AA^inslow. merchant and county com- 
missioner; Jesse E. Wilson, farmer; John Wilson, eni^ineer ; H. H. 
Wiley, proprietor planing- mill ; C. A. Wood & Son, proprietors stave 
factory ; Lewis Moorman, retired farmer, and Joel B. Wright, farmer. 

Joseph W. Baldwin, son of Daniel and Christian (Wilcuts) Bald- 
win, was l)orn in Wayne County, Indiana. January 13. 1818. He came 
to Fairmount l^jwushi]) in the fall of 1833, Avith his parents. His father 

entered land on December t6, 
1833. When he became of age his 
father gave him eighty acres of 
land, then in the woods, now- 
owned by the heirs of Perry Scale. 
Jose])h immediately jjut out a 
deadening- and built a cabin. On 
A])ril 15. 1840. he married Lydia 
jane Stanfield, a daughter of his 
neighbor, David Stanfield. They 
moved on the land and proceeded 
to make a farm, w here he lived for 
some years, and where three of 
his children were born. When 
thev moved into their cabin there 
was an unbroken wilderness for 
inrm\ miles directly west of them, 
and from that direction lhe\' could 
bear the wol\-es howl almost any 

In ten years there was a great 
change made in that neighborhood. 
jo.Sl-.IMl W . I'.ALDW l.\ Immigrants came in. taking up 

land a]id clearing tiie forest. 'Hie ]K'o]-)1c soon began to tliink of pub- 
lic improvements: but no ])rophet. or son ot a pro])bet, bad yet given 
the ])rojected village a name. Joseph W. I'.aldwin was getting a 
little tired of the slow ])rogress of farming and concei\-ed the idea of 

Transportation Problem — Pioneer Merchants. 309 

being the first man to start business in the prospective town. He was 
short of funds. 

About this time James Cammack arrived upon the scene, looking- 
for a location to erect a steam saw-mill. Previous to this date there was 
no mill nearer than Jonesboro, about five miles distant, where the good 
people could get lumber for buildings. 

The heavy forest of fine saw timber and the growing settlement of 
a good class of citizens made a very favorable impression upon Mr. 
Cammack. At a called meeting of the citizens of Fairmount and sur- 
rounding community to ascertain the feeling and the support that would 
be given such an enterprise, the Township was well represented. Cam- 
mack made them a proposition that if they would sell him a piece of 
ground on which to locate a mill and dwelling, and guarantee a certain 
number of logs to be on the ground when the mill was ready for opera- 
tion, he (Cammack) would build and operate the mill. 

Cammack's proposition was so much more favorable than was ex- 
pected that the citizens were jubilant over it and a contract was soon 
entered into by David Stanfield offering to sell a mill site on his north 
line and Jonathan Baldwin offering to sell him a piece of ground on 
his south line for a residence building. 

At this date the county road east and west had not been opened out 
and the travel was on the line between Jesse and Nathan Wilson's 
farms. They realized that work must be done at once or they could 
not even establish a cross-roads postoffice or blacksmith shop. Con- 
sequently, the people and road supervisor got busy and established that 
road and laid a corduroy and bridge over the creek, which at times 
reached from Rush Street to near Mill Street, a regular bog, set with 
willow maple, ash and buttonwood shrub. Long before Cammack had 
his mill ready to cut lumber his contract with the people for saw-logs 
was filled and duplicated. 

John Bull had come over from England a short time before, bring- 
ing a bag of gold with wdiich to buy land. Accordingly, Joseph struck 
Bull for a trade. Baldwin sold out to Bull and got his money all in 
cash. He at once proceeded to put up a small frame house (hauling 
his lumber from Jonesboro) on the corner where the Borrey block now 
stands. In this house he fitted up a room in the southwest corner for 
dry goods and groceries. He procured the assistance of Thomas Jay, 
a merchant of some experience from Jonesboro, to help him in the selec- 
tion of his first stock of goods, and w^as soon established as the first 
citizen and first merchant of the village. Here he made some money, 
but when competition got too sharp and the patronage divided uj). he 


The Makiiii^ of a Toivnship. 

sold out and bought a farm near Marion, where he ended his days. He 
died June 26, 1893. ^R- ^- Henley. 

Following" are the names of business and professional people in dif- 
ferent firms at present located in Fairmount : 

Bee Hive Cash Store 

Xen H. Edwards 

Ribble Bros. 

R. C. Shoffner 

M. W. Hunt 

W. H. Parrill 

Fallis Bros. 

Hiatt & Ware 

John Flanagan 

Charles C. Hackney 

J. W. Dale 

Claud Jones 

S. A. Hockett 

Henry W. Hahne 

Charles Keifer 

L. E. Nolder 

J. R. Busing & Co. 

Mrs. Bessie Cooper 

John Osborn 

W. Frank Buller 

Hollingsworth & Co. 

Charles H. Stephens 

Fritz & Son 

Marion T^ig'ht and Heating Co. 

L. A. Wagoner, Manager 
Hill Brothers 
John L. Conrad 
L. H. Kimes 
P. H. O'Mara 
Oz Fankboner 
J. C. Albert son 
C. L. Salyers 
L. E. Montgomery 
Montgomery & Buchanan 
Will R. Fcwis 

Elmer Pennington 

Elmer Jay & Son 

Mercer, Brannum & Bevington Co. 

Ab Jones 

Charles F. Naber 

John Winslow 

A. D. Bryan 

E. H. Parker 

N. A. Wilson 

Fairmount State Bank 

Citizens State Bank 

A. M. Seright 

Kelly & Son 

Clinton Sellars 

W. -P. Van Arsdall 

Dr. J. G. Yerkey 

Dr. Sidne}- T. Rigsbee 

Dr. C. N. Brown 

Harley Winsett 

David G. Lewis 

Walter Jones 

Charles L. Buller 

Arley Addison 

C. C. Brown 

Dr. Harry Aldrich 

Seth Cox 

A. R. Long 

Charles Brown 

Myron Parker 

E. O. Ellis 

Dr. L. D. Holliday 

Dr. D. A. Holliday 

Rev. P. W. Raidabaugh 

S. H. Buchtel 

Mc.Veil & Tav 

Transportation Problem — Pioneer Merchants. 


Mrs. Ella Patterson 
Wilbern & Briles 
Charles T. Parker 
Joseph A. Roberts 
C. D. Overman 
O. R. Scott 
R. C. Smith 
J. W. Smith 
A. L. Dreyer 
John Winslow 

Central Indiana Gas Company, 

Charles Wingate, Manager 
Dr. D. M. Woolen 
Dr. J. P. Seale 
Isaiah Jay 
John T. Howell 
Walter S. Ellis 
Dr. Glenn Henlex' 
Elmer Flint 
Bowman Pickard 

Nathan W. Edwards, for more than thirty years a leading citizen 
and successful business man of Fairmount, was a native of Madison 
County. He was born near Alexandria. October zy, 1847, ^"<^^ '^^^d at 
his home in Fairmount, May 24, 1910. Peter Edwards, his paternal 
grandfather, was one of the early pioneers of Madison County and the 
first citizen to build a brick residence in his neighborhood. During 
those primitive days in the wilder- 
ness the builder and owner of a 
brick house usually marked its pos- 
sessor as a man of substantial taste 
and discrimination and he was re- 
garded by his neighbors as a per- 
son unusually thrifty and pros- 

Henry and Thurza (Ellis) Ed- 
wards were natives of North Car- 
olina. They were parents of eight 
children, namely, Wesley and 
Benson, both of whom died of in- 
juries received in the Union army 
during the Civil War ; Granville, 
Orville, Nathaniel, Mary, Isabelle 
F. and Nathan W. 

The latter years of his life were 
spent by Henry Edwards at the 
home of his son, in Fairmount, 
where he passed away August 21, 1900, at the ripe old age of eighty- 
six years. Though stricken with total blindness during the latter part 
of his life, he remained cheerful and optimistic to the last day, an exam- 
ple of patience and fortitude. Mrs. Thurza Edwards died at the home 
of her daughter, Mrs. William Tilden, in Miami County, in 1887, at 
the age of sixty-seven years. 


312 Tlic Makiii;^ of a l'o:^')isliip. 

Nathan W. Edwards was educated in the common schools of Madi- 
son and Starke Counties, and also attended Richmond Business Colletje. 
He taug'ht a number of terms in Starke and Madison Counties. He 
gave up the teaching profession for a business career and entered a 
drug store at Alexandria. He later owned and managed drug stores 
at Rigdon and El wood. Tn 1877 he bought the Pioneer Drug Store of 
Dr. P. H. Wright and made Fairmount his home. Tn ])olitics he 
never wavered in his support of the Republican party. Tn recognition 
of his capacity and fitness for the position, voters of T^airmount. in 
1881, elected Mr. Edwards Town Clerk and Treasurer. He served in 
this office as the practically unanimous choice of citizens from July, 
1881, to ]\Tay, 1887, almost six years. On Ji^me 9, 1890, in apprecia- 
tion of good work performed as Clerk and Treasurer, he was unani- 
mously elected for a term of three years as member of the School Board, 
an office he filled with excei)tional diligence and abilit}- for many years, 
until June 21, 1909, when he was forced by failing health to resign the 
position. He was succeeded on the Board b}- his son, Xen H. Edwards, 
who filled out his father's unexpired term. 

N. W. Edwards served as receiver for Rau Bros., and for a brief 
time was connected with the reorganization of the Farmers" and Mer- 
chants' State Bank. The exactions and confinement of this work w'ere 
not suited to his tastes or desires and he relinquished his connection 
with the institution. He was at one time a member of the Ivnights of 
Pythias and the Tndependent Order of Odd Fellows orders. He was 
affiliated with the Methodist Episcopal Church, having served as one 
of the trustees and a member of the official board. 

On May 21, 1879, ATr. Edwards was married to Miss Lenora (lal- 
loway, born at Ogden, Henry County, Tndiana, ATarch 6, i860. Her 
parents were Trvin and Jeannetta (Daniels) Gallowav. They were par- 
ents of five children, namely, Frank (deceased), T"".lmer, T^enora, 'Alice 
and Ella, the latter deceased. Nathan AW and I.enora (Galloway) Ed- 
wards were parents of three children, namely, Xen H., who married 
Miss Ethel I larvey, January 15, i<)(\s: Gladys, who married TJurl AA'. 
Co.x, June 2/, 1907, now residing at .Alexandria, and b'orrest. who re- 
sides with her mother in h'airmount. 

Nathan AA''. Edwards was always interested in the welfare of the 
community, and was especially efficient in his efforts on behalf of im- 
proved educational facilities. He was among the first to see the need 
of higher learning, where boys and girls who ])assed out of the grades 
might have a chance without leaving home for increased knowledge 
and additional equipment for the life before them. 



DR. ALPHEUS HENLEY, last survivor of that period when phy- 
sicians of Fairmount Township rode horseback to see their patients 
and carried their medical supplies in saddle-bags, was born in Randolph 
County, North Carolina, July 21, 1836. His parents, Phineas and Mary 
(Bogue) Henley, came to Fairmount Township the following year. 
They were natives of North Carolina, where they were born in 1802. 
Dr. Henley's paternal grandparents were John and Keziah (Nixon) 
Henley, natives of Randolph County, North Carolina : the maternal 
grandparents were John and Lydia Bogue, natives of Perquimans 
County, North Carolina. 

The Henley family is of English origin, and as far back as their his- 
tory can be traced they were prominent members of the Society of 
Friends. The progenitor of the family in America was Patrick Henley, 
who came to this country in the Seventeenth century and located first 
in Philadelphia, subsequently removing to North Carolina, where sev- 
eral generations of the family were born. 

Phineas Henle}' entered land, in 1837. one mile and a half north- 
west of Fairmount, this land now comprising a part of the Alice 
Thomas farm. Here a cabin was built and a clearing made in the wil- 
derness. Here his family of five children was reared, and here Dr. 
Henley grew to manhood, attending school in winter in the primitive 
log school house of that dav, with its slab benches and broad fireplace. 

In 1857 Dr. Henley, in company with Nixon Rush, went to Coffey 
Countv. Kansas, where they entered a claim and lived two years, secur- 
ing title to same. Dr. Henley did his part during those border ruffian 
days in the West to pave the way for the admission of Kansas as a free 
State. He was the first man to join Capt. David L. Payne's enterprise 
to settle Oklahoma. 

In 1859 Dr. Henley returned to Fairmount, entering Bloomingdale 
Academy, Indiana, with the intention of preparing himself for a profes- 
sional career. In 1862 he commenced the study of medicine with Dr. 
David S. Elliott. In 1863 he was a student at Michigan University, 
Ann Arbor. In 1865 he graduated at Sterling University, Columbus, 
Ohio. In the fall of 1864 he entered the Union army as an assistant 
surgeon and was stationed at Indianapolis. 



I'lic J/a/v'/;/_i^- of a Tozi'iisliip. 


Physicians — First Postmaster — Neivs papers. 315 

At the close of the War Dr. Henley returned home and commenced 
the practice of medicine in Fairmount. For forty years, with the excep- 
tion of one year spent in Oklahoma (1870) as Government surgeon for 
the Cheyenne and Apache Indians, being stationed at the time at Dar- 
lington Post, he followed his profession in Fairmount Township. As 
a physician he rose rapidly in popularity and grew in the confidence 
and respect of the people, reaching a position in the esteem of his neigh- 
bors and acquaintances which he uniformly maintained throughout the 
entire period of his extended active professional life. 

During the many years of his busy life Dr. Henley was always 
prompt to respond with his energy and his means to all well directed 
efforts intended to advance the industrial, business, educational and 
religious movements worthy of support. All his life he has been a mem- 
ber of the Society of Friends. 

Dr. Henley has served as President of the Town Board, President 
of the School Board and President of the Board of Trustees of Fair- 
mount Academy, an institution he helped materially to establish. He is 
a member of the Grant County Medical Society, of which organization 
he has served as President, a member of the Indiana Medical Society 
and of the American Medical Association. 

Dr. Henley has led a long and honorable career. His kindness of 
heart, his thoughtful regard for the welfare of others, his helpfulness 
by counsel and in substantial assistance given, his interest in many strug- 
gling young people and his exemplary personal and domestic life have 
been an inspiration to hundreds of people in this community. Can more 
be said of any man who has attained to his years ? The writer does not 
deem it always wise to reserve kind words for the obituary, and so in 
this instance we pay our tribute to the living. While in order to escape 
the rigors of our Northern climate, he has for the past few years 
maintained a home in the Southland, Dr. Henley is nevertheless affec- 
tionately regarded by our people here at his old home as Fairmount's 
grand old man. 

Among the physicians from the earliest days of the town to the 
present may be mentioned Philip Patterson, 1850-1860; John White, 
1852-1855; David S. Elliott, 1858-1866; Dr. Beckford, 1854; John T. 
Home, 1 860- 1 865 ; Dr. Boy den. Dr. ^IcDonald, Thomas Davis, 1865- 
1866; Silas W. Camp, 1867-1870; Alpheus Henley, 1865-1904; Cyrus 
V. Gorrell, 1875-1880; P. H. Wright, 1868-1888; Dr. Wetherell, 1875- 
1878; Thomas S. Beck, Henry Charles, 1 868-1 875 ; W. H. Hubbard, 
1884-1886; Charles V. Moore, 1874-1884; M. F. Baldwin, J. W. Pat- 


The .\ I ah ill i!; of a Tounislii/^. 

I «v»vlv ^x-wW."- ^■«. ■>. 


Native of Deep River, Guilford 
County, Xorth Carolina, an early 
I'^airmount physician who practiced 
medicine here during the years 1858 
to 1867. He was a brother to J. Nixon 
Elliott. It was in the office of Dr. 
Elliott that Dr. Alpheus Henley com- 
menced the study of medicine. In the 
spring of 1864 Dr. Elliott went with 
other Fairmount men to Wabash to 
enter the Union Army as a surgeon. 
While quartered at Wabash he met 
with an accident which resulted in 
permanent injuries, from the effects of 
which he died. He continued to re- 
side in Fairmount, doing an office 
business, as his health permitted, until 
the spring of 1868, when he removed 
to Richmond, Indiana, with his wife 
and only daughter, Miss Hettie El- 
liott, and lived in W^ayne County im- 
til 1869. when he passed away, at the 
home of his parents. Elias and Mar- 
tha (Sanders) Elliott, at the early age 
of thirty-six. At the time of his death 
Dr. Elliott was President of the Grant 
County Medical Societ}\ 

ter.son, W. A. Frazier. S. M. Nol- 
dcr. Olive Wilson, Allen Moon, 
Stephen A. Marlow, Cilenn Hen- 
Ic}-. J. P. Scale, Nathan Davis, 
Charles B. Vigus, William i;. 
Thomas, C. N. Brown, W. M. 
Warner, D. A. Holliday. L. D. 
Holliday, J. H. Stephens, Harry 

Not only has Fairmount Town- 
ship been the home and the field 
of work for many physicians who 
have passed on to their final re- 
ward as well as members of the 
profession now located here, but 
the community has supplied to 
other cities and towns members 
of this noble calling" who received 
their elementary education in this* 
Township. Among those to be 
mentioned are a few who have 
been notably successful. Dr. Etta 
Charles, of Alexandria, Indiana, 
lived in Fairmount many years 
and attended the common schools 
here. She is a daughter of Dr. 
Henry Charles, Friends minister 
as well as a physician. Her pa- 
ternal grandparents were Sam- 
uel and Sarah Charles, and her 
maternal grandparents were Eli- 
jah and Ann (Ptickett) Jack.son. 
Her parents were Henry and Olive 
Ann (Jackson) Charles, the fath- 
er born in \\'ayne County. Indi- 
ana, August 10. 1822, died jul\ 
17, 1884: the mother was born in 
Randolph County, Indiana, in 
1828. and died on .\pril 12. i86g. 
Dr. Etta Charles matriculated at 
the Woman's ^ledical College. St. 
Louis, and in 1895 she received 

Physicians — First Postuiasfer — Ncivspapcrs. 317 

her diploma. On June 10, of that year, she located at Summitville, and 
remained at this point nntil November 13, 19 13, at which date she located 
in Alexandria, where she has prospered in her chosen profession. Dr. 
Charles is a member of the Madison County Medical Society. Indiana 
State Medical Association. Eighth District Medical Society and the 
American Medical Association. She has served the Madison Comity 
Society as President and also in the capacity of Secretary for four years. 
She has read many papers before her State, District and County socie- 
ties, besides contributing valuable articles to important medical publica- 
tions. Dr. Charles is examining physician for the Woman's Auxiliary 
of the Modern Woodmen of America, known as the Royal Neighbors 
of America. She is one of a very few physicians who has discovered a 
case of typhus fever in an inland town. In the midst of her busy life 
she finds time for club work and is an active member of the Ladies' 
Art Circle and of the Riley Club, of Alexandria, and an honorary mem- 
ber of the Priscilla Club at Summitville. 

Dr. Calvin C. Rush, son of Nixon and Louisa (Winslow) Rush, 
resides in Philadelphia. Born on February 16, 1876. he attended the 
public schools of Fairmount, and graduated from Fairmount Academy 
in 1894; received from Earlham College the degree of Bachelor of Sci- 
ence in 1900; graduated from Haverford College in 1901 and from the 
Aledical Department of the LTniversity of Pennsylvania in 1907. At 
present Dr. Rush is taking a post-graduate course in the Polyclinic Hos- 
pital and Wills' Eye Hospital, Philadelphia. Dr. Rush was located at 
Portage, Pennsylvania, from 1909 to 1916, where he met with considera- 
ble success, retiring from the general practice and taking up his resi- 
dence in Philadelphia, in November, 1916. He is a stockholder in the 
First National Bank of Portage. He was a resident physician in the 
L^niversity of Pennsylvania Hospital from 1907 to 1909. Dr. Rush is 
a member of the Pennsylvania Medical Association and the American 
Medical Association. He is a member of the Society of Friends. 
Dr. Rush was married to Miss Annette Johnson, at her hoiue in Fair- 
mount, on June 20, 1910. She is the daughter of Barclav and Syl- 
via Anna (Lindley) Johnson. Dr. and Mrs. Rush are parents of three 
children, namely, Sylvia Louise, born April 5, 191 1 ; Norman J., born 
August 26, 191 3. and Eleanor, born March 16, 1916. 

Robert Benjamin Jones, physician and surgeon, is located at Laporte. 
Indiana. Dr. Jones was born in Fairmount Township July 21. 1884. 
His paternal grandparents were Robert Jofies and wife, and his mater- 
nal grandparents were Amos and Nancy Thomas. David and Sallie 
(Thomas) Jones, parents of Dr. Jones, were both born in Fainuount 

3i8 Thr Makijij:; of a Toivnship. 

Township. Dr. Jones was educated in the schools of his native town- 
ship, and graduated from Fairmount Academy, later receiving his degree 
of Doctor of 'Medicine from Indiana University School of Medicine. On 
July 23, HJ09. he located at Laporte, Indiana, where he has met with 
excellent success in his profession. He is a stockholder in the First 
National Bank at Laporte, Moore & Richter Lumber Company, Laporte, 
and the American Standard Motion Picture Company, Chicago. In poli- 
tics Dr. Jones is a Democrat, and he holds a birthright membership 
in the Quaker Church. He is a member of Phi Delta Theta and Phi Rho 
Signa college fraternities, and also of the Independent Order of Odd 
Fellows and the Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks at Laporte, 
Indiana. He is a member of the Laporte County Medical Society, the 
Indiana State IMedical Society and the American Medical Association. 
On March 26, 1910, Dr. Jones was married to Miss Mabel Child, daugh- 
ter of Charles and Mary Child, at their home in Fairmount. Dr. and 
Mrs. Jones are parents of two children. Helen Marie Jones, born May 
26, 1912, and Robert Benjamin Jones. Jr.. born September 12, 1916. 

Thomas J. Carter, M. D., son of Robert L. and Mary (Rush) Car- 
ter, is a successful practicing physician at Wichita, Kansas. Dr. Carter 
was born in Fairmount Towaiship in 1876. He attended the Fairmount 
public schools, graduated from Fairmount Academy in 1897, received 
his degree from the Medical Department of Indiana University in 1902, 
and located in League City, Texas, in 1904. In June, 191 7, he removed 
from League City to Wichita. He served as President of League City 
School District and as a member of the Board of Education of Galveston 
County, Texas. Dr. Carter is a birthright member of the Friends 
Church. In 1900. at l*"airniount. he was married to Miss Sula Edgerton, 
daughter of Jesse and Sarah (Shugart) Edgerton, prominent residents 
of Grant County. Dr. and Mrs. "Carter are parents of three children, 
namely, Stuart R. Carter, born June 4, 1904; Esther H. Carter, born 
June 9, 1907; Willard E. Carter, born November 15, 191 1. 

Others who have entered the profession and are attaining a large 
measure of success are Dr. Wilbur Lucas, of Pueblo, Colorado, and Dr. 
Eli Jones, located at Hammond, Indiana. Dr. Lucas is a son of former 
County Commissioner Thomas J. and Mrs. Amanda (Dunn) Lucas. 
Dr. Jones is a .son of David and Sallie (Thomas) Jones, both well 
known families of Fairmount Township. 

The first postoffice was located in a frame house built by \\'i]liam 
Hall, situated at the southwest corner of Adams and Main Streets. This 

Physicians — First Postmaster — X civs papers. 


was the third frame house built in Fairmount. The second frame dwell- 
ing was built by David Stanfield, on the northwest corner of Adams and 
Main Streets. 

Former State Senator and Post- 

Former Postmistress 

William Hall was the first postmaster. In 1844 he had been elected 
class leader and then ordained a minister in the United Brethren Church. 
His duties as a circuit rider took him away from his home a large part 
of the time, and as he thought the work of the office was too arduous 
for his family during his enforced and many times prolonged absence, 
he gave up the office and turned it over to Joseph W. Baldwin, who kept 
it in his storeroom. 

Others who served as postmaster since the days of William Hall and 
Joseph W. Baldwin may be mentioned Alex Henley, Al H. Johnson, 
Ephraim Smith, T. P. Latham, W. H. Campbell, J. D. Latham, C. D. 
Overman, C. C. Lyons, Miss Gladys Lyons, W. P. Van Arsdall. 

The Galatia Messenger was issued in 1852 by William Chamness 
and associates for the primary purpose of advocating the movement to 

3-0 IJu- Mah'liii^ of a To7Ciisliip. 

estal)lisli a city near T.ake Galatia. The Mcssoii^cr was established as 
l)arl of a i)lan to propagate in a lar^c way the doctrine of Spiritualism. 
It was the first publication issued in h^airnKnmt Townshi]). 

In necember. 1877, Joel Reece, who had been ])ublishino- 71ie Jones- 
bo j-o A e'i^'S. finding- that field unprofitable for a newspaper, moved his 
outfit in a wagon to I'ainnount and issued the first edition of The Fair- 
mount XcK's. The (juestion of starting a newspaper t)ccui)ied the atten- 
tion of business men for several weeks, and was discussed bv citizens, 
who held frequent meetings for the purpose of considering the matter. 
Among the active promoters of the enterprise were Robert Rogue. N. W. 
Edwards, E. X. Oakley. J. P. Winslow, and others. The pa])er was 
issued from a room in the rear of the second story of the Pioneer Drug 
Store. An old-fashioned Washington hand press, the nucleus of an 
equipment for the average country weekly in that day. was used to ]:)rint 
the first edition. Reece conducted the paper for about one year, when 
he sold his plant to Charles Stout and moved to Stafford Conntw Kan- 
sas, where he has since died. 

For a short time William S. Seaford, who was a teacher in the Fair- 
mount public schools, was associated with Stout in the publication of the 

In May, 1885, 7 he XeK's was taken over by Edgar M. Raldwin. who 
continued as the publisher until April. 1888, when the pro]ierty was 
])urchased by Jack Stivers.* Stivers was in charge of the pa])er until. 
July. TQ03, when it was again taken over by Edgar ^\. P)al(lwin, who, 
assisted by his wife, ^fyra Rush Raldwin. has since been activeh- en- 
gaged in its management. 

TIic I'ainiioinif Times was started in 1888 liy Edward A. Morgan. 
The paper was later discontinued. About iqoo. Morgan entered the 

"J. Stivers, editor of 'flic I'ainnount XcZi.'s from .\i)ril, 1888, to July j8, 
1903, was born at Pt. Isabel, Ohio, June 14, 1854. His father's name was 
J. M. Stivers, both parents being natives of Ohio, where the elder Stivers 
was a school teacher and surveyor. In 1S66, as a boy twelve years of age, 
J. Stivers came to Indiana and lived with his brother, Charles W. Stivers, at 
Liberty. Later, with his brothers, C. W. and Scott Stivers, he was for 
several years engaged in the newsj^aper business at Liberty and Brook- 
ville. In 1886 he went to Grass l^ake. Mich., and after two years of suc- 
cessful publication of a weekly newspaper at that point he came to Fair- 
mount and purchased The Xczcs. Mt. Stivers' father was one of the early 
Prohibitionists of Ohio, when adherents of this cause were few and far 
between. During his editorial control of The Xezi's Mr. Stivers stood out 
boldly against the licjuor traffic in the face of the fact that there were at 
the time ten saloons in Fairmount, and he takes pardonable jiride in his 
aggressive and effective work against the liquor business. In politics Mr. 
Stivers is a Republican. He is a member of the Independent Order of Odd 
Fellows, and has passed all the chairs of a subordinate He now 
resides in San I'rancisco, California, with his wife. His daughter, (ieorgia 
Dell, is married to J. L. Schlcimer. a n.ative of San Diego, Califdrnia. 

PJiysicians — First Postmaster — Xcivspapers. 32 1 

Fairmount field with TJic Daily Journal, which flourished for several 
years, suspending publication in 1906. Several other newspapers have 
been started in Fairmount in the intervening }ears, with indifferent 

The Child's Golden Voice, a juvenile religious periodical issued 
monthly by Rev. G. P. Riley, was published here in 1885. 

James Chapman published The Index at Fowlerton from 1902 to 
1906. Mr. Chapman discontinued The Index in order to assume charge 
of The Gas City Journal. The Index was succeeded by The Independ- 
ent, and then by The Reviei^\ both publications at different times edited 
by Cal Sinninger. Sinninger was an aggressive writer; sometimes vit- 
riolic in his utterances, and was noted for his independent views on 
religion, politics and business. 

The first Cornet Band in Fairmount was organized in Octo- 
ber. 1870, by Blanche Hockett. The first instructor was D. K. 
Elliott, who then lived at Anderson. The members of this band were 
Blanche Hockett, Walker Crowell, Dennis Montgomery, Cyrus W. Neal, 
Joel Puckett, Zep Gossett, Lsaac N. Gossett, Gilmore Hollingsworth, 
Lawrence IMcDonald, Will Carson, Henry Jeffrey, J. B. Hollingsworth 
and Wesley Hollingsworth. In that day the first-class bands that had 
wide reputations for the kind of music played were located at Indian- 
apolis (The When), Peru, Noblesville and New Castle. 

The next band was organized September 14, 1884, by William St. 
Clair. The members of this organization were J. W. Patterson, leader ; 
John S. Baker, John Montgomery, Dennis Montgomery, Orlando F. 
Baldwin, Gilbert LaRue, George Gibson, William Hollingsworth, 
Charles Hollingsworth, Pet Gift, William Galloway and Lewis Mit- 
tank. When Gen. John A. Logan spoke at Indianapolis, during the 
campaign of 1884. this band was assigned to the position of honor in 
the line of march, and escorted the speaker to the platform. 

In December, 1904, Quinton LaRue organized the present Fairmount 
Band. Birney Allred, Walter Briles and LaRue met in the old light 
plant, on East Washington Street, for their first practice. Since this 
first meeting of the original members rehearsals have been held once, 
and many times twice, each week. The result of their persistent work 
is the splendid band which now is a credit to Fairmount. Prof. C. R. 
Tuttle was for several years the efficient instructor. The organization 
progressed rapidly under his direction. Prof. George L. P'ayson, of 
Alexandria, succeeded Professor Tuttle. Other members of the band 
at different times were Charles L. Kiefer, Leslie Davis, Burr Holmes, 


The Mak'i)ii^ of a Tozvnship. 

Ed Guinnup, Albert Riggs. Homer Williams, John W. Montgomery, 
Oscar Dickey, Orville Wells, Earl Morris, Ellis Wright, Louis Bender, 
Otto Morris, Omar Brewer, Luther Davis, Russell Stephens, Ancil 
Wright, Ward LaRue, Russell Dale, Roy Wells and Kenneth Morris. 

In the profession of dentistry several former Fairmount Township 
young men have gone out into other cities and towns and proved their 

worth. Perhaps the most notable 
success is that of Dr. Carl D. Lu- 
cas, of Indianapolis. Dr. Lucas 
is a native of Jefferson Town- 
ship, where he was born October 
24, 1879. His paternal grand- 
parents were Thomas M. and 
Mary Lucas, and his maternal 
grandparents were Thomas and 
Mary Dunn. His parents are 
Thomas J. and Amanda (Dunn") 
Lucas, the father having served 
six years as a member of the Board 
of (irant County Commissioners. 
Dr. Lucas attended the Fairmount 
public schools, and, in 1899, grad- 
uated from Fairmount Academy. 
In 1902 he received from the Indi- 
ana Dental College the degree of 
Doctor of Dental Surgery. For 
fourteen years he did general 
]M-actice in the capital city, but 
since 1914 his practice is limited 


to oral surgery. Dr. Lucas is a member of the Indiana State Den- 
tal Association, Indianapolis Dental Society, Chicago Dental Society, 
Kentucky State Dental Association, Louisiana State Dental Associa- 
tion; Corydon Palmer Dental Society, Youngstown, Ohio; Associate 
Fellow of American Medical Association ; member American Institute 
of Dental Teachers ; member of National Dental Association, having 
held two offices in this organization ; Chairman and Supervisor of 
Operative Surgical Clinics in 1917 at National meeting in New York 
City ; member Scientific Foundation and Research Commission of the 
National Dental Association. In politics Dr. Lucas is neutral, exercis- 
ing his own i^crsonal judgment as to candidates and measures appeal- 

Physicians — First Postnmster — Nezvspapcrs 


ing to him for his support. He is a member of Fairmoiint lodge, Free 
and Accepted Masons, also of the Delta Sigma Delta fraternity. His 
skill and knowledge of his profession are recognized throughout the 
United States, and especially in Indiana, where he is best known. Dr. 
Lucas is lecturer at the Indiana Dental College on oral surgery, anat- 
omy, histology and embryology and clinician at the Indiana Dental 
College in oral surgery. Dr. Lucas was married on June 29, 1910, at 
Arcadia, Indiana, to Miss Effa Jane Carter. They are parents of one 
son, Carl D. Lucas, Jr., born September 5, 191 1. 

Other former Fairmount men who are practicing dentistry in dif- 
ferent localities are Dr. Milo E. Ratliff, Cassopolis, Michigan ; Dr. 
Charles E. White and Dr. Trosseau Heck, at Indianapolis ; Dr. Mark 
Struble and Dr. Laurence Shaughnessy, at Chicago, and Dr. Will E. 
Ferree, at Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 

Dr. Joseph W. Patterson, deceased, son of Dr. Philip and Mary 
(Baldwin) Patterson, was born in Fairmount, October 28, 1859. His 
paternal grandfather, William Pat- 
terson, was a native of Ohio and a 
veteran of the War of 1812 who, in 
1830, came to ]\Iadison County, 
Indiana, and settled near Ander- 
son, where he died. The father 
was born in Ohio, in 1825, was 
reared at Anderson, received his 
education in the old Franklin Col- 
lege, south of Indianapolis, and 
graduated from the Ohio Medical 
College, at Cincinnati, in 1846. He 
later took a course in the Jeffer- 
son Medical College of Philadel- 
phia. About 1847 he located in 
Fairmount, then a sparsely settled 
community, where he practiced his 
profession for about eleven years. 
Soon after the death of his wife, in 
i860, he moved to Frankton, in 
Madison County, where he con- 
tinued to live until his death, in 
November, 1870. Mary Patter- - ^j^ j -y^r pattERSON 
son was born in Wayne County, 
Indiana, December 21, 1825. She was a daughter of Daniel Baldwm, 

324 The Making of a Toi^'uship. 

one of the early pioneers of the Township. Dr. J. W. Patterson's 
mother having died when lie was hnt five months old, he was taken 
into the home of David and Elizaheth (Coleman) Baldwin, by whom 
he was reared as one of their own. He attended the Fairmount public 
schools, during the summer months worked for his uncle, David, and 
early began to earn and save money as a plasterer and bricklayer with 
which to attend medical college. His ambition to be a doctor was grat- 
ified, and in 1889 ^""^ graduated from the Indiana Medical College with 
honors, being awarded the Taylor anatomical ])rize. He located in 
Fairmount the year of his graduation and commenced the practice of 
his profession, meeting with success. He served as health officer of 
Fairmount. He was a member of the Grant County Medical Society, 
Delaware District Medical Society, State Medical Society, and for two 
years President of the Harvey Medical Association of Indiana Medical 
College. In politics Dr. Patterson was a Republican. At twenty-one 
years of age he was elected justice of the peace ; he served several terms 
as member of the corporation Board of Trustees, suggesting the names 
adopted for the streets ; as President of the Board he advocated the in- 
stallation of the water works ; was a member of the School Board for 
twelve years, giving loyal and efficient service to the educational inter- 
ests of the community; on July 7, 1906, he was appointed a member of 
the (Jrant County Board of Examining Surgeons, a position he held at 
the time of his death. As a manifestation of the esteem in which he 
was held by survivors of the Civil War he was unanimously elected an 
honorary member of Beeson Post, Grand Army of the Republic. In 
1883 he was married to Miss Moslen Pickard, daughter of Alexander 
and Mary I'ickard. They were parents of two children, namely, T-'red 
P., of Columbus, C )hi(), and Mrs. Charles E. Hutchins, of Marion, In- 
diana. The wife and mother passed away on April 28, 1896. On June 
26, 1898, he was joined in marriage to Miss Ella Pearson, daughter of 
Henry and Minerva Pearson, this union proving to be a most congenial 
and happy one. Dr. Patterson died on December 26, 1913, aged fifty- 
four years. His funeral, conducted at the Methodist Episcopal Church 
by Rev. H. S. Xickerson, was one of the largest ever held in Fairmount. 




IN 1883 Dr. A. Henley and Levi Scott, perceiving the need of local 
banking facilities, proceeded to organize the Fairmount Bank as a 
private institution. They purchased ground on South Main Street and 
erected a two-story brick building. 

On June 24. 1886, the capital stock was increased to twenty-five 
thousand dollars and the bank was reorganized and incorporated under 
the laws of the State, and became known as the Farmers and Merchants 
State Bank, with Dr. A. Henley, President, and Levi Scott, Cashier. 
The directors met in 1887 and decided to increase the capital stock to 
fifty thousand dollars. 

The institution continued -to operate successfully as the Farmers 
and Merchants State Bank until June, 1893, when the panic of that 
year brought disaster to many enterprises throughout the country, 
carrying this bank down in the general crash. 

On July 15, 1893, the Citizens Exchan'ge Bank was organized with 
Nixon Winslow, President ; John Selby, Vice-President, and W. C. 
Winslow, Cashier. Other stockholders were A. A. Ulrey, John Scale, 
vSr., and William J. Leach. 

On June 10, 191 1, this bank was reorganized and incorporated as 
a State Bank, with John Selby, President ; Charles F. Naber, A'lce- 
President, and Victor A. Selby, Cashier. 

The Fairmount Banking Company was organized as a private insti- 
tution on December 18, 1902, with Aaron Morris, President; John 
Flanagan, Vice-President ; R. A. Morris, Cashier, and C. R. Small, 
Assistant Cashier. 

In 1905 the bank was organized under the laws of the State and the 
name changed to the Fairmount State Bank. John Flanagan was 
elected President ; xA.aron Morris, Vice-President, and R. A. Morris, 
Cashier. The present officers are W. F. Morris, President ; R. A. 
Morris, Cashier, and Tony Payne, Assistant Cashier. 

On March 4, 1887, the Fairmount Mining Company was organized 
for the purpose of making explorations for natural gas. Other commu- 
nities in Grant and adjoining counties had formed similar companies 
for this purpose, and the result? were such as to encourage local men 



The .]falci)i!^ of a Township. 

to believe that the Fairmount field offered as good prospects for devel- 
oping this fuel as others that had been successfully opened up. 


Former prominent Fairmount citi- 
zen and business man, is a native of 
Wayne County, Indiana, where he 
was born January 21, 1846. His par- 
ents, Stephen and Mahala (Arnett) 
Scott, were among the pioneers of 
Liberty Township. Levi Scott 
passed the early years of his life 
working upon his father's farm, at- 
tending the common schools in win- 
ter. August I, 1863, at seventeen, he 
enlisted in Company C, One Hun- 
dred and Eighteenth Indiana Volun- 
teer Infantry. At the conclusion of 
his service in the army he returned 
home, engaged in farming, and later 
in retail merchandising in Hunting- 
ton County, in which he was success- 
ful. Disposing of his stock of goods 
he. purchased a farm near Pleasant 
Plain, and once more followed agri- 
cultural pursuits. In 1865 he was 
united in marriage with Miss Emily 
Davis, daughter of George Davis, of 
Liberty Township. They were the 
parents of twelve children, namely: 
Melissa M., Alvin B., Irvin, Arthur 
D., Lillie, Lemuel, Eliza A., Alonzo, 
Charlotte, Clelia, Elois and Harrison. 
Melissa, Arthur and Lemuel are de- 
ceased. The wife died in 1891. For 
his second companion he married Emily R. Hill, of Carthage, Indiana. Mr. 
Scott, in 1877, engaged in general merchandising in Fairmount, entering 
actively into the support with his means, his time and his influence of 
various enterprises promoted for the good of the community. In November, 
1882, with surplus funds not otherwise invested, he established the Fair- 
mount Bank, giving local people their first banking facilities. This institu- 
tion did a general banking business, dealing in exchange, receiving money on 
deposit, discounting notes, etc. He built Scott's Opera House in 1884, with 
a commodious stage, scenery and all necessary equipment to accommodate 
the best theatrical troupes touring the smaller towns and cities of that day. 
The Fairmount I'ank was later reorganized under the laws of Indiana and 
became known as the Farmers and Merchants State Bank. The business 
grew as Fairmount increased in population and industry. In 1893, as the 
result of a lil)eral policy adopted by the bank toward the encouragement of 
local manufacturing enterprises, a policy which in time proved to be un- 
wisely generous, owing to the panic of that year, the financial drain became 
too great for its resources and the institution was forced to close its doors. 
This action became necessary on account of the inability of the management 
to quickly realize on paper then in its possession. In 1896 Mr. and Mrs. 
Scott disposed of their interests here and moved to Missouri, then to Texas, 
and later to California, where they are comfortably situated. 

J. V. Winslow, T. J. Nixon. C. R. Small, Levi Scott, Dr. W. H. 
Hubbard, M. I\Iark, John Flanagan, Kimbrough Bros, and Dr. A. 

Banks — Natural Gas— Water Works — Industries. 


Henley were the original stockholders. The Board of Directors con- 
sisted of Dr. A. Henley, President ; T. J. Nixon, Secretary ; C. R. Small, 
Treasurer ; J. P. Winslow, W. C. Winslow and Levi Scott. On March 

Is the son of Otho Selby, born in 
Pennsylvania, September 24, 1805. 
Otho Selby entered one hundred and 
sixty acres of land near Lake Ga- 
latia on May 30, 1837, subsequently, 
on August 20, 1838, adding by entry 
forty acres adjoining. Before he 
came to Grant County he had sold 
a tract of land in Franklin County, 
which he had entered there on Au- 
gust 14, 1834, this tract comprising 
eighty acres, southeast of Indian- 
apolis. He owned the Fairmount 
Township farm until his death, Feb- 
ruary 16, 1881. Otho and Jane 
(Allen) Selby were parents of three 
children, John, Mrs. Sarah Smith 
and Mrs. Emma Compton. John 
Selby was born June 10, 1846. He 
attended the common schools and re- 
mained on his father's farm until 
fifteen years of age, when he learned 
the tinner's trade, following this vo- 
cation in Jonesboro and Fairmount. 
In 1864 he enlisted in Company F, 
One Hundred and Thirty-ninth In- 
diana Volunteer Infantry. Upon his 
return from the war Mr. Selby 
again engaged in the stove and tin- 
ware business, remaining in this line imtil he went back to the farm. In 
1894, associated with others. Mr. Selby organized the Citizens Exchange Bank, 
with the late Nixon Winslow as President and himself as Cashier. June 
ID, 191 1, this bank was reorganized under State laws, the name changed to 
the Citizens State Bank, and Mr. Selby was selected to serve as President, 
a position he has filled acceptably ever since. The officers of this strong 
institution are: John Selby, President; Victor A. Selby, Cashier. Directors 
are John Selby, A. A. Ulrey and Charles F. Naber. Mr. Selby owns one 
hundred and seventy acres of the farm originally entered by his father. In 
politics he is a Democrat, and a member of the Congregational Church. He 
was married in 1874 to Miss Hattie M. Allen, born in Ohio in 1853. To this 
union two sons were born, nainely: Victor A., who is married and resides 
in Fairmount, and William A. Selby, deceased. Mr. and Mrs. Victor A. 
Selby are the parents of two children, namely, Victor A., Jr., and Virginia. 

9 the Secretary was directed to contract for tiie work of putting down 
a well. 

Pursuant to instructions, Mr. Nixon contracted with W. A. Walley, 
of the firm of O'Neill & Walley, of Muncie. Mr. Walley placed Steve 
A. Irwin in personal charge of the work. The big derrick was speedily 
erected, equipment secured and operations commenced. 

On Tuesday, April 26, the drill penetrated Trenton rock at a depth 
of 965 feet. The well yielded an abundance of gas. Professor Orton, 


77/1' Makiiii:; of a Township. 

Ohio State Geologist, after much difficulty, succeeded in making a test 
of the pressure. He found that its flow was eleven million five hundred 
thousand cubic feet every twenty-four hours, or, in the language of 


I s a native of Preble County. Ohio, 
where he was born August lO, 1853. 
His father, James Flanagan, M-as 
born in County Mayo, Ireland, 
about 1820, came to the United 
States in 1848 and settled in Grant 
County in 1865. He died in 1880, at 
his home northeast of Fairmount. 
John Flanagan was educated in the 
common schools of Preble County, 
Ohio, and in Grant County, attend- 
ing a Normal School later, teaching 
in winter and farming in summer. 
April I., 1879, he entered the mercan- 
tile business with E. N. Oaklej', a 
partnership which continued for 
three years. In April, 1882, he joined 
the firm of Henley & Nixon, grain 
dealers, and took over a grain ele- 
vator at Summitville, operating this 
enterprise under the name of John 
I'lanagan & Company, for one year. 
The same firm, Flanagan, Henlej'- & 
Nixon, bought the stock of merchan- 
dise at Washington and Main streets 
and conducted this store from 1883 
to 1888, when the firm name was 
changed to Flanagan & Henley, Mr. 
Nixon having retired. The two- 
story brick building was bought in 
, i88y, and the business has continued 
at this corner ever since. In 1893 
Mr. h'lanagan bought Dr. Henley's interests and he has since conducted 
the business as sole proprietor. In addition to his mercantile interests Mr. 
Flanagan owns considerable land. For six years he was President of the 
School Board. He was one of the organizers and for seven years President 
of the Fairmount State Bank; a director and Secretary of the Fairmount 
Mining Company, which put down several productive wells in the oil and 
gas districts of this section; President of the Commercial Club during the 
period of its greatest activity; President of the Fairmount Building & Loan 
Association for several years, and for many meetings of that organization 
he was an official of the Fairmount h'air Association. In politics Mr. b'lan- 
agan is a Republican, and while not a member of any church he has always 
contributed liberally of his means to the support of all. He was married to 
Miss Sarah E. Winslow, daughter of Levi and Emily (Henley) W'inslow, 
on March 8, i860. Mr. and Mrs. Flanagan h;ive no children. 

Professor Ortnn at the time, "ncarl\- sufficient gas to sup])l\ the ihree 
largest cities in Ohio." 

The well was located on the south side of East Washington .street, 
near the old brick elevator formerly owned 1)\ \\'inslow & P)eals. 

in tlie fall of 1888 a special train bearing James G. Plaine and a 

Banks — Xatnral Gas — Water Works — Industries. 


party of friends stopped nearby. The pressure was turned on and the 

distinguished Maine statesman expressed astonishment and admiration 

as the well roared thunderously and the gigantic flames leaped skyward. 

The pressure was so great that it was with considerable difficulty 


Cashier of the Fairmoiint State 
Bank, was born at Milton, in Wayne 
County, Indiana, May i6, 1877. His 
paternal grandparents were George 
and Rhoda Morris, natives of North 
Carolina, and his maternal grand- 
parents were Lewis W'. and Pris- 
cilla M. Thomas, Pennsylvania peo- 
ple. The parents of Robert A. Mor- 
ris were Aaron and Martha M. Mor- 
ris, the father, born at Milton, No- 
vember 23. 1834, having died Feb- 
ruary 15, 1907. The mother (who 
was a direct descendant of Thomas 
Lloyd and Samuel Preston, both 
councilors of William Penn, Lloyd 
serving as first Governor of Penn- 
sylvania), was born February 3, 183Q. 
and now resides at Pendleton. Mr. 
and Mrs. Aaron Morris were the 
parents of four children, namely: 
Louella Burdsall, of New York; W. 
F. Morris, of Pendleton, Indiana; 
Robert A. Morris, of Fairmount, and 
Elizabeth Lantz, of Pendleton. Rob- 
ert A. Morris was educated in the 
public schools at Milton, his home, 

and at Earlham College. Early in life, at nineteen years of age, he entered 
the banking business, being associated with his father in the Pendleton 
Banking Company. In 1902, with his father, he came to Fairmount and 
assisted in organizing the Fairmount Banking Company, this institution 
being later incorporated as the Fairmount State Bank, under which name 
it is now doing business. Mr. Morris is a stockholder and director of the 
Pendleton Banking Company, of which concern he is President; director of 
the Citizens Telephone Company, and a director of the Fairmount Commer- 
cial Club. In politics Mr. Morris is a stanch Republican, and a member of 
the Hicksite Friends. He has served his party as Treasurer of the Grant 
County Republican Central Committee, and was a member of the Grant 
County Council. He is an active member of Fairmount Lodge, Free and 
Accepted Masons, No. 635, having served the local lodge in all the chairs, 
being now a Trustee. On October 21, 1908, Mr. Morris was married in 
Fairmount to Miss Artie Suman, a native of Fairmount Township, and 
daughter of Harry and Rachel (Lewis) Suman, now residing at Hunter, 
North Dakota. Mr. and Mrs. Morris are the parents of one son, William 
Suman Morris, born January 2, 1913. 

the flow of gas was harnessed and gotten ready for use. Excursion 
trains came loaded with passengers from every direction to see the well. 
In a few weeks, because of its enormous capacity, which was said to be 
greater than that of any other well in Indiana, it was given the name 
of Jumbo, so called after Barntnn's elephant. 

330 i he Makiii;^ of a Townsliip. 

The gas was finally put under control and piped, and the expense 
of light and fuel for many years did not exceed twelve dollars per year 
for each family for domestic purposes. Walker Winslow was the first 
man in Fairmount who introduced natural gas for cooking purposes, 
and it was not many months before its use was general among Fair- 
mount people. 

Attracted by the cheapness, cleanliness and convenience of the new 
fuel, several glass factories located in Fairmount. By the year 1890 
the town began to increase in population and grow in industrial impor- 
tance. In 1894 the census showed approximately five thousand inhab- 

Foreign corporations, seeing the opportunity presented, began to 
lease land in the neighborhood. Lines were laid and gas was trans- 
ported into Chicago by means of great pumping stations erected for the 
purpose. These stations pulled strongly upon the entire field, dimin- 
ishing the supply, and finally exhausing the entire territory. 

Far-seeing men wisely discouraged people from leasing land to out- 
side syndicates, but the advice went unheeded and the pressure began to 
weaken and then gradually to disappear. 

The discovery which promised at the outset to dot the gas belt with 
connecting cities eventually came to naught. There are now but few 
scattered families in this part of the State using natural gas. 

Fairmount had reached the point in population and industry by 1894 
where the need of a system of water works seemed imperative. 

The Board of Trustees of the corporation at this time consisted of 
Dr. J. W. Patterson, President ; ]\I. S. Friend, Jason B. Smith, William 
R. Pearson and Gabe Johnson. 

Immediately upon his election as Trustee, Dr. Patterson began an 
agitation for water works. At first he encountered considerable oppo- 
sition among citizens. However, after considering the matter with 
care, the Board decided to investigate the question. Dr. Patterson and 
William R. Pearson were named as a committee to make a thorough 
investigation and report back to the Board. The committee visited a 
number of towns, inspecting many plants and examining closely details 
relating to operation and construction. A public meeting was called. 
This meeting was held in Tarker's Opera House. It was addressed by 
Dr. Patterson, who made an exhaustive explanation oi ihc plans l)y 
which the svstem could be installed. 

Banks — Natural Gas — Water JVorks — Industries. 331 

A petition was circulated calling for an election and the required 
number of signatures secured. The result of the election which fol- 
lowed showed a practically unanimous sentiment favorable to the propo- 
sition, there being but thirty votes registered in opposition to it. Work 
was started immediately after the bonds were sold, and the plant was 
soon in operation. 

H. H. Wiley came from Jonesboro in 1876, and located a saw and 
planing-mill near the railroad, which he operated until he retired from 
active business. 

In 1882 Cyrus Winslow and Lemuel Pearson bought the saw-mill 
which had previous to that time been owned and operated by Winslow, 
Pearson & Beidler. The mill was located north of Fairmount. 

William S. Wardwell came to Fairmount in 1876 and took charge of 
the Woolen Mills,* which for many years had been operated previous 
to his arrival. Mr. Wardwell manufactured blankets and stocking yarn. 
He later moved the machinery to Converse, Indiana. 

In 1878 C. A. Wood and son. Mark, built a stave factory east of the 
Big Four railroad. The business flourished. In the year 1879-1880 
the factory dressed two million oil-barrel staves, made from timber 
obtained in this locality. 

In 1881 J. P. Winslow and son, W. C. Winslow, bought the build- 
ing vacated by the Woods and installed a flax-mill. The venture proved 
to be a profitable enterprise until people quit growing flax. The mill 
was then abandoned and the machinery shipped to Odebolt, Iowa. 

The Cincinnati. Wabash & Michigan Railroad was constructed as 
far south as Fairmount in 1875. This station remained the southern 
terminal point until 1876, when the line was extended to Anderson. 
Jonathan P. Winslow and Jesse E. Wilson were active in promoting 
this railroad. The latter served as one of the directors for a time. A. G. 
Wells secured the contract for the construction of the road from Wabash 
to Fairmount. The line had previously been extended from Goshen to 
Wabash. In 1893 the Big Four Company took over the property, and 
since that year the road has been known as the Michigan Division of the 
Big Four. The property has since been acquired by the New York 
Central system, and is now operated by the New York Central people, 
having been extended to Louisville, Kentucky, on the south, from Ben- 
ton Harbor, Michigan, on the north. 

*The Woolen Mills occupied a two-story frame structure which stood at 
the southwest corner of First and Sycamore Streets. Prior to 1878 this 
industry had been owned and managed at different times by Vincent and 
William Wright, Jesse Reece and Elwood Haisley. 


The Making of a Township. 

The Chicago, Indiana & Eastern Railroad was built from Matthews 
to Fairmoiint in the year 1892. In 1901 the line was extended from 

Matthews to Muncie. In 1898 it 
was extended from Fairmount to 
Swayzee; in 1899, from Swayzee 
to Converse, where connection was 
established with the Pennsylvania 
line to Chicago. In 1907 the road 
was taken over liy the Pennsyl- 
vania Company, and is now oj^er- 
atcd by this company as a short 
line from Muncie to Chicago. The 
Chicago, Indiana & Eastern was 
projected by Harry Drew, man- 
ager of the Matthews Land Com- 
pany, and the surveyor of the line 
was Frement Wilson, who was 
afterward elected Surveyor of 
Grant County. For a consider- 
ible period the line had headquar- 
ters in Fairmount, and the exten- 
sion work west to Swayzee was 
largely carried on from the offices 

In 1876 the amount of taxable 

Was one of the successful manufac- 
turers and business men of Fair- 
mount. He was part owner of a saw- 
mill at the beginning of his career, 

later engaging in the manufacture of ^ . . . . ^ . 

excelsior. He installed in Fairmount property located withm Fairmount 
the first electric light plant, which 
furnished light for commercial and 
domestic use. Governor J. Frank 
llanly, impressed by Mr. LaRtte's rep- 
utation as a builder and practical me- 
chanic, appointed him Superintendent 
of Construction of the Southeastern p.i-os. owned and operated a chair 
Hospital for the Insane, located at 
Madison. The building of this insti- 
tution by the State involved an outlay 
of more than a $1,000,000. The build- 
ings stand as an enduring monument 
to the skill and executive ability of 
Mr. LaRue, who was in personal 
charge of their construction. Mr. 
LaRue died in December, 1910. 

corjjoration was seventy-nine thou- 
sand five hundred and fifty dol- 

In 1885-1886 Brady & Allred 

factory east of the railroad, north 
of the P)ig Four depot. 

In 1885 the Fairmount ^lachine 
Works was established by J. II. 
Harrington and M. .\. Iliatt. 

Pater Mr. Hiatt retired from the 
firm and was succeeded in the ownership by Elwood Davis and W iliam 

In January, 1881, (iilbert LaRue, associated with two brothers, came 
to FairmoiuU from .Vnderson and started a saw and planing-mill. whicli 

Banks — Xafiiral Gas — Water Works — Industries. 333 

was later converted into an excelsior factory. The enterprise pros- 
pered under the management of Mr. LaRue, who in the meantime had 
purchased his ^brothers' interests. 

In January. 1885, Kimbrough Brothers established a saw-mill, 
wdiich operated for many years, supplying dressed lumber in large 
quantities to the Graham & Morton Transportation Company at St. 
Joseph, ]\richigan, owning and managing a line of vessels on Lake 
Michigan plying at that time between St. Joseph and Chicago. 

The Fairmount Manufacturing Company was incorporated Feb- 
ruary 2, 1886, with a capital stock of three thousand dollars. This 
companv was organized for the purpose of manufacturing the Lan- 
caster corn planter and ditching machine. The officers of the com- 
pany were J. P. Winslow, President ; C. R. Small, Secretary, and Levi 
Scott, Treasurer. There were twenty stockholders. 

In 1887 T. J. Xixon owned and operated the flouring mill located 
where Ulrey & Company's mill now stands. Mordecai Nixon was 
in personal charge of the mill. 

In the same year T. J. Xixon and Dr. A. Henley composed the 
firm of Henley & Nixon, grain dealers, who carried on an extensive 
business among the farmers. This firm had, in 1881, purchased of 
Robert Bogue the grain elevators. New machinery was bought and 
installed and the equipment improved. 

Jonathan P. Winslow and Enoch Beals. under the firm name of 
Winslow & Beals, in 1887. occupied the two-story brick elevator at 
East Washington Street and the Big Four Railroad. The building was 
erected in 1875. In addition to the grain business the firm handled salt, 
lime, hair, flour, etc. , 

In 1887 various means were adopted to induce manufacturing indus- 
tries to locate in Fairmount. 

Levi Scott and W. C. Winslow were appointed a committee to solicit 
donations of money to be expended in properly advertising the town and 
presenting its claims to the attention of parties desiring locations for 
factories and other suitable enterprises. 

Dr. W. H. Hubbard and John Flanagan were selected by the Fair- 
mount Improvement Committee to solicit donations in the way of real 
estate to be offered for the location of shops, factories or other indus- 
tries that would be of benefit to the town. 

The owner of the Nixon Winslow land offered ten acres to an insti- 
tution that would employ one hundred and fifty persons. 


Tlic Makiui^ of a Tozvnship. 


Manufacturer, is a native of Fairmount Township, ^jl;7^^,;,;f^7'T'^,^f;';" 
March 27, i868. His grandparents were Stephen and Mahala (Arnett) 
Scott an 1 George and Charlotte (Baldwin) Davis, and his parents 
fvere Levi and Emily (Davis) Scott. Alvin B. Scott was educated 
in the common schools of l<airmount Township. 

Banks — Xafiiral Gas — JJ^atcr JVorks — Industries. 335 

The owners of the Wilson farm offered eight acres for a factory that 
would employ one hundred men. 

Levi Scott offered five acres for one hundred hands. 

Allen Dillon offered four acres for desirable factory or shop. 

J. P. Winslow offered ten acres to shop or factory working one hun- 
dred hands. 

Others stood ready to co-operate when necessary. 

In 1888 William H. Lindsey built a planing-mill and saw-mill. Aft- 
erwards, Lindsey and Julian Swaim owned a lumber yard under the 
firm name of Lindsey & Swaim. 

In 1888 W. C. Winslow, John Ran, Frank Taylor and Charles Tig- 
ner established a bottle factory. 

In 1889 Charles Tigner, Allen Dillon and Frank Taylor built a fruit- 
jar factory, which became known as the Dillon Glass Factory. 

In 1890 F. B. Ziegler, Harry Gable and Al Reed built the Big Four 
Window Glass Factory. 

In 1890 Dr. A. Henley and Charles Tigner started what was known 
as the "Dinkey" Bottle Factory. 

In 1893 John Borrey and others started the Bell Window Factory. 

In 1894 Headley & Co. started a window house. 

In November, 1906, E. C. McKever, a representative of the T. A. 
Snider Preserve Company, arrived in Fairmount looking for a factory 
location. After he had satisfied himself as to the adaptability of the 
soil for tomatoes, coupled with the best class of farmers, who gave their 
earnest support, the Snider Company, at a special public meeting, made 
known their proposition. 

The offer proved to be a satisfactory one, and it was speedily and 
successfully handled through the co-operation actively of a number of 
the leading business men, among them being Dr. J. W. Patterson, John 
H. Wilson, John Flanagan, E. M. Baldwin, Hill Brothers, R. A. Morris, 
James F. Life, Charles T. Parker, John Selby, Goldstein Bros., Xen H. 
Edwards, David G. Lewis, J. W. Parrill. and all the business and com- 
mercial interests of the community. The following named farmers con- 
tributed their part, which was considerable, toward the success of the 
enterprise : John W. Cox, W. V. Cox, Joe Shane, E. J. Seale, Nixon 
Rush, John H. Caskey, Hiram Harvey, Wick O. Leach, Elsberry Payne, 
Thomas Winslow, Joe A. Winslow, Harvey Trader, Charley McCoy, 
Will M. Jones and John L. Weaver. 

While the tomato crop was new to the farmers of Fairmount Town- 
ship, they began to make tomato growing a business, and started to 


The Mak'ui;^ of a Toivnship. 

grow them rii>ht. Today there is no more successful tomato-growing 

section than Fairmount Township. 

The Snider Company, although erecting a magnificent factory in the 

start, has added to and enlarged it from year to year until it is one of the 

largest and best equipped plants of its kind in the country. 


Anujiig the younger element of 
successful Fairmount business men 
has chosen to remain at his old home 
and here make a career where he is 
l)est known, among his life-long 
friends and acciuaintances. Born in 
Fairmount, February 8, 1880, he at- 
tended the Fairmount schools and 
graduated from Fairmount Academy 
in 1897. In 1902 he received his de- 
gree of Bachelor of Science at De- 
Pauw University. Immediately upon 
his graduation from DePauw he re- 
turned home and engaged in the 
drug business with his fatlier, the 
late Nathan W. Edwards. Xen Ed- 
wards has been quite successful in 
the drug trade, and is now owner of 
the Pioneer Drug Store, at Upland, 
Indiana, and an equal partner in the 
Bailey- Edwards Drug Store at Alex- 
andria. Indiana. During his student 
days at DePauw he was President 
of the State Oratorical Association 
and a member of the Glee and Man- 
dolin Club, also an active member 
of the Phi Delta Theta frater- 
nity. In politics, Mr. Edwards 
is a Republican, and has given much 
time to his party. He has served on 
the School Board. He is a member 
of Fairmount Lodge, No. 635, Free 
and Accepted Masons, and of Alex- 
andria Chapter of Elks, No. 478. He is a member and Trustee of the Fair- 
niount M. E. Church. He was Secretary of the Fairmount Fair Asso- 
ciation at the time of its widest popularity, and his efficiency and energy 
were recognized when he was elected President of the Fairmount Com- 
mercial Club. Mr. Edwards has served as President of the Indiana State Rex- 
all Club, and was Vice-President of the National Association of Rexall Clubs. 
On January 25, 1905,' he was married to Miss Ethel Harvey, daughter of 
Rev. Enos and Mary (Wilson) Harvey. To this union two sons, namely, 
Frederick and John Ethan, were born. Mr! Edwards owns a comfortable 
home on South Walnut Street, which is locally known for the hospitality 

It is largely due to the conscientious efforts of the Snider Company 
to comply with the i)lans originally laid down by them when locating in 
Fairmount, together with the co-operation of the farmers of Fairmount 
Township and the citizens of Fairmoimt, that the concern is enabled to 
fulfill all promises. This compau}- now pays out annually in the com- 

Banks — Xatitral Gas — JVatcr JVorks — Industries. 


munitv ninety thousand to one hundred thousand dohars for raw ma- 
terial alone, besides wages and other expenses. 

In 1910'the Bell Bottle Company was established by Alvin B. Scott 
and others. 

The Commercial Club was organized in 1904. John Flanagan was 
elected President ; J. F. Life, Secretary, and R. A. Morris, Treasurer. 
The directors chosen were, in addition to the officers, Al Goldstein and 
John Rau. The organization did good Work for a time. The location 

Eairmount, looking east from Main Street. 

of the Bell Bottle Company and the Snider Preserve Factory is largely 
due to the harmonious and united efforts of the club. 

In 1884 the Fairmount Union Joint Stock Agricultural Association 
was organized. In the summer of that year the fairground was laid out 
on what was known as the Stanfield land, adjoining the corporation 
limits on the southeast. 

The ground selected included a beautiful grove, which afforded 
plenty of shade and water, an open space on the south edge of the land 
making a splendid location for the race track. 

The first fair was held in September, 1884,. the following officers 
being in charge of the meeting: Enoch Beals, President ; W. C. Wins- 
low, Secretary; Levi Scott, Treasurer; M. S. Friend, Superintendent, 
and Philip Davis, Marshal. 


The Malcini^ of a Totunship. 

The stockholders reorganized in 1904, the name was changed to the 
Fairmount Fair Association, and Dr. J. W. Patterson elected President ; 
John Flanagan, Treasurer ; Xen H. Edwards, Secretary, and Gilbert 
LaRue, Superintendent. These men infused new life and vigor into the 
association, which enabled the fair to go forward with added prestige 
and improved prospects. 

The Fairmount Telephone Company was promoted by S. B. Hill 
and operated by him successfully for several years. 

The Citizens Telephone Company was organized in October, 1901, 
with John Kelsav, President. The directors elected for the first year 

Fairmount, looking south from Washington Street. 

were Aaron Newby, Ancil E. Ratliff, C. R. Small, Dr. D. A. ITolliday, 
W. A. Beasley, I. S. Benbow and John Kelsay. 

This company purchased the plant and equipment of the Fairmount 
Telephone Company, which at the time was tnulcr the management of 
Harry Miller. 

Fairmount has about twent3-five miles of cement sidewalks and 
approximately five miles of brick streets. The business blocks are mod- 
ern in arrangement and substantial in structure. 




MOVED by the urgent need of a secondary school in this locaHty, 
and inspired by the example set before them by the splendid 
work done at Spiceland Academy, where they had been students. Dr. 
P. H. Wright and wife and Samuel C. Cowgill and wife, in the year 
1883, began to consider the possibilities of establishing such an institu- 
tion in Fairmount.* The result of their meditations was communicated 
to others. 

In December, 1883, at a business session of Northern Quarterly 
Meeting of Friends held at Back Creek, Jesse Hiatt arose at his place 
and suggested to the meeting that it take under consideration the propo- 
sition of establishing an academy. The suggestion was favorably re- 
ceived by those present. 

A committee was appointed to consider the matter and make report 
of judgment to a future meeting. This committee consisted of Dr. 
Alpheus Henley, Joel B. Wright, Jonathan P. Winslow, Milton Wins- 
low, Asa Bond, Elwood Haisley, Abel Knight, Henry B. Rush. Levi 
Hiatt, James M. Ellis, Enos Harvey, Nixon Winslow, Lewis Hockett, 
Samuel C. Cowgill, James L. Williamson, Willis Cammack. Mattie P. 
Wright, Louisa Rush, Eunice P. Wilson, Adeline Wright, Millie Little, 
Thirza Howell, Alary Bond, Sallie Harvey and Keziah Haisley. 

On March 15, 1884, the committee reported to the Quarterly Meet- 
ing that they favored the proposition. 

On June 21, 1884, the committee reported that the location selected 
for the Academy consisted of three acres of ground twenty-two rods 
south of the public school grounds, which would cost six hundred dol- 
lars. The amount of money pledged by subscription reached the sum of 
four thousand dollars. Elwood Haisley, James M. Ellis, Thomas J. 
Nixon, Ivy Luther and Mahlon Harvey were named as a committee to 
look after the incorporation papers. 

Jesse Haisley and Samuel C. Wilson, to serve one year ; Dr. P. H. 
Wright and Enos Harvey, to serve two years, and Abel Knight and 
William C. Winslow, to serve three vears, were elected Trustees. 

"The writer acknowledges his indebtedness to Ellwood O. Ellis for much 
of the information about Fairniount Academy here recorded. 



Ediisatioiial Insfitiitioiis. 


On September 20, 1884, the building was in process of erection. 
On September 21, 1885, Fairmount Academy opened for instruction, 

Among- the makers of Fairmount Township the name of Nixon 
Rush must take a prominent place, symbolizing all that is of the best in 
civil, educational and religious affairs of the comnumity. His broad 
understanding of practical matters was reinforced by a keen sense of 
justice and fairness in all human relationships. The faith of his fathers 



Reading from left to right— Dr. Milo E. Ratliff, Cassopolis. Michigan; Asa 
Wimpy. Marion, Indiana; Will W. Ware, Fairmount, Indiana. 

and the teachings of his pious Quaker parents molded his mind and 
heart and found expression in his dealings with people. His parents, 
Iredell and Elizabeth Rush, were among those pioneers who had fled 
from a slave State to a new country where slaves were not considered a 
necessity in well-ordered homes. They were descended from English 
and from French Huguenot families, who had, in their day, sought 
religious freedom in the new world of Pennsylvania and Virginia, whose 
going to North Carolina in the Eighteenth century, in the general mi- 
gration that took vast companies to that State in search of larger lands, 
only brought them into a thorny wilderness, and before a problem bit- 
ter and difficult, a problem destined to tear the Nation with Civil War. 
Benjamin Rush, great-grandfather of Nixon Rush, was a son of 


The Making of a ToivnsJiip. 

Crafford and Mary Rush, of \^irginia, who had mig^rated thither from 
Pennsylvania. He was born April 19, 1752, and at the age of twenty 
went to Randolph County, North Carolina. He was married, in 1772, to 
Dorcas Vickery. Azel. one of his six sons, born in 1780, was married, 
in 1806, to Elizabeth Beckerdite. He owned a large number of slaves, 
whom he liberated in 1833. They were valued at one hundred thousand 
dollars. He subsequently sold his plantation and came to Indiana, in 
the '50's, when he entered land near Little Ridge. His son, Iredell, who 
entered the Rush Hill farm, was born in Randolph County, North Caro- 
lina, in 1807, was married, in 1828, to Elizabeth Bogue, daughter of 
_/ohn and Lydia (White) Bogue. These heads of one of the oldest fam- 
ilies in the Township receive further mention elsewhere in this book. 

Nixon Rush was born at Rush Hill, March 30, 1836, and died there 
January 30, 191 5. He was married on October 21, 1861, to Louisa 

Winsiow, daughter of Daniel and 
Rebecca (Hiatt) Winsiow, and 
granddaughter of Joseph Wins- 
low, the story of whose coming to 
the Township is told in Chapter 
\". For many years Nixon and 
Louisa Rush were ministers in the 
Society of Friends and traveled 
not only over this and neighboring 
townships, tirelessly carrying a 
gospel of love and cheer, but also 
over many States of the Union, 
wherever a struggling and dis- 
couraged people sought help ; and 
not by Spiritual means alone, but 
also in a substantial way, they were 
ever ready, continually giving aid 
of which the world never knew. 
The land on which Fairmount 
Aca(lem\- stands was originally a 
part of the Rush Hill place, and 
they gave to that institution simis 
amounting into the thousands. 
All churches built, all reforms and improvements and public enterprises 
started and kept up found them ready and liberal supporters. They 
traveled extensively and both left journals of absorbing interest. Their 
flower-bordered home at Rush Hill attested to their love for the beau- 


A graduate of Fairmount Academy 

who has won many oratorical 


Educational Iiistitntioiis. 343 

tiful. Their children, AxeHna, Ivlvra, Emma J., Walter W., Olive,* 
Calvin C. and Charles E.,* with the exception of Axelina, lived to ma- 
turity. Rush Hill is now occupied by Walter W. Rush, who was mar- 
ried, in 1895, to Elizabeth Johnson. 

*Fairmount Township has contributed its share of talent to the various 
fields of useful occupation. In many cities and States our young men and 
young women are taking active and often leading parts in different lines of 
endeavor. Perhaps no other community of equal population and like envir- 
onment has sent forth into the world a larger proportion of successful 
workers. In industry, in science and in the professions our people are busy 
and effective. While notable examples are not so numerous in art circles 
as in other callings that might be mentioned, those who have followed her 
efforts closely have reason to be gratified with the triumphs scored by Olive 
Rush. The early pioneers who came up from the old South and out from 
the old East carried with them into the new country more love for the 
beautiful than they knew, or cared to recognize. They satisfied their souls 
by contemplation of nature which in those days of big trees and unspoiled 
wilderness they found full of moody grandeur, and by an intensely spiritual 
religious life. They were too busy building homes in this same wilderness 
to long for more than these outlets, and the leanings of their children toward 
artistic pursuits were quickly and firmly discouraged. The following ex- 
tracts from the journal of Nixon Rush vividly show the early attitude toward 
art in the Township, and the longing for artistic expression, which was not 
imcommon among its children: 

"There was a school house built on the north side of our farm, on 
Uncle Seth Winslow's land, made of logs and with a long desk across the 
room which gave us boys a good chance to study geography and to play. I 
loved to make pictures. I had a natural taste for art. The children would 
have me inake pictures of all kinds, such as pigs, cats, dogs, birds, monkeys, 
babies, boys or men. One day a committee came to the school and talked 
to the teachers about it and said I would have to leave school or quit draw- 
ing, so I had to stop, and lost my interest in drawing. 

"One evening, in the year 1857, on shipboard on the Mississippi, I had a 
long talk with a doctor and a merchant from New Orleans. We were talk- 
ing about the difference between the North and South. They thought the 
South had the advantage over the North. Just then I picked up a sheet of 
paper, began to make the picture of a lion in the act of leaping on his prey. 
They looked, and the doctor said: 

" 'You are an artist. Where did you go to an art school?' 

"I did not know anything about art schools; did not know that an art 
school existed in the United States. I knew they had such things in France 
and England. I said: 

" 'When I went to school the Trustees compelled me to stop drawing or 
be expelled.' 

"The doctor said: 

"'That is your life work!'" 

Not only from her father, but also from her mother does Miss Rush 
inherit her love of the artistic, and she treasures drawings of great charm 
made by her mother. Well knowing what it meant to care to paint and to 
be denied the opportunity, her parents sent her to the best schools in the 
East. Finding her talent sufficiently rewarded financially to pursue her 
studies, she went abroad and studied in the Ateliers of Paris and painted in 
the quaint villages and countrysides of France and England. Among her 
principal works are the altar decorations in the church of St. Andrews, at 
Wilmington, Delaware, two stained glass window designs, one of which was 
bought for the country house of a New York millionaire. She has painted a 
number of portraits and sketches of her parents, group portraits of children, 
besides many easel pictures poetic in feeling that have been seen at exhibi- 
tions in the Paris Salon, New York, Washington, Philadelphia, Indianapolis, 


The Making of a Toivnship. 

and other cities. Her cover designs and illustrations in leading American 
magazines, as well as her illustrated verses for children are well known not 
only in the Township, but in every State. 

*Charles Everett Rush, son of Nixon and Louisa (VVinslow) Rush, is 
another Fairmount Township young man who has displayed exceptional 
energy and ability in his chosen profession, that of Librarian. Born in the 
Township on March 23, 1885. he attended the Fairmount public schools. 
graduating in 1899. In 1902 he graduated from Fairmount Academy, and 
in 1905 from Earlham College, receiving the degree of Bachelor of Art; 
student at the Wisconsin Summer Library School in 1904; in 1908 received 
the degree of Bachelor of Laws from the New York State Library School, 
at Albany. In 1908 he was appointed Librarian of the Jackson. Michigan. 
Library, remaining here for two years; in 1910 he was placed in charge of 
the Public Library at St. Joseph, Missouri, serving in this position until 
1916, when he was unanimously chosen as Librarian at Des Moines, Iowa, 
remaining in Des Moines until 1917, when he was called to the capital of 
his native State and placed at the head of the new Indianapolis Public 
Library. Mr. Rush's success in his field of work has been rapid, and he 
is now in charge of the most important collection of books in Indiana. 
He is ex-President of the Missouri Library Association, and chairman of 
the Library section of the International Association of Rotary Clubs. In 
politics he is independent. He is a birthright member of the Society of 
Friends. He is a member of the American Library Association, member 
of the Council of the American Library Association, and a member of the 
American Economic League. Mr. Rush receives a handsome salary and has 
acquired considerable prominence in his line of work for marked efficiency 
and progressive achievement. He was married, September 7, 1910, at Al- 
bany, New York, to Miss R. Lionne Adsit, of Voorheesville, New York, 
and they have three interesting children, Alison Adsit, Frances Marie, 
and Myra Lionne. 

Joel B. Wright, for twenty-six 
}"ears a member and for many years 
Treasurer of the Board of Trustees 
of Fairmount Academy, was a na- 
tive of Greene County, East Tennes- 
see, where he was born July 7, 1832. 
His parents were Jesse and Charity 
(Reece) Wright, who moved to 
Liberty Township in 1855. Joel B. 
Wright was for man}- }cars prior to 
iiis death a resident of Fairmount 
Township. All his active life he de- 
voted himself to farming, in Vvhich 
he was successful. In politics he 
was a Prohibitionist and in religious 
affairs a consistent member of the 
Society of Friends. His death oc- 
curred on September 27, 1910. at 
the age of seventy-eight years, two 
JOEL B. WKICHT months and twenty days. 

Educational Institutions. 


with J. W. Parker, A. B., as Principal, and Ellwood O. Ellis as teacher 
in the Grammar Department, each receiving an annual salary of six 
hundred dollars. The school opened with forty pupils, hut before the 
first term of fourteen weeks had ended the enrollment had increased 
to sixty-five. Before the close of the first year the attendance had 
reached one hundred and thirteen. 

The present building stands on land at the northwest corner of 
Rush and Eighth Streets, donated by Nixon and Louisa Rush. In 1895 


Left to right, top row — Lester Wright, guard; Herman Jones, center; 

Prof. Albert B. Hall, coach; Ozro Cunningham, forward. 
Left to right, lower row — Clarence Christopher, sub-guard; Alva Smith, 

guard; Ralph Mittank, forward; Ralph Trice, sub-guard. 

the new structure was occupied. In 191 1 an addition was built, a com- 
modious gymnasium provided, equipment installed, all of which greatly 
facilitated the work of teachers and increased the spirit and efficiency 
of the school. 

While Fairmount Academy is supported by Friends, the institution 
is non-sectarian. Presbyterians, Christians, Congregationalists, Episco- 
palians and Baptists have had their turn as members of the faculty. 

In 1898 the High School received its commission. The present High 
School Building was completed in 1902. R. W. Himelick was the first 


The Makiiii^; of a Tozi'iiship. 



o a 

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Educational Institutions. 


Superintendent of Schools, he in turn being succeeded by C. H. Cope- 
land, who held the position for fifteen years. The first graduates from 
the High School were Grace Crilley, Eliza Frazier, Verna Hardwick, 
Grace Hobbs, Albert Knight, Moses Morrison, Emma Parrill, Irwin 
Winslow and John P. Starr. 

The matter of starting a High School was first discussed by Dr. 
J. W. Patterson, E. D. Lewis and J. W. Parrill. Finally, the Town 
Trustees advised the School Board to proceed, and the result is the 
structure on South Vine Street. 

The Fairmount Bible School had its origin in a Theological Insti- 
tute of the Indiana Conference of the Wesleyan Methodist Connection of 
America. The first session of this 
institute was held at Sheridan, in 
1884, under the leadership of Rev. 
Eber Teter, at which meeting there 
were twelve elders and licentiates 
present. A ten-day institute was 
held annually on the various cir- 
cuits of the Indiana Conference 
until June, 1906, when, by an or- 
der of the previous annual con- 
ference, a thirty-day institute was 
provided for and held on the 
Wesleyan camp-ground, near Fair- 

This Institute body, at the close 
of the session, framed a memorial, 
which was presented to the next 
annual conference of the same 
year, asking for the establishment 
of the Fairmount Bible School, 
which was granted. 

The purpose of this Institute is 

the training of an efficient min- r^r-Ar A,r t^ n ^ t-t-ti 

'=' . REV. VV. D. BAKER 

istry m the spreadmg of Bible ho- Former^ Pastor of Fairmount Wes- 
liness. leyan Church, and one of its most 

A •, , r- 1 popular ministers. 

Among its promoters we find 

the names of Eber Teter, Aaron Worth, George Reber, William J. 

Seekins, Thomas P. Baker, Jacob Hester and James O. Baker. 


The Making of a Township. 


This school had a small begin- 
The first enrollment num- 
bered twelve, with one teacher. 
Since that time the institution has 
])een able to enroll from thirty to 
sixty and to maintain a faculty 
consisting of four teachers, which 
will of necessity be maintained in 
the future. 

The development of this school 
has been marked by the sending- 
out into the different fields of 
church work many graduates up 
to the year 191 7, a period of eleven 

The present school building was 
erected in 1907, and may be val- 
ued at two thousand dollars. The 
building- is located a mile north- 
west of Fairmount, in a beautiful 
grove, with plenty of shade and 

REV W J SEEKINS ^^^^^ ^^ ^^ ^ \d.rge tabernacle, 

u , • 1 . r T- • . with a seating capacity of two 

rormerl}' a rcsia:nt of rairmoimt, ^ ' 

has been an influential man in the thousand, known as Bethel Taber- 

Wesleyan denomination for many ^^^jg ^^^£^6 State and National 

years. His home is now at Stockton, 

Illinois, where he is serving three conferences of the church are 

churches, in addition to_ doing evange- i^gj^ £,-0,,-, ti„,g ^^ time. 

Iistic work. Rev. beekins was at one 

time in charge of the Wesleyan Pub- The Institute has a library of 

lishing House located at Syracuse, ti^^g^ hundred and fifty well-se- 
New York. 

Iccted volumes. 

(Editor's Note. — One of the men who in a modest and unostenta- 
tious way contributed liberally of his time and means to the building of 
local churches and other deserving institutions was Ivy Luther. Al- 
though not one of the group of pioneers who came to this community 
in the early day, his steadfast loyalty and never-failing interest in all 
enterprises to help his adopted Township have left a marked impres- 
sion upon the people with whom he passed his active life. He was a 
Southerner by birth, Randolph County, North Carolina, being the place 
of his nativity. Born on February 22, 1834, of dcrman parentage, he 
was educated in the common schools of North Carolina. On August 

Educational Institutions. 


28, 1855, he was married to Miss Sarah Stuart. To this union one son 
and four daughters were born, namely, Dorothy E. ; Narcissa G., wife 
of Ehas Bundy, a prominent attorney of Marion ; James A., a stock- 
holder and director of the National Drain Tile Company, of Terre 
Haute, Indiana ; Emma L., wife of Alvin B. Scott, glass manufacturer 
of Fairmount. One daughter, Julia, died at six years of age in North 
Carolina. Mr. Luther and family came to Henry County, Indiana, in 


President of the Board of 
tees of Fairmount Academy, was 
born near Amboy, in Miami Coun- 
ty, March 27, 1862. With his par- 
ents, Joseph and Mary (Lamb) 
Ratliff, he came to Fairmount 
Township in 1870. He worked on 
his father's farm and attended 
school in Fairmount. He later en- 
tered Amboy Academy, and was a 
student at Earlham College. Mr. 
Ratliff has always affiliated with 
the Republican ' party, and is a 
prominent member of the Society 
of P>iends, serving as Clerk of the 
Yearly Meeting. He has served as 
County Surveyor and was elected 
by the people of Grant County to 
the State Legislature, making an 
excellent record in the session of 
igio-'ii. Mr. Ratliff is a progres- 
sive farmer, owning 170 acres of 
fine land in Liberty Township, 
where he now resides. He has for 
many years been active and effec- 
tive in his work for reform legisla- 
tion, and has done a vast deal of 
good in helping to develop a com- 
munity spirit in his neighborhood. 
This spirit has helped to benefit 
socially and in material matters, 
where mutual helpfulness counts 
for everything worth while. 

1866, where they remained for several years. On October 21, 1872, 
the family removed to Grant County and settled in Fairmount Town- 
ship, where they purchased eighty acres of land located just south of 
Fairmount corporation. Here they identified themselves with all good 
movements and have been factors in the upbuilding of the town and 
surrounding community. Ivy Luther died on April 13, 1914, leaving 
behind the memory of an upright life and a noble example of rectitude 
and usefulness.) 



THE SUCCESSFUL development of natural gas in various parts of 
Grant County stimulated enterprising men in many neighborhoods 
to make explorations for fuel. Nature had never before provided heat 
and illumination which were at once so reasonable in price or so con- 
venient for commercial and domestic purposes. 

For many years fuel in the gas belt was a matter of nominal expense, 
while the simple turning of a key designed for the purpose tapped a 
reservoir of unlimited quantities, day and night. 

For illuminating purposes, natural gas was quite an improvement 
over the coaloil lamp. Great flambeaus were frequently seen along 
highways and in the streets, lighting up an area equal in extent to a 
city block. 

It w^as while excitement was running high that towns sprang up 
much as Western cities would appear in a single night. 

In 1896 B. F. Leach built the first house on the present site of Fow- 

Previous to this time a postoffice had been established in that neigh- 
borhood called Leach, after the well known family of that name, whose 
members were numerous and influential. 

The first industry established in the community was a tile mill, 
erected in 1895 by Elbert and Jefferson Fowler. 

In 1896 John L. Smith started a saw-mill and William J. and 
Charles E. Leach owned and operated a grain elevator. About the 
same time B. F. Leach began work on a bottle factory on land donated 
by William J. Leach. 

In 1899 h^avre Brothers started the b'owlerton Window Glass Fac- 

P. A. Dailey started a saw-mill about 1906. The Royal Window 
Factory w^as established soon after, and the Industrial Window Glass 
Factory came a little later. D. L. Adams bought the Dailey saw-mill 
about 1909, and after rebuilding and remodeling, converted it into a 
hoo]:) and saw-mill. This hoop-mill burned in the summer of 1917 and 
was not rebuilt. These industries were all attracted by the discovery 
of natural gas in that territory in appareiUly unlimited (juantities. 

The Fowlerton Canning Company opened a canning factory about 
1904, which was later operated by W. R. Bailey. It has since been 


BitiUiiiii:: Pinclcrton. 351 

made into a modern plant by the Fowlerton Packing Company. J. F. 
Morris in charge. 

The Chicago, Indiana & Eastern Railroad, in 1897, erected a depot 
on the northwest corner of the Henry Simons farm, now owned by 
Oliver P. Buller. This building was, in 1900, moved to the present 
junction of the Big Four and Pennsylvania railroads in Fairmount. 

The Cincinnati, Richmond & Muncie Railroad, afterward known as 
the Chicago, Cincinnati & Louisville, was projected in 1900. This 
line connected Cincinnati and Chicago and proved to be of immense 
benefit to Fowlerton as a trading point. During the years 1901 and 
1902 Fowlerton was the northern terminal station. The road has 
since been taken over and operated by the Chesapeake & Ohio and 
made a part of its system. 

John Borrey owned and operated a brick factory in Fowlerton 
about 1902. 

E. D. Fowler, Oliver P. Buller, William A. Miller, Jacob Dame, 
Allen Virgin, M. F. Partridge, Clyde Partridge and Will C. Smith 
have served as postmaster, Clyde Partridge having succeeded Smith 
in 1917. 

Amonsf the first merchants who located in Fowlerton were Doc 
Philpott, John Carter. William Millspaugh, Isaac Key, S. D. Key, J. A. 
Hardesty & Co., M. F. Partridge & Co.. Moses Barnhart. Elias A. Wil- 
helm and William Dunlap & Son. 

J. A. Roberts served as Justice of the Peace, having been appointed 
in 1892. 

Former Township Trustee Joel O. Duling writes from Fowlerton, 
under date of September 22, 1917: 

"These old records need no explanation, as they explain themselves. 
I eive them to vou so that vou can see when, where, how and bv whom 
the first school house was built in this locality." 

As copied from the old records by Mr. Duling, the facts are as 
here set forth : 

"At a school meeting held in District No. 4, in Congressional Town- 
ship No. 2^, Range No. 8 East, at the house of Jonathan F. Reeder, 
first we took up the subject of whether we should build a District 
school house or not, and the votes taken, yeas, 12 ; noes, none ; blank. 
Second, on motion we agree to build on a donation of land made b\" 
x\braham Myers, in the center of our District, at the northeast cor- 
ner of his land. On motion the votes taken, yeas, 12; noes, blank. 
Third, on motion we unanimously agree to build our school house 
within ourselves and to make it 18x20 feet, of round logs, the work 

352 The Making of a Tozvnship. 

to be completed against the 30th of November, 1840; yeas, 12, unani- 
mous vote. Fourth, on motion we unanimously agree to support a 
.free school three months in the year. X'^oters present : George W. 
Simons. Thomas Reynolds and William Leach. District Trustees ; 
Abraham Myers, Joseph Corn, James Leach. Jonathan F. Reeder. 
Samuel Alyers, Isaac Myers, Jacob Myers, Elijah M. Searl and John 
Leach. On motion adjourned May the 9th. 1840. George \\'. Simons, 
Chairman ; Wm. Leach, District Clerk." 

Another record, made by the same hand, as Clerk, is shown as 
follows : 

"December 4. 1840. After due notice havmg been given there was 
a school meeting held in our school house, in District Xo. 4, in Congres- 
sional Township No. 23, Range 8 East. William Leach took the chair. 
First, we unanimously agree to commence our school on Monday, the 
7th day of December, 1840. Second, on motion we agree to employ 
John Simons at ten dollars a month and board him. He is to teach sev- 
enty-two days for a quarter. Third, on motion Thomas Reynolds and 
Wm. Leach appoints George W. Simons District Treasurer. Voters 
present: A. Myers, J. Myers, W. Sade, James Leach and John Leach. 
Wm. Leach. Clerk. 10 votes." 

On July 20, 1898. B. F. Leach and others called a meeting for the 
purpose of talking over matters in relation to the erection of a new 
school house at Fowlerton. 

A petition was prepared, the necessary signatures procured and 
presented to Trustee Joseph Ratliff. 

Owing" to the lateness of the season the petition was not acted upon 
by the Trustee. 

The petitioners appealed to County Superintendent Alex Thompson. 
The Superintendent agreed with the view the Trustee had taken of the 
situation, and conceded that while the necessity for the improvement 
might exist, the season was late and there was not sufficient time in 
which to erect and equip a suitable building for school purposes before 
the time fixed for the beginning of the fall term. 

In the summer of 1899, however, the first two rooms of the present 
commodious brick structure were completed. Will W. Ware was select- 
ed principal of this school. The first year the building proved to be inade- 
quate to accommodate all patrons. A frame school house was moved 
from the north to meet the demands. 

In the summer of 1907 Trustee Alvin J. Wilson added two more 
rooms, which have since served the purpose to the satisfaction of patrons 
and pupils. 

Building Foidcrton. 353 

In 1900 so much confusion arose over the difference in the name of 
the town and the name of the postoffice that steps were taken to adjust 
the matter in a way that would be satisfactory. Several names were 
suggested. A letter was addressed to the Postoffice Department by 
Warren M. Crawford asking that suggestions be made that would aid 
them in the matter. It was finally agreed that the postoffice be given 
the name of Fowlerton. a settlement of the question which seemed to 
be satisfactory to citizens generally. And so the name Leach was 
dropped, and since 1902 the town and the postoffice have borne the 
same name — Fowlerton. 

Fowlerton was incorporated by authority of the Board of County 
Commissioners on the first Monday in April, 1903. 

Ancil Ratliff made a preliminary survey of forty acres of the original 
site. George A. Fletcher, surveyor and civil engineer, was employed, 
in February, 1903, to run the corporation lines and make a map of the 
territory included in the proposed town. 

Elias A. Wilhelm took a census of the inhabitants thirty days pre- 
vious to this time, the same being certified to by him as correct. 

The petition for incorporation was presented to the Board of Com- 
missioners on March 2, 1903. The territory set apart for the purpose 
embraced land owned partly by Ellis Wright, partly by Frank H. Kirk- 
wood and partly by William J. Leach. 

On Tuesday, March 17, 1903, the election was held, the date having 
been fixed by the Commissioners. Elbert D. Fowler, August Schmidt 
and Palmer J. Wall were selected to have charge of the election. The 
result of the voting showed one hundred and twenty-three for incorpo- 
ration and six against it. 

Tlie first election of officers was held betwieen the hours of 6 a. m. 
and 6 p. m. on May 4, 1903, in Barnhart's block. The election board 
consisted of Elias A. Wilhelm, inspector ; William Gorton and Matthew 
Costello, judges ; Allen Virgin, clerk, and S. A. Marriott, sheriff. 

The result of the balloting was as follows : 

Clerk and Treasurer, James Chapman. 

Marshal, Joseph Henisse. 

Trustees, First Ward, James P. Brown ; Second Ward, William 
Mitchener ; Third Ward, Elbert D. Fowler. 

The Methodist Protestant Church was organized in 1900. The mem- 
bers of the denomination who had previous to this time been attending 
services at Salem transferred their membership and influence to Fow- 
lerton. The result is a strong church organization. Among the first 
members were John Duling and wife, Joel O. Duling, Solomon Duling 

354 T'/jt' Making of a Tozi'iishil". 

and wife and \\"illiain Duling and wife. Rev. McCaslan was the first 
pastor. The church was remodeled in 1914. and is now one of the 
strongest congregations in the Township. 

The United Brethren organized a church in 1897. The charter mem- 
bers were R. \\'. A\"hite and wife, Mrs. Lavada Malone. William A. 
Miller and wife. John G. Corn and wife. Oliver P. Duller and wife, 
George Fear and wife. Henrv Garrison. Mrs. Rebecca T. Corn. Frank 
Garrison and wife and Lewis Hayden and wife. Rev. John Rector was 
the first pastor. 

The Baptist Church was organized in loio. The charter members 
were \\"illiam J. Leach and wife. Clark Leach and wife. ^Irs. Levi 
Simons. ^Irs. Xaomi Deeren. ;Mrs. Margaret Corn, Mrs. Joanna Gregg. 
Mrs. Martha C. Hancock and John Leach and wife. Noah Ford was 
the pastor. 

The Wesleyan Methodist Church was organized in 191 2. with Rev. 
^^'. D. Baker, pastor. Charter members were \\'. L. Dickerson and 
wife. L. G. Richards and wife, Charles Malone and wife, George Fear 
and Alva Dickerson and wife. 

John A. Hardesty was commissioned a notary public by Governor 
Marshall in 1909. 

The Fowlerton Bank was established in October. 1916, with !Mau- 
rice Warner as President ; John F. P. Thurston, Vice-President : Oscar 
A. X'inson. Cashier, and Frank 'M. Hundley. Assistant Cashier. 

Fowlerton is the only town in Grant County that has a park. 



Dear Friend Dr. Alpheus Henley : 

I see by the interestins^- letters that you are sending to The Fair- 
mount A'Cii's that yourself and wife and Richard are in Melbourne, 
Florida. So, for ye sake of auld lani^ syne, I am i^'oing to write you 
a letter. 

Probably you were the first person I saw in this '-*wourld," as you 
were our family ph\sician for as long a period as 1 can remember. 

How is the good wife, Louisa? I have a warm spot in my heart 
for her. I remember she was always thinking of good things for us 
boys to cat, and when I left h'airmount on my bicycle for the Leland 
Stanford University, in California, she made for" me a most con- 
venient little case with thread, ])ins, buttons and such handy things in 
it. That little case has been with me over a large part of the world 
since then. I have since retired it with a pension for faithful service. 

For the past ten years I have been in the Philippine Islands as Chief 
of all their Plsheries. A very good position and most interesting work. 
Among the things accomplished in this time I can only state a few. 

I found and described more than one hundred new species of fishes. 
I took the black bass (the one you have in Florida) and stocked the 
lakes and streams of the Islands with it. They had no good fish in 
their streams. I started fish ponds and fish cultural work, I intro- 
duced from the Hawaiian Islands the "mosquito fish," a little fish that 
prefers mosquito larvae to any other food. I took over improved nets 
for the commercial fishermen. I took up the canning industry and got 
a sardine cannery started. I made a survey of the pearl beds and 
platted them on the map and got a pearl button factory, employing 
more than two hundred people, started. I opened up the sponge fish- 
eries ; have written forty-two scientific and commercial papers relating 
to the fisheries. And, just before leaving Manila, I drew the plans and 
superintended the building of a fine $20,000 aquarium, which is a good 

So, you see, I have not had much time for anything outside my 
work, although the work has been good fun and much like play, for it 
has taken me to all the islands of the Philippines — to Borneo, China, 
Japan, Australia, and other places. 



The Malciui:; of a Township. 

I even found time to go sea fishing, which is fine sport, and one has 
excellent success with this kind of fishing in the Philippines. We get 
Spanish mackerel of sixty poimds, barracuda of one hundred and five 
pounds, crovilla of eighty pounds, tuna, sea bass and albacore — all fine 
game fishes. 


Zoologist, was born in Fairmount 
Township in 1871. He is the son of 
John and Amy (Davidson) Seale, the 
father emigrating from England in 
1849. Prof. Seale attended the Fair- 
mount public schools, and in 1892 
graduated from Fairmount Acad- 
e:ny. He received the degree of 
Bachelor of Arts from Leland Stan- 
ford University at a later date, and 
for ten years served as Chief of the 
Department of Fisheries for the 
Philippine Government; Professor 
in the Museum of Comparative 
Zoology at Harvard University; co- 
worker with Dr. Fufitu, of Japan, on 
the cultivation of pearls, and author 
of forty-two scientific publications. 
In politics he affiliates with the Re- 
publican party, and is a birthright 
member of- the Friends Church. He 
is a member of the Far Eastern 
Medical Association, member of 
American Association for Advance- 
ment of Science, National Geograph- 
ical Society, Biological Society of 
Washington, American Society of 
Ichthyologists, and one of the 
founders of Stanford Zoological 
Club. "The more I delve into 
science," asserts Prof. Seale, "the 
more reverence I have for the simple teachings of Christ." In speaking of 
military matters and wars he expresses the sentiments of early Quakers in 
this very strong language. "I have never been forced by militarism to kill 
any of my fellowmen. thank God. And I would not trade this record for 
Grant's or Lee's, or Kaiser William's." Prof. S3ale has traveled much in 
pursuit of scientific knowledge. He served as the zoologist on a scientific 
expedition to Point Barrow and the Arctic in 1895; was in charge of a scien- 
tific expedition to the South Seas and Australia in 1900; curator at the 
Bishop Museum in Honolulu in 1899; in charge of a scientific expedition to 
Alaska for the University of California in 1906. He has visited practically 
all the large Island groups of the Pacific, also New Zealand, Australia, Si- 
beria, China, Japan, Formosa and Borneo, besides every State and large 
city in the United States. Prof. Scale was married on June 23, 1909, in 
California, to Miss Ethel Alice Prouty, of Windsor, Vermont. His residence 
address is Cambridge, Mass., and his business address is San Augustine 
Ranch, Santa Cruz, California. 

About six months ago I received a cable from Harvard University, 
offering me a good position on their staff to do special scientific re- 
search in their Museum of Comparative Zoology. This is a fine place. 

Coiiuinmicafioiis and Couiincnt. 357 

The museum was. founded by Louis Agassiz and I find lots of speci- 
mens here collected by him. 

I have been in the tropics for fourteen years, and so find Boston 
climate rather cold. I shall not care to stay here very long. In fact, 
I have just received rather a tempting" offer from my own alma mater 
at Palo Alto, California, so I may return there within the next year. 

I saved enough money in the Philippines to buy me one of the 
nicest ranches in California — the San Augustine. It is located just a 
little way out of the town of Santa Cruz, on Monterey Bay, in Cali- 
fornia. It has a fine bearing orchard of six hundred trees, a nice bung- 
alow, a trout stream with real trout in it, a mineral spring and sixtv of 
those great California big trees on it. I now have it rented, but that 
is where I am going to spend most of the remaining portion of my 
life, and as it is within easy reach of Palo Alto, Stanford University, 
it makes the offer from that place all the more tempting. 

I frequently receive letters from my uncle, William P. Scale. Pie 
writes an interesting letter, but he misses my father sadly. 

-I: -f :|; ;|: ;1: ^ 

Do you know probabl}- no one was ever loved more by his children 
than our dear old father was. And the best of it is my memory of him 
is never sad, for I always remember some funny story, or incident, he 
would always tell us. His was truly a successful life. Everyone loved 
him, and I don't think he ever had an evil thought towards a man in 
all his life. I treasure his memory. 

I would be glad to get a letter from you telling me of your life in 
Florida. When I was down there you had a place on Indian River, or 
near that place. I went up it with Ora Bogue one time. 

With kindest regards to all, from 

Alvin Seale. 

Harvard Ufuvcrsity, Caiuhridge, Massachusetts, January 2.2, 1917. 

(Editor's Note. — The writer is indebted to Dr. A. Henley for per- 
mission to print this interesting letter. It is a private communication. 
Those who are acquainted with Prof. Seale, and are aware of his innate 
modesty about his professional achievements, will understand from the 
very nature of the letter that it was not written for publication.) 

John Seale, Sr., was born in the village of Stock, near Chelmsford, 
in the County of Essex, about thirty-five miles northeast of London, 
England, December 27, 1827, and died at Whittier, California, Decem- 
ber 19, 19 14, at the age of eighty-six years, eleven months and twenty- 


I'lic Mahiiii:!; of a Tcnciisliip. 

two days. His father, Elijah John Seale, was born May 13, 1804, in 
Beech Street, London, and the mother, EHzabeth (Radley) Seale, was 
born August 29, 1804, at Purleigh. Essex County, England. At the age 
of fifteen the subject of this sketch was apprenticed to a farmer named 
John Jasper Bull. Upon the completion of his apprenticeship he re- 
turned to his father's home at Plaistow Lodge, Essex. In 1848 John 
Jasper and Elizabeth Emson Bull came to America and entered a home- 


(February 22 and 23. 1914) 

The above picture shows the big snow drift along the east side of Main 
Street, between Washington and Adams Streets. For three or four days 
traffice on the Interurban was almost entirely interrupted. Country roads 
were impassable, and in many places people were compelled to dig their way 
out of their homes. There were no schools open in Fairmount or surround- 
ing country for several days. In many places the snow drifts were more 

than six feet deep. 

stead. This homestead adjoins Fairmount corporation on the west, 
and was for many years the i)roperty f>f Xathan D. \\'ilson, later pass- 
ing into the hands of Mr. Scale. In the home of John J. and Eliza- 
beth Bull lived an only daughter, for whom the young apprentice had 
formed an ardent affection. This attachment was increased 1)\- the 
separation. l'])<)n reaching his majority John Seale Kfl his native land 
and crossed the Atlantic on a sailing vessel. The voyage in those 
davs required six weeks, .\rri\ing in .\'e\\ \'ork. he journeyed by 
river, lake and canal to Lagro. Indiana, and from Lagn* by wagon to 

Coiiiiiinnicatioiis and Commoit. 359 

Jonesboro, walking from there to the double log house located on the 
knoll at what is now the west end of Second Street, arriving at the 
home of his sweetheart on ]\Iay 12, 1849. I'^ 1850 he was wedded 
to Miss Eliza Bull. After a brief but exceptionally happy married life 
the young husband was deprived by death of the object of his devotion. 
In 1859 he was married to Aliss Amy Davidson, and to this union eight 
children were born, namely : Elizabeth Ann, Sarah Alice, Amy Ellen, 
Herbert E., and William Perry, all deceased; Elijah John, Mary Anna 
Hancock and Isaac Alvin, the first two residing at Fairmount and the 
latter at Cambridge. Massachusetts. April 18, 1874, the wife and 
mother died. September 21, 1875. ^'^^ ^^^s again married, to Asenath, 
daughter of Joseph and Miriam (Newby) Rich. Three children were 
born of this marriage, namely : Dr. Joseph Pearle Seale, of Fair- 
mount, and Bertha S. Trueblood and Clista Seale, both residing at 
Whittier, California. 



I think Joseph W. Baldwin gave the name Fairmount to your town. 
Mincher Cox gave it the name of Pucker, but it has long since out- 
grown that name. 

I am sure Greely Bell and Dr. A. Henley have located the Fort 
Wayne road correctly. It ran through Summitville, and angling 
through the Kelsay farm, now owned by Mrs. Sluder, and thence north- 
east past the old Union school house and the farm then owned by Henry 
Osborn, and kept on the west side of the prairie past the farm of Otho 
Selby, and near Lake Galatia. I think it crossed the river at Wilson's 

I was deeply interested in your Sunday hike, and especially in that 
part of it relating to Back Creek Cemetery. Sleeping here for more 
than sixty years lies my grandfather, Jimmy Martin, who was a soldier 
in the War of 181 2, and was present at Hull's disgraceful surrender. 
Here also sleep my uncle and aunt, who passed to their reward when 
your Township was in its infancy. 

As I read the pathetic story of the young wife and the soldier and 
his sweetheart who slumber there, I am reminded of Knox's beautiful 
poem : 

O, why should the spirit of mortal be proud? 
Like a swift- fleeting meteor, a fast-flying cloud ; 
A flash of the lightning, a break of the wave, 
Man passes from life to his rest in the grave. 

360 The .1 /<;/>' ///.<,' of a Toivnship. 

The maid on whose cheek, on whose brow, in whose eye, 
Shone beauty and pleasure — her triumphs are by ; 
And the memory of those who loved her and praised. 
Are alike from the minds of the living erased. 

I knew Thomas Wilson and was his schoolmate. He gave his life 
in defense of his country. 

Reflections awakened Ijy memories such as your correspondents de- 
scribe teaches us the frailty of man's hopes and the uncertainty of his 
undertakings. J. M. Hundley. 

Siunmitville, Indiana, February 2, 1917. 


During the fifties and part of the sixties everyone, with very few 
exceptions (I don't remember an exception), had the ague. One would 
begin about 9 a. m. to chill. I don't think it was possible to apply 
covering enough to relieve the chill for one hour, more or less. Then a 
severe headache and high fever for from two to four hours. The same 
thing over every alternate dav until broken with quinine. 

Another grade of ague was the third-day chills, which was harder 
to stop. Ague was in its prime from August to November. I remem- 
ber my father had the third day kind. Some recommended whiskey 
with wild cherry and dogwood bark, sarsaparilla'root, prickly ash ber- 
ries (I don't remember what else). So it was decided I should go to 
Galatia after the whiskey. 

They were using our horses tramping out w heat. John Helton said 
I could go past his house (on the north part of John Heavilin's farm), 
and his wife, Sarah, would saddle his old mare for me. She buckled a 
strap through the liandle of tiie jug and around the horn of the saddle. 
I started southeast across Charles Child's place, X. A. Wilson's, through 
my own; saw* one little field on Thomas 1). Duling's fariu, struck a 
trail on the west bank of the prairie, followed it northeast, came through 
Selby farm, then the Norton farm : all the cleared land was to my left. 

There was a saw-mill to my right in the second bottom, as I re- 
member it. One house stood west of the mill, one nearly north. At 
the last house 1 asked the way to Cjalalia. The lady said I was in town 
then. She told me where the store was. It was four or fi\-c rods south- 
east of Bert Carroll's dwelling. I don't think there was an acre of 
cleared land in and adjoining" town. I got my jug filled and gave the 

Coininuiiications and Comment. 361 

storekeeper a quarter. I don't think I saw over twenty-five acres of 
cleared land on the trip of over three miles. My memory is blank in 
regard to benefits received. 

Thomas Winslow. 
Joneshoro, InUiana, February 12, 1917. 

(Editor's Note. — The writer of the above communication is a grand- 
son of Thomas Winslow, who came to Fairmount Township in 1836. 
Milton Winslow, father of the contributor, was a Friends minister, and 
wrote a volume of poems which were widely read and appreciated. 
Reference is made by Hon. Edgar L. Goldthwait to this book of rhymes. 


Our dear father, John Scale, as you know, was one of those grand 
old pioneers. He came to Fairmount in May, 1849. 

Father once told me a story about old Dr. Home. It seems Dr. 
Home had an excessively long nose, regarding which he was c^uite 
sensitive. This, together with a somewhat peppery disposition, made 
him the subject of frequent pioneer jokes. At that time he lived near 
Wilson's ford. 

One night, very late, some of these early wits were passing his 
house and they called out : 

"Dr. Home ! Oh, Dr. Home !" 

The doctor was awakened and stuck his head out the window only 
to be told to — 

"Please take your nose in so we can get past your house !" 

Our father's memory is a most happy one. for even in those rough 
times he always saw the bright side to everything, and if there was any- 
thing funny he remembered it to tell us youngsters. 

Alvin Seale. 

Harvard University, Cambridge, Massaclmsetts, February 9, 191 7. 

(Editor's Note. — Prof. Seale is the son of the late John Seale. 
Prof. Seale has acquired international reputation as a scientist, being 
at the present time a member of the faculty of Harvard University. 
With Dr. David Starr Jordan he has collaborated in the production of a 
number of standard works on natural science which are found in most 
large scientific libraries throughout the United States and Europe. 
The late John Seale is all and more than his gifted son has described 


I'lic Makiii^^ of a 'J\)wnsliip. 

him to be. An Englishman by l)irth, he possessed the courtly manners 
and grace of a polished gentleman. He prt)bably never said a harmful 
word of any man. He was always cheerful and optimistic, and memo- 
ries of this grand old man's kindly consideration of others will linger 
as long as there are people left in this community who knew him and 
his "entle ways. 

(March 24, 1913) 

The high waters covered adjacent lots and near-by streets to a depth in 
places of several feet. It was the opinion of pioneers then living that within 
their recollection the overflow had not been equalled in extent of territory 
covered or destruction of property. A heavy rain for several days brought 
on the disaster. Several families along the creek were compelled to move 
their belongings to the second story of their dwellings. The waters raced 
like a torrent through Mill and Third Streets. A part of the concrete bridge 
spanning Third Street was washed away. Walnut Street was flooded by the 
overflow of Puddin' Creek. Basements were flooded and many furnaces put 
out of commission. Water stood three inches deep in the basement of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church. Fairmount Public Schools were temporarily 
closed and only a few students were able to reacii the .\cademy. 


I see that William Baldwin writes of the drowning of Cyrus 
Tuckett and Reuben P>ook()nl at Weesncr's ford. It was Calvin 
Bookout, the father of I\onl)rn I'.ookoiU. 1 will write of it as I re- 
member it. 

Conimunications and Coinincnt. 363 

Puckett rode his horse in the river and when he got in deep water 
he became frightened and got separated from his horse. It was soon 
seen that he was drowning. Bookout, without removing his clothing, 
went to help him. Although a good swimmer, his clothing hindered 
him. and they both drowned. 

Puckett was about seventeen years old, was a son of Greenleaf 
Puckett, and lived on the farm now owned by Joseph Poole. Bookout 
was about fifty, and lived on the farm now owned by Otto Wells. 

I saw the bodies as they were being taken home through Fairmount. 

Bert Wimmer. 

Jonesboro, Indiana, February 12, 19 17. 

(Editor's Note. — Mr. Wimmer here refers to a tragedy which 
created a good deal of excitement back in the early seventies. It was 
the first case of a double drowning, perhaps, which had occurred in the 
Township up to that time. The funerals of the two men were attended 
by throngs of people. In those days it was the custom for people gen- 
erally to drop their work and attend funerals, contrary to the habit 
which now prevails. Mr. Wimmer's father, Isaac Wimmer, was born 
in Pennsylvania in 1802. From Pennsylvania he moved with his fam- 
ily to Henry County, Indiana, and in 1865 came to Grant County. Peter 
Wimmer, grandfather of Bert Wimmer, served as a drummer boy with 
Pennsylvania troops in the War of the Revolution. 


I shall never forget the old tanyard. where my father worked for so 
many years. Many times I have helped him. I used to help pump water 
in the vats. One time I was jumping, and I think Martha Gossett, Sal- 
lie Hollingsworth, now Kelsay, and I jumped in. But the vat was full 
of hides and I got out as soon as possible. 

One time my father and Uncle Billy Brewer went out hunting. 
Uncle Billy killed a wildcat, or some called it a Canadian lynx. My 
father had it stuffed and put it over the tanyard door. Everybody who 
passed that way stopped to see it. It surely was a sight. 

Mrs. Amanda Smiley. 

Kiefer, Oklahoma, April i, 191 7. 

(Editor's Note. — Mrs. Smiley is a daughter of Nathan and Nancy 
Little, well remembered and highly respected citizens of Fairmount 
many years ago. They played well their part in the early development 


The Making of a Township. 

and prog-ress of the Township. Many will recall vividly to mind the 
lynx which used to hang over the door when Nathan Little owned the 
tanvard which stood out on East Washinoton Street. 


The first ague I ever had Dr. Thilip Patterson doctored me. Dr. 
Philip Patterson was the first doctor I ever saw^ in Fairmount. He lived 

(March 24, 1913) 

Looking north from the West Eighth Street bridge. The larger tree in the 
foreground marks tlie location of the old swinimin' hole. This favorite re- 
treat for small boj's during summer months in the seventies was obsc ired 
from public view by a large pile of saw-dust from the saw-mill near b}^ As 
a result of high waters Back Creek school was closed for a few days. 

where Isaiah Jay's husiness is now located. Later on. Dr. Patterson 
and Dr. Pierce doctored together. Later on. Dr. Pierce moved to Jones- 
horo. He was the father of Jack Pierce and Mrs. Buck Mann. 

I helped to make the brick that was used in the old Friends Church 
that was torn down a few years ago where the new one now stands. 
After Jonathan Baldwin and ^^'alker A\"inslow finished making brick 
they fixed a wagon and Jonathan Baldwin. Walker ^^'inslow. Joe Little 
and I went to the State I'^air. \\'e staved all night at Timnn- Cam- 

Coiiiniiiiiicafioiis and Coinuicnt. 365 

mack's, in Hamilton County. We took it by turns, one at a time, to stay 
with the wag'on while in the city. 

Dr. White married Solomon Parsons' daughter, I think. My rec- 
ollection is they didn't stay in Fairmount very long. 

The first school I went to in Fairmount was taught by Exum Mor- 
ris. The school house is the house O. R. Scott and William Lindsey use 
for their office. The Friends held their meetings there. The next 
school I went to was taught by Joseph Knight. The next was taught 
by Jacob Carter. The house stood near George Montgomery's house. 
That was the first school taught in that house. The next two schools 
were taught by William Neal. 

After that school, Nathan Vinson built the house on East Wash- 
ington Street. William Hollingsworth moved the old house from 
North Walnut Street to just east of Flanagan's store, on East Wash- 
ington Street, just east of where William Lewis's shoe-shop is now 
located. It was used for furniture and undertaking business. 

Alex Little. 

State Soldiers' Home, Indiana, January 26, 1917. 


I give below the names of the charter stockholders of the Fair- 
mount Mining Company. 

After canvassing the town three or four times, pleading with busi- 
ness men to put their shoulders (their names to a subscription paper 
for stock) to the wheel of a local business enterprise the result was as 
follows : 

Dr. Alpheus Henley, Levi Scott, C. R. Small, Thomas J. Nixon, 
John Flanagan, Dr. W. H. Hubbard, Kimbrough Bros., Jonathan P. 
Winslow, Moses Mark. 

These men were called to meet in the law office of Charles M. 
Ratliff, in the front room upstairs over the store occupied by A. F. 
Norton, where Ribble Bros, are now located. 

Being much discouraged with so few subscribers for stock in the 
company, after a spirited discussion it was decided to order an assess- 
ment of thirty-five dollars each for expense of completing an organiza- 
tion. This being completed, another assessment, sufficient to put down 
a gas well, was made, and "Jumbo" was the result. 

C. R. Small. 

Greenville, North Carolina, January 4, 191 7. 

366 Tlic Makiu!^ of a Tozvnship. 

(Editor's Note. — "Jumbo" created considerable excitement in his 
])alniy days. Excursions were run from different directions to see this 
wonder of nature, wliich was brought forth 1)y the intelHgent perseve- 
rance of forward-looking- men who were willing to back their judg- 
ment with finances sufficient to carry through the project.) 


You asked me to write in your album. 

I hardly know where to begin. 
For there is nothing original in me 

Unless it is original sin. 

But to say that I am interested in the buiding of a Township would 
be putting it in mild form. How could I help but be? I am learning 
about my grandparents. It seems that I am descended from four of the 
oldest Quaker families in Grant County. 

Sister Ruth Carey told of our mother's parents. Our father and 
William S. Elliott's father were brothers, making William and me first 
cousins. I tell people that if I am not a full-blooded Quaker I must be 
fifteen-sixteenths. Well, I am proud of that, all right, but when I stop 
to think it over, have I held up the standard? I am afraid not. 

I can not help but think of the changes since the days of our grand- 
parents. Now, I see that Grandfather Knight was listed in the top 
ratio when old Back Creek meeting house was built. He would put 
his family on a horse and walk at their side. I expect if we coud get the 
records of Mississinewa Friends meeting. Grandfather Elliott's record 
would be about the same. 

I was at preaching two weeks ago at Melba and there w^ere five 
automobiles and three Fords there. Grandfather walked and let his 
family ride a horse. I hope we are just as good, but you know we live 
in faster times. E. R. Elliott. 

Melba, Idaho, April 27, 191 7. 


The contributions of my friends, Dr. A. Henley, T. B. McDonald 
and J. AI. Hundley, as well as many others who have written interest- 
ingly of the very early days in that section, have really restored, in the 
mind's eye, the somberness, as well as the glory, of the forest primeval, 

Coniniimicatioiis and Coiuuicnt. 367 

with which the first settlers had to contend in the struggle to sub- 
due the wilderness. These pen pictures of those early days, handed 
down in book form, will no doubt find a place and be read in many 
homes of this and future times. Yet there must have been joy, as well 
as inspiration, among the hardy pioneers who came with sturdy deter- 
mination to subdue and to build not only homes for themselves, but a 
monument to their memory. To them there must have been a joy in 
conquering nature, which feeling gives a zest to life. 

Now a word along another line. The "hikes" taken by yourself and 
Mrs. Baldwin I have read with much interest. I used to think there 
were many things along the country ways about Fairmount that were 
alluring to the lover of nature. There still remained many forests of 
majestic mien, some yet in a primitive state, and there were beautiful 
groves, quiet coverts and vistas of field and forest that appealed to me 
strong-ly, and I used to keep my bicycle busy whenever occasion permit- 
ted. This method was faster than "hiking," but I grant not so satisfac- 
tory in some ways. Your method is more deliberate, and consequently 
more satisfying, and it teaches the valuable lesson of the benefits of 
walking that is too nuich of a lost art. 

Now, I have an assignment for Mrs. Baldwin. Some years before I 
bade farewell to the only place that seemed like home to me, and the 
memory of which I cherish deeply, I published in The Nezvs a letter 
written by Rev. Nixon Rush, who was then on a visit to California — I 
think his first trip to this coast — in which he gave an account of a trip 
he and Dr. Henley — I think it was the doctor — made when they were 
boys, through the forest, to what was called in that day "the big tree," 
an immense tree that was considered a wonder even in that day, and 
how they came near being attacked by a drove of wild hogs. I think the 
direction of the tree was northwest, but am not sure. 

J. Stiver.s. 

San Francisco, California, April 22, 1917. 

(Editor's Note. — The tree to which Mr. Stivers refers attracted 
much attention in pioneer days, so large was its trunk and so extensive 
were its spreading branches. The tree was located several miles north- 
west of Fairmount, but the exact spot is unknown to the writer. Robert 
Seeley is authority for the statement that the "big tree" referred to in 
the communication from J. Stivers stood in the northeast corner of 
Green Township on land entered by John Pattison and now owned by 
the Newkirk heirs. The tree — a walnut — was sold by William Pattison 
to a man by the name of William Kidd. It was sawed into heavy boards 

368 The Makitii:; of a Tozvjisliip. 

at a saw-mill owned by Davis & Burrier. The boards of solid walnut 
were shipped to New York City to be used as counters for stores. The 
tree was a beauty and was sound from root to top. At the end of the 
first twelve-foot log it measured more than nine feet in diameter. The 
tree, at the time it was visited by Dr. A. Henley and Nixon Rush, stood 
in the Miami Indian Reservation. The country out there was then an 
unbroken wilderness. ]\Ir. Seeley formerly lived in the vicinity of the 
"big tree," which he remembers well. He also remembers the Indians, 
who kept the ''Reserve" as a hunting-ground. They would come there 
from their village over about Jalapa for the purpose of hunting and for 
making maple sugar. The men would hunt and the women would make 
the sugar and syrup. The "bucks" would hire white men to make the 
wooden troughs into which the sugar-water flowed from the trees. The 
Indians were fine hunters and could get a deer where no one else could 
find it.) 


At one time in the '70's I helped to carry a man out of Fairmount 
who was hauling a load of saloon fixtures to the old Methodist Episco- 
pal Churcii building, which now stands at the southeast corner of Sec- 
ond and Main Streets. 

Fred Cartwright and Andy Morris were trying to get a saloon 
in our little Quaker town. Cartwright went a roundabout way and got 
in here. He reached Sam Fritch's house, where Sam and Fred were 
entertaining one another. The man had left his team and fixtures down 
in the south part of town and walked up the street to see if the coast 
was clear. 

While he was standing on the corner of Washington and Main 
Streets the word came what his business was. It created quite an ex- 
citement, and men, women and children were up in arms. 

While they were discussing what to do with the man I came up with 
the rail and run it between the gentleman's lower limbs. Alex Pickard 
was then living. He was standing at the right place to catch hold of 
the other end of the rail. Someone held him on and Pickard and I took 
him to his wagon, turned his team towards Summitville and started him 
in the direction from where he came. 

Cartwright slipped out of town and w^ent the same way. 

W. A. Planck. 
Fairmount, Indiana, January 15, 1917. 

Couiinuuicatioiis and Comment. 369 

(Editor's Note. — Mr. Planck here relates an incident which at the 
time caused quite a stir. In those days temperance sentiment was 
strong. There was a determination on the part of many citizens not to 
permit a saloon to open its doors in Fairmount. At this particular time 
OVIr. Planck worked on the Big Four section with Henry Barber, who 
was section foreman. Mr. Planck grew up at Point Isabel. His father 
and mother moved there fifty-eight years ago, when there was "not a 
stick amiss." Mr. Planck's father built the first cabin in Point Isabel. 
The cabin was partitioned off for a postoffice and he was appointed 
postmaster, retaining the place during thirty-two years of his life. W. 
A. Planck was his father's assistant for a number of years.) 


The name of Isaac Roberts has been mentioned as one of the early 
settlers in Fairmount. He conducted the first blacksmith shop that was 
in the town. 

Can anyone except myself show any of his work? I have an old hoe 
that he made for my father while in that shop. My recollection is that 
the shop was near where Frank Buller's barn is. 

John W. Cox. 

Fairmount. Indiana, February i, 191 7. 


In looking over the names of persons in business in the early history 
of Fairmount, I think my father, John Lillibridge, had the first tailor 
shop, and the building he occupied stood on East Washington Street, 
where the back part of the Borrey block now stands. 

May Henley. 

Fairmount, Indiana, March 8, 1917. 

(Editor's Note.— The writer is sure that so far as his recollection 
goes John Lillibridge was the first tailor to open a shop in Fairmount. 
Mrs. Henley was formerly Miss May Lillibridge and a sister to the late 
Charles A. Lillibridge, former Recorder of Grant County.) 

Z?*^ The Making of a Township. 


Calvin Bookout and Cy Puckett were drowned at a point southeast 
of Jonesboro. It was Cy Puckett, and not Jonathan Puckett. and it was 
on Saturday of June Quarterly Meeting. Cy Puckett's brother married 
my sister. 

I remember the corduroy road just about where the Soldiers' Home 
is now. I used to go with my father, Robert Trader, to Wabash when 
he hauled wheat to that point. Harvey Trader. 

Fairmount, Indiana, March lo, 1917. 

early days. 

I remember when all the old Friends around Fairmount came to 
Back Creek meeting. Joseph Winslow sat head of the meeting and 
David Stanfield sat next. The gallery was nearly full ; in fact, one end 
of the church was filled. But when the meeting at Fairmount was 
started it took almost half the members. 

I remember well before there was a house in Fairmount. At the 
cross-roads, a little to the east, a large poplar tree stood in the edge of 
the road. The first house I remember, Joseph W. Baldwin built. He 
put a store in the west end of it. It was the Seth Winslow corner. 
After a few houses were built, before the town was named, I think Jon- 
athan Baldwin was the man that suggested the nickname "Pucker.'" 
But the town soon outgrew that. 

■My father was a strong anti-slavery man in his time. As long as 
he lived he kept a station on the Underground Railroad. I have seen a 
great many runaway negroes eating at our house — at one time eight. I 
have seen a great many slave hunters go through our lane past the 
house with their bloodhounds, but they never came in. One morning I 
remember well, after we had breakfast, a slave came and asked mother 
for something to eat. The slave sat down to the table, and while there 
a company of men with two dogs rode through the lane going east. 
The negro looked out of tl,ie door and said to mother : 

"There goes my old massa !" 

Just as they got out of sight the escaped slave went to the north 
door and took across the meadow toward the cbm-ch as fast as he could 
run. We never heard of him being caught. 

Father died in the summer of 1849. My mother had her dowry on 
the old home and lived there until I was grown and married. 

Co'nirnunicat'wns and Coininent. 371 

I married A'lalinda Knight, daughter of Benjamin Knight, in the fall 
of 1864. We moved to Marshall County, Iowa, in the spring. In 1896 
we came to Salem, Oregon. Charles Baldwin. 

Salem, Oregon, April 18, 1917. 

(Editor's Note. — The writer of the above communication is a son 
of Charles Baldwin, who resided for many years in the Back Creek 
neighborhood in the early day.) 


I was noticing in one of the letters to The Nezvs the statement that 
the first Friends brick meeting house was built bv Samuel Rad- 
ley ( he was my uncle) and Phineas Henley (he was my father- 
in-law). That was quite correct, but it was a mistake about the 
brick being hauled from Jonesboro. The brick were made in the 
field across the road opposite to where Robert Bogue's red barn 
used to stand. It was in Jonathan Baldwin's field, and the old gate 
stood a piece north, and the brick kiln was several rods east. The lime 
was burned at Jonesboro, a little west of the main part of the town, in 
the creek bottom. It was burned by an Irishman named Crilley, and 
his assistant was Quincy Collins, a Staffordshire man who used to make 
boots and shoes when Crilley did not need him in the lime business. 

There were fifty thousand brick. I know these to be facts, so have 
told the straight of it. I gave the hauling as my part of the subscrip- 
tion, free, towards the new meeting house. 

William P. Seale. 

Whittier, California, March 19, 191 7. 

BOYHOOD days. 

I have just received a copy of Tlie Nezvs. and after feasting on it 
for a while have remailed it to my mother at Whittier. 

My mind is carried back to boyhood days, to the fishing, skating 
and swimming at the old creek ; to "June Quarterly" at Back Creek, 
with the busy time at the old toll gate ; to the times when we used to 
gather ferns in the woods and by Lake Galatia for use in making 

Well do I remember when the old ''Jumbo" gas well was ablaze for 
weeks and could be heard for twenty miles, when one could see to read 

372 The Making of a Tozvnsliip. 

a newspaper outdoors any time of the nig"ht in Fairmount, and, as The 
Nezi's at that time expressed it, "even the chickens, not being able to 
discern night from day, did not go to roost, but would drop dead from 
sheer exhaustion." Lembert T. Adell. 

Greenfield, California, April 8, 1917. 

(Editor's Note. — Mr. Adell is the son of Jacob and Tacie (Pember- 
ton) Adell, who lived for many years on North Main Street. Bert and 
his mother went West many years ago, after the death of his father. 
He is now a prosperous dairyman near Greenfield, California. Jacob 
Adell. in his time, was an expert penman and made mottoes. Many of 
these mottoes may still be found in the homes of Fairmount people. 
He did a great deal of scroll work and many marriage certificates, 
artistically designed, were executed with his pen.) 


The plank road was between Deer Creek Hill and the Marion Cem- 
etery, if I remember, as we hauled our wheat to Lagro in those days. 
In after years we changed our wheat market to Wabash, where we sold 
it to Whiteside. We also hauled our peaches and apples to Wabash. I 
have gone witli my brother, Thomas, to Wabash at different times. 

As Mr. Hundley says, we generally went with three or more teams at 
a time, as there generally was someone who had a balky horse and had 
to have help on the hill, which has been spoken of so often. We would 
drive a few feet on the hill, and the driver generally walked at the side 
of the wagon while going up the hill so as to be ready to chock the 
wagon when we stopped to let the horses get wind, and then make 
another pull. In this way we would get up the hill. If we went to 
Lagro we would camp out in the wagon over night, and I would watch 
the canal boats and trains during the night. 

If any of your readers can tell who built the Fairmount Woolen 
Mill and operated it at first I would like to know, as I think George 
Eckfelt was the first and I do not remember who was the next. \\'illiam 
Wilkinson and Reece & Haisley operated it one time and William 
Wardwell operated it one time, but do not remember the parties in rota- 
tion. John A. Wilson. 

Logansport, Indiana, March 3, 1917. 

Comtniinications and Couunent. 373 


My Dear Friend Edgar: Thine of the ist was received, with en- 
closures, and I am ashamed to answer at so late a date. But I am not 
very well ; hence my excuse. 

Drop in. You know it is very cold, and thee would be very lucky 
to be set up alongside of a piping-hot bowl of beef soup, made of 28-cent 
beef, reinforced with ii-cent onions, lo-cent cabbage and potatoes at 
$2.70 a bushel. Excuse me. Allow me to add another ladle to thy 
bowl ; thee seems hungry. And now is this not a delicious exhibition of 
the cost of high living? 

But ^yhen we are through with the high cost of living we will go 
to the sitting-room, which is all over the house. Thee can enjoy thyself 
with a chapter on theology from Barclay's Apology, or a thrilling re- 
ligious experience from Fox's Journal. They are both convenient— not 
hard to find. 

When thee gets through translating this thee will not want me to 
contribute to "The Making of a Township." 

Columbia City, Indiana, February 17, 1917. 

(Editor's Note.— Iredell B. Rush, author of this characteristically 
jovial letter, will be remembered by a great many people back at his old 
home. Mr. Rush, as a young man, entered the banking business at 
Marion, as an employe of Adam Wolfe, prominent in his day as one of 
the foremost financiers of this section of Indiana. From Marion, Mr. 
Rush went to Columbia City, where he has spent the greater part of his 
active business career as a banker. He is a son of NixoA Rush, Sr., and 
a grandson of Azel Rush, who came to this country in the early day. 
Long before the Civil War Azel Rush, who lived at the time in North 
Carolina, freed thirty slaves as a matter of conscientious duty.) 


I read with much interest the article written by E. L. Goldthwait 
and very much appreciated his kind words in regard to the life and 
character of my uncle, John J. Bull. 

Yes, E. L. Goldthwait, my uncle had a large orchard, and there are 
two pear trees and two or three apple trees still standing. His paralyzed 
arm gave him a great deal of trouble for many years and finally affected 

374 Tl'^' Making of a Tozvnship. 

his whole body. Eight and one-half years of entire helplessness were 
spent at my father's, ^v1here he died, in the spring of 1873. 

Elizabeth Peacock. 
Fairmotmt, Indiana, February 17, 1917. 

(Editor's Note. — Mrs. Peacock is a daughter of Samuel and Mary 
(Bull) Radley, English Friends who came to Fairmount Township 
when (Mrs. Peacock was a child. Mrs. Peacock is familiar with the 
development of this Township since the early days when the first pio- 
neers were making the way for others who followed.) 


I do not want Mary Aim Taylor's name left out of the list, because 
she was my first teacher, and although she made me stand on the stove 
with a girl one time, and another time I had to stand on the floor with 
a "dunce-cap" on my head, as a punishment for misdemeanors, I re- 
member her wdth a degree of affection and respect that do not attach to 
the name of any other of my early teachers. 

She "boarded around" a week at a place, and we children all liked 
her so well that we were all glad when it came her time to "stay at our 
house," and we were very jealous of each other, for fear she would 
spend more time at some other home than at ours. 

Of course this sounds odd for this day and time, but at that time 
the public school terms were short, sometimes only three or four months, 
and the summers were filled in by subscription terms, attended mostly 
by small boys and girls, as the older ones had to stay at home and work. 

This teacher was a young, sixteen-year-old girl, very pretty, as I 
remember her, and very efficient as a teacher for primary grades. 

Mary Ajin Taylor married Joseph Morrow, a lawyer, in Marion, and 
is now living there. E, J. Cox. 

Maitland, Florida, February 8, 191 7. 


Allow me to say "The Making of a Township" brings old times back 
to my mind as new as if it were today. I remember thirty-five years ago, 
when we lived in the woods and rolled big log-heaps. My grandfather, 
George Mason, entered land in Fairmount Townshi]). 1 fe had a log 
house hewed out of logs two feet wide. 


Litchville, North Dakota, March 29, 1917. 

Coinnntiiicatioiis and Comment. 375 


In looking over an expense account kept by my father (Jesse E. 
Wilson) from 1856 to 1864. I find the following names of persons 
doing business in or near Fairmount in 1856 — Joshua Mercer, Henry 
^Mercer and Samuel Heavenridge. 

In 1857 — Micajah Frances, Josiah Bradway. James Johnson, Jesse 
Reece, Daniel Hollingsworth, Ira Kendall, Levi Pierce, James Quinn, 
Dr. Philip Patterson, Seaberry Lines, Austin Williams, Elijah Her- 
rold. Jack Reel, Hopkins Richardson, Joseph Bennett and Alfred 

In 1858 — Solomon Parsons, James Turner, Henry Harvey, John 
Crowell, George Doyle, John Scarry, Hugh Findley, William Wright, 
Robert Hannah and Frances Lytle. 

In 1859 — Dr. White, Caleb Neal, Mincher Cox, Alexander Jordan, 
John blathers and Ward McNeir. In this same year Micajah Wilson 
went into business in partnership with Henry Harvey and were still in 
business in 1864. 

The name of Jonathan P. Winslow was mentioned for the first time 
in i860. Other names of persons who lived in or near Fairmount 
from i860 to 1864 are: Henry Long, Enoch Thomas, George Eckfelt, 
Dr. David S. Elliott, Joseph Brandon, Dr. John T. Home, Harmon 
Pemberton, Thomas Moon, Joseph Rush, Joseph Hollingsworth, Skid 
Home and Joseph Milliner. 

I think my grandfather, John Wilson, died some time in the early 
sixties in a house located on the northwest corner of the lot now owned 
by Dr. D. A. Holliday. About all I remember about my grandfather 
was the red flannel back to the vest he wore. 

Another name not before mentioned is "Toddy" (Solomon) Thomas, 
the first toll gate keeper I ever saw. He, too, left a lasting impression 
on my mind by the knit cap he wore and the smooth way he had cutting 
pennies into half pennies to make change. He lived about where the 
I. O. O. F. Building now stands. The toll gate was located about 
where the W. A. Beasely house now stands on South ^lain Street. 

In the expense book before mentioned my father refers to a house 
and lot as "my house in the log yard," or "my house south of the grist- 
mill." Among the names of tenants who occupied the house from 1859 
to 1864 are Joseph Brandon, William Dove, Ward McNeir, Joseph 
Milliner, Henley Winslow and William Hollingsworth, as a cabinet 

376 The Making of a Toivnship. 

Some of the persons whose names I mention were in business for a 
number of years. I remember my father speaking- of ahnost every man. 

This record was discontinued in 1864, but as I "settled" there my- 
self October 5, 1858, the record was taken U]) again. 

C. M. Wilson. 

Alexandria, Indiana, I'ebniary 25, 1917. 


I have a copy of the first graduating exercises, of the Fairmount 
schools, given in the spring of 1884. If you cannot find it in your files 
I will copy it and send to you later in the game. I also have the orig- 
inal petition filed with the School Board asking for a Thanksgiving 
vacation so that the bo\"s might go "rabbit hunting," about 1880. 

It is with much pride that I look back to the time when Joel Reece 
pulled the first copy of The Kcivs off the old Washington hand press, 
and know that I was present at its birth. 

N. D. Elliott. 

Salem, Oregon, February 8, 1917. 


In the account book referred to in my previous letter I find the 
date of death of two hundred and ninety-two persons who had lived in 
or near Fairmount and had done well their part in "The Making of a 

After looking over the list of names I find to my surprise I knew 
the most of them, and many whom I had a long time ago forgotten. 

This record began with the name of Daniel HoUingsworth, who died 
on the lot adjoining the Traction Station on the north, in Fairmount, 
June 8, 1866. This record ended with the name of Margaret Fucket, 
who died March 24, 1883, and the mother of Cyrus Puckett, who was 
drowned with Calvin Bookoul in June, 1873. 

I knew both liookout and Puckett, and I attended the funeral of 
Puckett, which was held on Sunday. 

Among the l(uig list of names referred to are three or four others 
whose lives had a tragic ending. C. M. Wilson. 

Alexandria, Indiana, March 7, 191 7. 

Communications and Comment. 2)77 


In order that the hst of teachers who have taught school in Fair- 
mount Township may be as complete as possible I will send in the 
names of a few who taught at old Back Creek from 1854 to 1864. 
They are Asa T. Baldwin, Quincy Baldwin, Melissa Pierce, Miriam 
Henley, Sarah Hockett, Levi Coppock, Joel Davis, Mary Ann Cop- 
pock, Daniel Lawrence, Jane Pruitt and George Winslow. 

In the year of 1859 or i860 the old Back Creek church needed a 
new roof on it. and Jack Winslow took the contract to re-roof it for 
$40, and he bought a large ash tree of my father, Henry Winslow, and 
my twin brother and I sawed the blocks. We were so small that we 
had to have blocks to stand on so we could reach the top of the log. 
He hired a colored man by the name of Pleas Weaver to make the 
shingles, which, after being riven were dressed with a drawing knife. 

Well do I remember when my father kept a slave two weeks who 
was trying to make escape from his master, and he was so afraid of 
being re-captured that whenever the door was opened he would hide. He 
made brooms for my father, and after the war was over he became a 
citizen of Mill Township and died near Jonesboro. 

\n those days it was not very satisfactory among the Friends for 
their children to have fiddles, as they were called then, but my brother 
Levi had one, and in order that it might not be confiscated by his father 
he kept it hid in the cheat box of the fanning mill. 

JosiAH Winslow. 

Fairmoitnt, Indiana. February 20, 1917. 

(Editor's Note.— Mr. Winslow here refers to the objections of 
Friends as a denomination to musical instruments either in the home or 
in connection with church services. Today instruments are found in 
homes of the modern Quaker who can afford them, as well as being 
generally used in connection with religious services. Mr. Winslow is 
a grandson of Joseph Winslow, who settled in 1829 on Back Creek.) 


I have not been in Fairmount for many years, but the room in my 
heart marked "Fairmount" is still as "warm as toast." When I think 
of the old school house, where the steps went up and down over the 
fence (where I fell and cracked my arm), I can just see the children 

378 The Making of a Tozvnsliip. 

come trooping in. To nic, they look just as they did then. I am afraid 
I would not know them now. 

Just think, T had an enrollment of ninety-two the first year, ninety- 
four the second year, and ninety-six the third, and my hair is not very 
s^ray, even now. Pearlie CIrA.^rp Miles. 

Dublin, Indiana, February 20, 1917. 


Do }ou remember Rev. Isaac Meek, who used to live in the south- 
east corner of the square opposite Flanagan's store, or one block east 
and one block south of said store? He was a circuit rider for the Wes- 
leyan Methodist Church. He was an old man there when I knew him, 
but I don't know if he was among Fairmount's pioneers. He used to 
preach at Hodson's Chapel and Howell's school house, both places 
northwest of Fairmount. 

■ H. H. Miller. 

Fargo, Xortli Dakota, February 20, 191 7. 

(Editor's Note. — The writer recollects Isaac Meek very distinctly. 
He was a preacher who preached with much fervor. He was regarded 
as a man of absolute sincerity and was respected by all who knew him. 
In his day and generation he did a great work for the Wesleyan Metho- 
dist Church, and there are many members of this denomination still 
living who will recall his memory with gratitude and veneration. 


These little histories afford the clul) women many interesting facts 
in hunting material for clul) papers, and stories illustrating the sturdy 
characters from which we sprung. I am studying the early churches 
of Indiana, the mission, circuit riders, and your story will be gladly 
received. Etta Charles. 

/llexandria. Indiana, January 13, 1917. 

(Editor's Note. — Dr. Charles is a daughter of the late Dr. Henry 
Charles, who for many years was a successful physician here. He was 
also a recorded minister in the Society of Friends. Dr. Etta Charles is 
one of the first woman physicians in this section of the State. She has 
built Tip a large and lucrative practice at Alexandria and throughout 
Madison County. She is much in demand as a speaker by different 

Communications and Comment. 379 

County, District and State Medical Societies. The perseverance and 
determination to succeed in the practice of her profession, which has 
earned for her both the confidence and respect of a wide circle of ac- 
quaintances and friends in central Indiana mark her as a woman of 
strong character and unsual ability.) 


As one of the few who now remain that were schoolmates of your 
grand old man, Dr. Alpheus Henley, I want to congratulate you upon 
vour happy characterization of this good and worthy man. 

In every community there is found some one who towers above his 
fellows and commands the universal love and respect of all who know 
him. This commanding place in society is sometimes the result of 
natural endowments which exalt their possessor above less fortunate 
associates, or it may be due to educational and social advantages not 
open to others. While these things may and often do give their pos- 
sessor a place in public esteem which he could never have obtained by 
his own exertion, it should never be forgotten that a life of unselfish 
service and devotion to humanity is more to be admired and respected 
than one, however successful, over which its possessor had only such 
control as the forces of nature or the power of inherited wealth had 
given him. 

The writer knew your grand old man when he was a country bo}' in 
the common schools of your Township and was acquainted with his 
father, Phineas Henley, who was one of your early Quaker pioneers, 
and himself a grand old man. I shall not attempt to trace the course 
of Dr. Henley through his struggle for a professional education, but 
suffice it to say that his energy and indomitable courage enabled him 
to overcome obstacles which surrounded him in his pioneer environ- 
ment and to establish himself in his chosen profession. 

He chose as the field of his life work the home of his boyhood and 
the scenes of his early struggles, in which he, no doubt, received a 
justly merited material reward for his services. His most lasting and 
enduring recompense can truly be said to consist of the esteem, love and 
confidence in which he is held by every man, woman and child who 
knew him. 

No man ever lived in your town who rendered so much faithful and 
unselfish service to his fellow man as he did, and many times this ser- 
vice was rendered without recompense or hope of reward other than 

380 The Makiiii^ of a Toiv)iship. 

a consciousness of duty well done. I have no jiowers of description 
wliicli will enable me to portray the hardship and labor he endured as 
he rode on horseback or traveled on foot through mud, rain and the 
intense cold of winter as he ministered to his afflicted and suffering 
neighbors. No question was ever asked as to the payment of fees and 
no one was ever refused medical aid because he chanced to be poor. 

I venture to say that his gratuitous services rendered the suffering 
poor of your Township amounted to thousands of dollars. Dr. Hen- 
ley, as we knew him. had traits of character which endeared him to all 
who knew him well. He was ever frank and outspoken. There was 
no guile in his heart. He was honest in his actions. He was pure in 
his life. He was tender, sympathetic and obliging, slow, perhaps, to 
make friends, but his unselfishness bound those he made to him with 
hooks of steel. 

President Lincoln once said, "So long as I have been here I have 
not willingh- planted a thorn in anv man's bosom." I think it may be 
truly said that Dr. Henley never carelessly or willingly wounded the 
feelings of a human being. 

I am conscious of the fact that both Dr. Henley and myself are on 
the western slope, and fast descending toward life's setting sun and, 
therefore, believing as T do, that life would be much sweeter, I cannot 
refrain from adding my tribute of love, kind appreciation and respect 
for your grand old man, Dr. Alpheus Henley. 

May the consciousness of a life well spent and the knowledge that 
there lives and blooms in the hearts of his hosts of friends in your town 
and Township sincere sentiments of gratitude and appreciation be to 
him a solace in his declining years, as sweet as the orange blossoms 
which blow and as l^eautiful as the roses which l^loom in his Southern 
home is the i)ra\er of his friend, comrade and schoolmate. 

J. M. Hundley. 

Siiiiiiiiit'cillc, Indiana. March 12. 1917. 



THE ORIGINAL settlers of that productive spot were different 
from others — unique, clannish if you please, and set in their ways, 
and firm in their religious leanings. All were Quakers, opposed to 
slavery, which made them, naturally. Abolitionists, or Republicans. I 
never knew a Quaker Democrat — nor a black one. 

Under our statute law a license to sell liquor was always turned 
down by a Quaker County Commissioner, for the simple reason that no 
applicant was ever considered "fit" to sell booze, and two out of the three 
on the Board made the county "dry," and it continued so for a genera- 
tion, distinguishing Grant as about the only dry county in Indiana. 

It was only when our party got cold feet on the Prohibition ques- 
tion, as defined by that club-footed Friend, Baxter, from Wayne County, 
and a Republican Representative in the State Legislature, that a division 
in the old party became ominous, but we pretended to make light of it. 
Our program was to ignore the issue. I was editor of the Republican 
organ here in those days and found the temperance road a hard one to 
travel, so, like the others, I kept as still as I could, notwithstanding these 
alleged reformers shot it into me on every occasion. 

I remember my neighbor and friend. Dora Wright, "^^ a good speaker, 
went up to Fairmount to open the campaign, about 1884. He had a fine 
audience that night and a good speech committed to memory, and you 
may be sure it was orthodox. The audience seemed unduly aroused and 
every applause came in just at the right time, until Jonathan P. Wins- 
low arose to a point of order. 

"Dora!" he exclaimed, raising himself to his full height (six and a 
half feet), "we've had enough of this bloody-shirt politics! What we 
want to know," he cried out with vigor, "is thy attitude on the temper- 
ance question. Now, will thee tell us?" 

Dora wasn't used to hectoring, but in as dignified and parliamentary 
way as he could command he begged the gentleman's indulgence until 
he was through with the matter in hand, when he would take up that 
part of his speech and discuss it fully. 

*Hon. A. T. Wright, better known among his personal and political 
friends as "Dora," was an excellent orator. In 1880 he was elected to rep- 
resent Grant County in the State Legislature, being re-elected in 1883. In 
his second term he was the nominee of the Republicans for Speaker of the 


TJic Making of a Township. 

But he didn't want to talk about the temperance question, and didn't 
intend to. He looked benignantly around at the audience and began 
to drink water, and wandered, and dismissed the audience, finally real- 
izing, he said, that he had kept them up too long. 

After that speech Dora's ac- 
quaintances down here in ]\IaTion 
would stop him now and then and 
ask him about his attitude on the 
temperance question, whereupon 
Dora would explode and say un- 
kind things of Jonathan. 

You knew Mahlon Neal, a very 
thrifty old Quaker who lived 
about four miles northwest of 
Fairmount, on a big farm. Mah- 
lon had much money, and the 
reputation of having stowed away 
al^out the house still more. One 
night, while Mahlon and his 
daughter were sitting in front of 
the open fire, a half-dozen sons of 
Ik'lial, all masked and holding re- 
volvers in their hands, rushed in 
on him and demanded his money. 
Tt wasn't the old man's nature to 
1)c disturbed. H)e never moved off 
his chair, but turned his head to 
the armed robbers and looked them 
over seriously. 
• "Won't thee sit down ?" he said. 

The robbers became disconcert- 



Whose kindly criticism and friendly 
interest in the writer's efforts is large- 
ly responsible for this volume, is a 
member of one of Grant County's old- 
est families. Mr. Goldthwait was born 

in Marion, August 7, 1850. At the age 1 a. vi. 

of twelve years he began to learn the ed ; the daughter slipped Ottt with 
printer's trade. For forty years he 
was actively identified with the pub- 
lishing business and a part of that 
time engaged in editorial work. For 
sixteen years he was editor of The 
Marion Chronicle, which became a 
power in Indiana Republican politics 
under Mr. Goldthwait's management. 

out being noticed and made a bee- 
line for the dinner-bell hanging 
from a tall pole, to a rope within 
her reach, and such a disturbance 

followed in all the farm houses 
nearby that every rogue "flew the coop" and the incident ended for- 
ever then and there, and no harm done. 

Personal Recollections. 383 

One of my old friends up there was j\Iilton Winslow,* the poet. I 
published a volume of his rhymes one time. They were real entertain- 
ing. He was strong on temperance and religion and his contribution 
was a faithful reflection of his opinions. 

Do you remember Bishop Milton Wright, of the United Brethren 
Church? His sons (mere boys) invented one of the marvelous ma- 
chines of the age — the flying machine — now adopted by every warring 
nation on earth. Lord Kitchener spoke of it as the greatest addition 
in warfare known since the invention of gunpowder. These boys de- 
serve a big place in history. 

The Quakers are the only American people who ever gave substan- 
tial recognition to the colored folk. When they settled here first, sixty- 
odd years ago, they found homes and protection, and here they thrived, 
on the whole, better than they have since. The Underground Railroad 
led through Quakerdom, while nine-tenths of the other counties of 
Indiana wouldn't allow a black man within their borders. History 
doesn't take account of this boycott. 

I would be somewhat remiss if, on this occasion, I would forget my 
old friends, Walker Winslow and Henley Winslow, who conducted the 
Wild West stage between Marion and Anderson in War days. The trip 
was made daily — thirty miles — and by it we depended whollv for War 
news, and soldiers came and went to and fro on War errands. Some- 
times they were wounded, or ill, or paroled from Southern prisons. 

*Milton Winslow, farmer and prominent minister of the Society of 
Friends, was born in Randolph County, North Carolina. May 21, 1821, and 
died at his home in Fairmount, November 15, 1893. His parents were 
Thomas and Nancy (Nixon) Winslow, who came to Fairmount Township 
in 1836, when Milton was fifteen years old. He was educated in the com- 
mon schools of North Carolina and Indiana. He helped his father during 
the summer season to clear the farm and take care of the crops. With the 
exception of three years he lived in Wayne County and two years spent in 
Michigan, his entire life, after he came with his parents in 1836, was passed 
in Fairmount Township. He cast his first Presidential vote in 1844 for 
Henry Clay, the Whig candidate. In 1856 he supported Gen. John C. Fre- 
mont, and continued to affiliate with the Republican party until 1884, when 
he identified himself with the Prohibitionists and remained loyal to this 
party until his death. He was a birthright member of the Society of 
Friends. On April 23, 1846. he was married at Dover, in Wayne County, 
Indiana, to Miss Mary (Johnson) Roberts, daughter of Walter and Han- 
nah (Johnson) Roberts, who had emigrated to Indiana from a Quaker set- 
tlement in South Carolina. Mary (Roberts) Winslow was born July 15, 
1818, and died July 20, 1906, at her home in Fairmount. On August 2, 
1847, Walter and Hannah Roberts deeded to their daughter eighty acres 
of land in Grant County. Milton Winslow was a man of superior attain- 
ments. Not only did he preach the Gospel with power and eloquence, but 
he possessed literary ability of high order. In 1892 he issued a volume of 
poems entitled, "Poems for Everybody," which had a large circulation and 
wide popularity. 

384 The Making of a Toivnship. 

The stag;e was a daily trag^edy. Sometimes a dead body was brought 
home, and ahiiost always the driver of the four horses and the big" lum- 
bering stage made his first stop at the postoffice, wlbere Jim Nolan 
"received" in the midst of an anxious crowd, as many women as men, 
and it was midnight often before the mail was finally delivered. 

Often I met the stage at Deer Creek Hill, where one of the broth- 
ers would deliver to me a bundle of The Indianapolis Daily Journals. 
When the news was extra exciting we'd hear the cannon firing at 
Wabash or Anderson, and the highway on both sides was wildly 
stirred, and the stage watched for. The papers I'd peddle out at ten 
cents up, according to the demand, were usually read aloud to the typ- 
ical audience of those days. God keep their memories green ! We 
haven't seen the like of it in our country for half a century, and no 
American ever wishes to see it again. 

It was worth while to know 'Cajah Wilson, a gardener. He ped- 
dled his products about and gave good measure always. 

"I have no half-peck measure with me," he once said to a pros- 
pective customer, "so I'll pour the 'taters here on the floor and then thee 
take one and I'll take one, and divide alike," and so they did in the 
most satisfactory way ; and he knew all the news along the route from 
Fairmount to Marion, and his visits were always welcome. Besides, 
he was strong on religion and Prohibition, and wouldn't shut up. 

Another one was John J. Bull, a large land owner of Fairmount. 
He must have had bully good orchards scattered around over his 
farms. His apples looked like they were made ready for the county 
fair. He would stop in front of a residence and announce his wares. 

"Will thee buy some apples today?" Alongside where he sat in the 
wagon behind his fat team a stick was fastened, on top of which was 
a sample apple. He didn't need to ring his bell or cry liis products ; 
people knew him and his purpose. They were acquainted with that 
fawn-colored hat. his shad-belly coat and homespun trousers, and even 
(in mv time) his affliction — a paralytic, useless arm. He was, T am 
told, not a Carolina Quaker, but an Fnglish one. He was without 
o-^iile — b^iirmount had no better citizen, and that is saying a great deal. 

It didn't take much of a metamorphosis to create young Quakers 
into dudes when their combs were red. They were our barbers' best 
customers. Their hair was groomed, mustaches dyed, boots shined, 
neckties given special attention — verily, I say that Solomon couldn't 
come it over them. Do you remember Iredell Rush, Steve Baldwin. 
et al. ? I never knew the girls in th(-)sc days. I was too young to know 
the difference between demureness and indifference. I only know that 

Personal Recollections. 385 

the plethoric homes up there had not a piano, organ, fiddle or song 

And now, Ed, haven't I gone far enough into my reminiscences 
of the past to fill a space in your history of a township ? 

Edgar L. Goldthwait. 

Marion, Indiana, February 2, igiy. 

(Editor's Note. — Mr. Goldthwait was for many years editor of 
The Marion Chronicle, during a period of its wide popularity and in- 
fluence. He is now living in well-earned retirement, enjoying the com- 
forts of life, with a competency ample, the result of a successful busi- 
ness career. No one in Grant County possesses a more intimate knowl- 
edge of the political issues during the time that he was at the head of 
the Republican organ of Grant County than he.) 


Fairmount did not contain more than ten or twelve houses in the 
year 1853. In fact, as I remember it, there were but seven dwelling 
houses in the town proper, one of which, located on the present site of 
the Flanagan store, was occupied by my father. 

On the opposite side of the street, on the corner now occupied by a 
drug store, was the general store of Joseph W. Baldwin. Directly 
across the street, on the corner now occupied by the Fairmount State 
Bank, was the store of Isaac Stanfield. 

James Cammack was the owner of the saw-mill, one of the up-and- 
down variety. Cammack lived in a frame building on the mill lot. 

James Johnson was the engineer at the saw-mill and lived in a log 
cabin west of the mill. 

William Hundley, father of the writer, was the only blacksmith in 
town, and his shop stood on the site where a saloon was blown up some 
years ago. 

This shop was built by Isaac Roberts and my father, in the year 
1853. Isaac Roberts at that time lived in Fairmount. Andrew Lever- 
ton was my uncle and lived with my father until he entered the army, 
in the year 1861, as a member of Company C, Tenth Indiana Infantry. 
He was killed at Chickamauga. 

John Benbow lived on what I think is now West Washington 

William Hall lived somewhere near where the office of Glenn Hen- 
lev is now located. 

386 The Makijii:; of a Toi^'uship. 

David Stanfield lived just south of the Hall home, but he lived on a 
farm and was not then a citizen of your town. 

Jonathan Baldwin lived just north of the town limits, but not in- 
cluded in the town. 

Joseph W. Baldwin lived in one end of the building occupied by 
his store. 

Tom Barnhouse came about 1854, and was the first photographer. 

Solomon Parsons came into town about 1855 ^"^^ engaged in shoe- 
making, and also kept a small hotel on Main Street. H/is shoeshop was 
in the same building. 

The same year — 1854 or 1855 — came Seaberry Lines (or Dad Lines 
as he was known). He had a small grocery and also kept a hotel, and 
was located about where the Hunt furniture store used to stand. 

George Doyle came about this time and located on the corner west 
of the Montgomery & Buchanan marble shop, with a grocery store and 
a supply of wet goods, including an abundance of sod-corn whiskey. 
I think this marks the advent of this disturber of human happiness into 
your community. 

Daniel Ridgeway came about 1855 '^"^^ located a tanyard in the 
north part of town. 

Nathan Little also had a tanyard, east of town, but not then within 
the corporation limits. 

Albert, Allen. Calvin and William Dillon lived north of town, as 
did their father, Jesse Dillon. The Dillons were gunsmiths and were, 
in 1855 and 1856, in the shop owned by my father, just west of where 
W. F. Buller's bakery stands. This was a new shop and very much 
larger than the one at first located on Main Street. 

Li the year 1855 William and Vincent Wright l)uilt a store about 
where A. R. Long's office now stands, and it was this store that Jona- 
than P. Winslow l)ouglit when he came, in the year i860. 

Thomas J. Parker did not come to h'airmount until after the close 
of the Civil War. 

The first physician in town, as I now remember, was Dr. White. 
I do not recall his given name. Xcxt came Dr. Philip Patterson, about 
1854 or 1855. I think Dr. David S. Elliott came about the beginning 
of the Civil War. I can very distinctly remember that Dr. Plorne and 
Dr. Meek, of Jonesboro, did the medical practice in Fairmount for the 
first two years after I located there, or from 1853 to 1855. 

Alexander Pickard did not come to town until long after 1 had 
gone away, in the year 1857. 

Personal Recollections. 387 

As a small boy I played around my father's shop, and became quite 
well acquainted wiith not only the men of the town, but of the Town- 
ship as well. I can now recall and locate the following pioneers: 

West of town were Nathan D. and Jesse E. Wilson, Daniel Thomas, 
Nixon Rush, Phineas Henley, Lindsey Buller and John Wilson. 

South of town were Carter Hasting, John Smith, Andrew Buller, 
Calvin Bookout, James and Thomas Lytle, Greenleaf Puckett, John 
Plasters, Morris Payne, David Smithson. Harvey Davis and Bernard 

East of town were Nathan Little, Hopkins Richardson, Zimri 
Richardson, Jonathan Richardson, John Bull, Jesse Winslow, Nixon 
Winslow, Milton Winslow, William G. Lewis, Henry Osborn, John 
Buller, Andrew Levell. Jackson Mann, and Simon Kauffman (on the 
Jack Ink farm). 

North of town were Jesse Dillon, Allen Dillon, Thomas Newby, 
Seth Winslow, Thomas Winslow, Thomas Baldwin, William Pierce 
and John Phillips. 

I am sure that Fairmount did not contain more than ten or twelve 
houses in the year 1853. I think some confusion may arise from the 
.fact that Fairmount grew very rapidly and was quite a considerable 
village when the writer removed from there, in 1857. I am not writ- 
ing this as a contribution to your "Making of a Township," but only 
as a means of exciting inquiry and criticism in order that the facts, as 
far as may be possible, may be ascertained. I think it has well been 
said that man's progress in the past has been made possible by his 
ability to improve upon the mistakes of his ancestors. 

J. M. Hundley. 

Summitville, Indiana, January 15, 1917. 


My friend Hundley takes me to task for leaving the early farmer 
to the mercy of the winds while cleaning their grain. The method I 
mentioned was the easier but the method Jim mentioned was used in 
cases of necessity. 

The tread mill consisted of a wheel in the form of a cylinder fur- 
nished with some twenty-four steps around its circumference and 
turned on its axis by the tread of horses or oxen. Two horses were 
generally used to furnish power sufficient to run a chaff piler. Those 
tread mills were in common use up to 1870 to saw wood for the rail- 

388 The Making of a Tozvnship. 

roads that used wood for fuel, and this inckided all the roads passing 
through Indiana. 

I was pilot of the first coal-burning engine that ever passed over 
the Pan Handle road from Columbus, Ohio, to Logansport. It was a 
Rogers engine No. 10. This was in 1869, I think. 

Speaking of threshing machines, John Ferree, who lived near Little 
Ridge, once owned a thresher called the Traveler. Four or six horses 
were used to propel the machine, which was pulled around the field, 
the grain being thrown in the cylinders as the machine moved along, 
the straw being scattered behind the machine. The power was gotten 
by friction. This machine was not a success. 

Brother Hundley must have seen this machine, for if J. M. Hund- 
ley or Ceph Bennett failed to see anything when we were boys it was 
hidden. Just to show how the boys would find melon patches in the 
early days (I don't mean Hundley or Bennett, of course), they would 
climb a tree on the edge of a clearing, where they suspected a melon 
patch might be. In this way they could locate the exact spot where 
melons could be had, with little risk of being discovered. 

There were more shoemakers than any other mechanics in the pio- 
neer days. Some had shops and some went from house to house during 
the fall and early winter months. Richard Mott (or Daddy Mott, as 
he was called) was the first one I remember. He made the shoes for 
father's family for years. James Farrington, Evander Farrington and 
Berry Farrington were all good shoemakers. Berry Farrington died 
recently at Ottumwa, Iowa. I have often met him and talked with him 
of our boyhood days. There are possibly some at Fairmount who will 
remember him. He was successful in business and lived comfortably 
for many years. My recollection is that all the shoe lasts were made 
straight, and neither right nor left. Neither were they made in sections, 
as now. Both boots and shoes were heavy — no split leather, no shoe 
polish — only tallow or coon grease. Good wool socks, no overshoes, 
no damp feet. Thus the pioneers would go the coldest days perfectly 
comfortable. We do not recall who made shoes in Fairmount in 

Carpenters were plentiful. Jude Smithson, his brother Jake, Na- 
than Vinson, Alfred Waldron, and, I believe, Alex. Henley and I. B. 
Rush both worked at the trade when they were young men. 

Albert Dillon was a gunsmith. 

Nathan Little, Micah Baldwin, J. R. Smith were tanners. 

Robert Kelsay was a stone cutter. 

William Hollinfjsworth was a cabinet-maker. 

Personal Recollections. ■ 389 

Those mentioned all lived at or near Fairmount prior to 1861. All 
were good workmen. There were many others whom we have for- 
gotten. No doubt there is evidence of the handiwork of all these men 
yet to be found in or near Fairmount, with perhaps the exception of 
the shoemaker or tanner. 

The first guns that the Dillons made were flint-locks, as percussion 
caps were not in general use until 1850. When a boy I owned a gun 
made by Albert Dillon, and I have an idea that the rifle Jesse Wilson 
owned when the people of Fairmount thought that the town was going 
to be raided by the rebels was made by Dillon. 

It was told of Jesse that when he was asked to help defend the town 
he told the ones who went to him : 

'T am a man of peace, but if thee needs the gun I will tell thee where 
thee can find it." 

The first blacksmith shop was William Hundley's, and the shop 
was in Fairmount. At that time charcoal was almost entirely used 
by the blacksmiths for forge work. They made everything by hand. 
Horse nails, horseshoes, rivets and all the tools that they used were 
hand-made — axes, hammers, knives and many other tools. 

It was not all smiths that could do every kind of work. Some were 
more skilled than others. Joe Bennett I recollect best, for the reason 
that he did my father's work longer than any other smith. Joe was 
drafted, with many others, to go to the army. I think he was assigned 
to the Twenty-fourth Battery. I recollect of hearing him preach the 
Sunday before he left for the army. He told his hearers that he was 
going to leave his Bible at home and take up the sword. My recollec- 
tion is that Joe came home and regained his Bible. 

It is now fifty-two years since the things occurred that I am trying 
to write about. My memory, I find, is a little faulty. I have no way 
of refreshing my memory, and it is five hundred miles to anyone who 
could assist me. 

The first saw-mill at Fairmount was of the sash pattern. It was a 
lazy man's job to run one of those saws, as they were so very slow 
and the logs were large. I have seen most of the block where The News 
office now stands covered with immense logs and the old mill going at 
snail gait sawing them into lumber. 

The first circular saw-mill that I remember stood almost west of the 
Friends Church and on the bank of Back Creek. I think it "was in 1864. 
After the sash saw-mill came one called the Muley, and this was much 
faster, and soon came into general use. Then came the portable mill 
with the circular saw of today. 

390 The Making of a Township. 

Tn tlie early sixties I remember that Jesse E. Wilson had planted 
peaeh trees along his fences for some distance on each side of the road 
near his residence. In the peach season I have seen those trees loaded 
with the finest fruit imaginable. No one who knew Jesse would take 
one of those peaches without asking for it, but there were boys not a 
mile from him that would go miles to take his peaches or pears. The 
boys spoken of were not bad boys, but were mischievous and loved ad- 
venture, and finally grew to manhood to be the best citizens of the 
community. T. B. McDonald. 

LoviVia. Iowa. 


A public speaker once told me that if you want to interest your 
audience tell them something the\- already know. This I will, un- 
doubtedly do. 

My mother died in the fall of 1856. j\Iy brother Winslow and 
mvself went and lived for a time with L'ncle ]\Iilton Wilson, Nate's 
father. He had just bought of Tommy Powell the farm now owned 
bv John Kelsay. The house was west of the present residence. Tommy 
was an Englishman. I think he was a relative of John Bull and Samuel 
Radley, who were also from England. 

Tomnn- PowcH's wife was a Winslow (Aunt Betsey, we called her), 
a sister of Uncle Jesse Winslow, who lived east of Pairmount. She 
was afterwards the wife of Samuel Dillon. 

My brother and I attended my first school at old ISack Creek, north 
of town, the winter of 1856-1857. Asa T. Baldwin was the teacher. 
To mv surprise he had no "gads" in sight, nor did he use any during 
the term. Some of the scholars near me were Jesse Dillon, now living 
in Marion. George Whybrew. David Winslow, I'ill lialdwin. Bank 
lialdwin and many others. We attended Friends services at tlie old 
meeting, then standing, on First day and b'ourth day. There 
was hardly anything said b\- any one during services for two hours. 

The school boys, when playing at recess, would try to see who 
could crawl through the air holes at the foundation of the old church. 
Manv a bov went through all right, but swelled U]) until he could not 
get out, and what a yell they did make under the old church until 
rescued. The big boys and the teacher would have him come out 
craw-fish style, and one get hold of each leg and jnill him out. The 
boy was then warned to not tr\- it again, or if he did he would get a 
licking. But they were trying it again at each play time. 

Personal Recollections. 391 

Aunt Rachel Newby lived on the Lewis Fankboner farm. The 
iDuildings were north of the present ones. We boys, at her request, 
would stop and warm by the big fireplace on our way to and from 
school. This was a small thing, but we never once forgot her for her 
kindness. It is the little things that people do that count, after all, even 
down to the present day. 

Soon afterwards we went back home to live, south of town, my 
father having married. Our school days were afterwards spent at 
Back Creek, southwest of Fairmount. The early teachers were Milton 
]\'IcHatton, George Pierce, Jesse Reece, Keturah Baldwin, Columbus 
^loore. Foster Davis, Lancaster D. Baldwin. William Baldwin, and 
some others 1 may have overlooked. The school houses were log, and 
very poorly ventilated, but were, for that day, pretty comfortable. 

The games played at school in those days were "three-cornered cat," 
"black man," and "bull pen," but the real game was "town ball." In- 
stead of a baseball bat, a paddle made of oak timber one inch thick 
and six to ten inches wide, made with a handle, was the bat. There 
were bases. Two were asked to choose up, or select the players from 
tlie crowd. Some one would take a chip of wood and spit on one side 
and one of the "choosers" would say "wet." the. other "dry." They 
would then toss the chip in the air, and if "wet" was up the one taking 
that would have first choice of players, and if "dry," the second choice, 
and so on. 

Nathan D. Cox and T. B. McDonald were usually first and second 
choice, as they were two who could break the paddle or knock the ball 
over the big white oak tree near by. No one ever caught the ball. 
Instead of a pitcher he was known as the one "giving balls." If he 
threw a ball so the batter with his big, wide paddle could not hit it, he 
was immediately fired and someone else put in to "give balls." so 
thev could hit them. In baseball, which sprang from old "town ball,". 
men are now paid $10,000 to $20,000 annually to pitch a ball they can- 
not hit, and when he cannot do this he is let out. 

We had no umpire in "town ball," and when a player did not like 
the wav the game was going he just got mad and quit and would not 
plav. There were always plenty to take his place. Even to this day 
there are persons who will not play unless things go to suit them. 
Howiever, I do not know of any such in Fairmount Township. 

The Wesleyans held church in the school house for some time, but 
finally cleared away about one-half an acre in a very thick woods near 
by and built the frame church which is now standing to the west on the 
range line. To clear away the heavy trees for the church was quite a 

392 The Making of a TmvnsJiip. 

task. However, by the help of Uncle Jonathan Baldwin's pair of big, 
red oxen, from town, and twenty-five or thirty men who knew what 
an ax was made for, it was soon done. 

The early Wesleyan preachers that I now call io mind who preached 
at this place were Aaron Worth, now living- at Fountain City, Thomas 
Brelsford, Isaac Meek, Emsley Brookshire, father of Thomas J. Brook- 
shire. William Lacey, and many others I do not now recall. Aaron 
Worth was then the big preacher of all, and Isaac Meek w^as very 
popular and much loved by everybody, especially the young, on account 
of his Indian, bear and deer stories in conversation. He could talk all 
kinds of Indian language. 

The boys in the neighborhood often had a heated argument as to 
who was the biggest and best preacher. It was finally decided in favor 
of a new preacher, whom I do not now recall, for the reason we could 
hear him nearly a mile away. 

There was not very much land cleared in the early settlement of the 
Township, so the farming w'as on a very small scale, indeed. On the 
high places along Back Creek and east of Fairmount along the old 
prairie was about the only land high enough to farm. The very best 
black elm land lay idle for years and was rated as worthless, on account 
of its being covered with water all the year. Today this low, level black 
land has been drained until it is doubtful if the sun shines on better 

The farmers raised corn, wheat, flax, buckwheat, sugar cane, but 
not much stock. The farms averaged one cow, six to ten hogs, two 
horses and fifteen to twenty head of sheep. 

Hogs ran wald and were hunted and killed in the woods when 
w^anted for meat. Thev were large and thin. There was no danger of 
getting too much fat in those days. They were w lial the packers prize 
so highly today as strictly "bacon hogs." 

The farmers had but little to sell in those days. Xot many fed over 
five or ten hogs, and the man who had twenty-five or thirty hogs to 
market was considered a big stock grower. 

Jeans suits made from wool off their own sheep w^ere the clothing. 
Xo overcoats, underwear, overshoes or anything in the way of fine 
dress w-as in evidence. The women wore calico and flannel and fancy 
gingham dresses for Sunday. 

Xeighbors were quite well ac(|uainte(l and knew one another better 
than they do today. All would lend any tool or horse. Neighbors 
visited much more than at present. The whole family would w^alk a 
mile and stay and visit a neighbor until Ijcd time, and then return 

Personal Recollections. 393 

home with a hickory bark torch or a tin lantern punched full of holes 
and a candle inside for light. 

The earl}' merchants in Fairmount bought coon skins, sheep pelts, 
beeswax, sorghum, flax-seed, feathers, dried peaches and apples, rags, 
eggs, butter, sheep and beef tallow. 

At the tanyard of Micah Baldwin and William Hall they sold oak 
bark. The farmers of the Township in the early days raised quite an 
amount of sugar cane, some as much as five or ten acres. Nearly 
all raised some to make molasses or sorghum. It was an easy crop to 
grow. After the cane was done growing and the heads ripened and 
turned black late in the fall, they went through with corn cutters and 
cut off the heads about one foot from the he^ds and let them fall on 
the ground. They next went through with a sharp-edged board and 
stripped the cane. The cane was then cut close to the ground and 
hauled to the cane mill, which consisted of two rollers together made 
of a sugar tree. A lever was fastened at the top of these rollers and 
a horse hitched, going round and round, and the mill making a noise 
you could hear a mile or more. You could often hear ten or twelve of 
these mills in a neighborhood. 

The molasses, or sorghum, was easily made, and was usually quite 
thick and would not run. It was generally put in a large pan, or bowl, 
in the center of the table, and when any one wanted sorghum, they 
harpooned it with a knife or fork, and wound out what they desired. 
And permit me to say that with sausage made from hogs, butter made 
from cows, and hot biscuits or corn bread it was not very bad. 

The people are very much the same wherever you go, from Maine 
to California. Every place has its good and bad citizens. A very large 
majority are for the very best interests of all the people everywhere 
and all the time. However, I am of the opinion that from the day of 
the entry of the land to the present time, there has lived and are 
living more of the right kind of people in Fairmount Township and 
vicinity than any place where the sun shines. 

Cyrus W. Neal. 

Marion, Indiana, December 26, 1916. 


I can claini to be a pioneer in one respect, at least, a pioneer in 
collecting historical facts. 

You will receive a small note book filled with facts which I col- 
lected in February — just twenty years ago. Most of the facts are 

394 - '^ /"' Makini:; of a 7^07^'ushi/'. 

about our o\\ u family, and will not, therefore, be of general interest. 
The men whom I interviewed in 1897 were my father, Nixon Rush, 
Calvin Rush, Sr., James Scott, Elwood Rush, Bernard McDonald and 
Xathan Little. These were good men and great. Let us ever remem- 
ber them. 

I can give some information which should be of interest to young 
as well as old. It may not be known to many people that there once 
Hved in Fairmount a man who, I believe, was one of the greatest 
athletes this country ever produced. If he were a young man now, 
attending one of our colleges, his picture would be published in all the 
leading papers of America. This man was James Scott. 

When I was in my teens the l:)oy who could beat us all in the run- 
ning hop, step and jump or the running two hops and a jump, was 
\\'ick Winslow. Any of us boys would have traded our homes — fami- 
lies included — for Wick's ability to run and jump. 

Among the older boys the great heroes were John and Charles E. 
White. The\ could have all the sidewalk any time they wanted it — 
provided, of course, that there happened to be a sidewalk. Yet none 
of these heroes — no matter how large the circle of admirers — ever 
boasted of going more than forty-two feet in a running hop, step and 
jumj), or the more popular two hops and a jumj). After several weeks' 
i:)ractice I once made thirty-seven feet myself, but I tore ni}- suspenders 
in doing it. 

Aly father often told me of the "barn-raisings" when he was a boy. 
Someone would nearly always start to jump in order to get James 
Scott and his brother started. As father expressed it. "the\- jumped as 
if thev had wings." He also told me that on one occasion James Scott 
jumped against the State champion at Indianapolis and won. And so, 
in h'ebruary. just twenty years ago, I went to see James Scott and I 
wrote in my little red note book his story as he gave it: 

"It was the first Monday in .\ugust," related James. "Henry Clay 
was the candidate for T"'resident that year. Our wheat was all gath- 
ered in the barn and father allowed me to go and see my uncle, who 
lived at Indiana])olis. 

"The best jum])er in the .'^tate was there, and he wanted to bet me 
ten dollars that he ci^ukl beat me. 1 did not want to bet, but the fellow 
would not jump unless I would bet. So I took his bet. It was on the 
ground where the Court Llouse now stands. There was a little slope to 
the land. It was not (|uite level. We each had three trials. I jumped 
twice. The first time 1 jum])e{l sixty feet, ami the second time I jumped 
sixtv-two feet. It was the running hop, step and jumj). He could not 

Personal Recollections. 395 

equal niv second jump. I jumped fifty-eight feet at Marion when 
thev were laying the foundation for the first Court House. I could 
jump twenty-five feet at running broad jump on level ground. I could 
jump from sill to sill when the sills were ten feet apart, and in the 
haymow I have jumped from one sill to another where the sills were 
eight feet apart. I could go thirty-three feet on level ground in three 
jumps standing. I could jump over a pole six inches higher than my 
head. My brother Stephen could jump thirty-six feet in three jumps, 

These were the figures given to me by the (|uiet old man whose 
life's journev was nearly run. There was no trace of boastfulness. 
The exact accuracy of the distances could not, of course, be depended 
on. Thev were probably measured by a short ruler, and the measure- 
ments were taken from heel to heel, instead of the present method of 
measurement, and this would reduce each record six or eight inches. 
Moreover, the ground may not always have been exactly level. Rut if 
an untrained farmer lad, wearing heavy shoes which his father probably 
made, could jump such distances, what records he could have made 
under one of our great athletic trainers in a college or university. 

James Scott also gave me these historical facts about Fairmount : 

"Old David Stanfield laid out the first lots of Fairmount and 
named the place. Stanfield's barn was in the exact location of John 
Dickey's home. The house was northeast of the barn. It was at the 
place where Harmon Buller now lives, back of Mattie Wright's home. 
I was then Justice of the Peace. Stanfield made the plot and sold lots 
before having the plot recorded, and 1 came near having trouble. He 
sold James Cammack a few acres to build a mill where Jap Wheeler's 
mill now stands. The lots sold for five, ten and fifteen dollars apiece. 
Joseph \\'. r>aldwin bought a lot from Jonathan Baldwin, just north of 
Flanagan's store, and built there the first store ever built in Fair- 

From all of the men interviewed I gained the following informa- 
tion regarding my great grandfather, Azel Rush. Azel was light com- 
plexioned, tall, slim, and a little stooped. He had blue eyes, a strong 
voice and was autocratic. He was an old-fashioned Quaker. 

In 1848 he sold the larger part of his North Carolina farm for 
$3,000. and, after paying his debts, he hid $500 of the money in a 
barrel and started to Indiana with the barrel. The money was in the 
form of notes. As he became fearful that it would be stolen he took 
each note and cut it into tw'o pieces. He then took two envelopes and 

396 The Making of a Ton'tiship. 

put a part of each note in each envelope and mailed the money to 
Indiana, paying the customary postage of ten cents a letter. 

Apparently the notes were redeemed all right, for he bought the 
Henry Doherty farm and paid six dollars an acre for it. He then 
returned to North Carolina and the next year brought his wife and 
three youngest sons. The boys drove a big four-horse Carolina wagon, 
and Azel and his wife rode in a carriage. 

Elwood Rush was one of the boys. He told me that they left Caro- 
lina on September 15, 1849. and arrived on October 21. and that they 
crossed but one railroad track in making the trip. Uncle Elwood 
laughed when he quoted John Plasters as saying that "Azel Rush was 
smarter than any of his boys." 

Bernard McDonald also told nic interesting things about Azel. 1 
have this in my note book : 

"I remember once he came to me while I was working in a field. 
It was just before he made his last trip to Carolina. lie wanted to 
borrow twenty dollars. I gave it to him and asked no security. During 
the course of our conversation he spoke of the fact that William Henry 
Harrison was for a time a medical student under his cousin, Dr. Ben- 
jamin Rush, of Philadelphia. He also spoke of Zachary Taylor, whom 
I knew well, having boarded with him for two or three vears. I knew 
William Henry Harrison quite well, and I also knew Benjamin Harri- 
son as a slender-legged boy." 

It may be of interest to know how the Rushes came to have the 
Rush Hill farm. This is the way my uncle. Calvin Rush, told it to me 
twenty years ago : 

"When mv father. Iredell Rush, came to Indiana, he stopped one 
vear in Henry County, where he made $100, which he saved. He then 
came to Grant County and paid the $100 for eighty acres, which are 
now a part of the Frank Presnall farm. One year later he decided to 
enter the eighty acres just south of his farm, the land on which Rush 
Hill and the Academy are located, but he had no money. Hearing that 
a man by the name of Dempsey Bailey was planning also to get the 
land, Iredell hastened to the home of a friend by the name of Hiatt, 
who lived. I think, in Henry Count}-. Iliatt took down the family 
Bible, which was his bank, gave grandfather the money which he 
needed and told him to hurry. Grandfather rode all night and reached 
Fort Wayne early in the morning. The land was quickly secured and 
the money paid, and as he was leaving the court house, Dempsey Bailey 
walked in. His first log house was sixteen by twenty feet, with a stick 
and clav chimnev. The first vear he cleared a few acres, belled the 

Personal Recollections. 397 

horse and turned him loose and he and Seth Winslow hunted venison, 
bear and wild honey all winter." 

Calvin C. Rush. 

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, February 28, 1917. 

(Editor's Note. — This article is contributed by Dr. Calvin C. Rush, 
son of the late Nixon Rush, and grandson of Iredell Rush. Iredell 
Rush entered land in Fairmount Township March 16, 1831. Dr. Rush 
is a successful physician, now located at Philadelphia, the home of a 
distinguished relative. Dr. Benjamin Rush. In this contribution one 
of Indiana's athletes of pioneer days is introduced. The late James 
Scott, father of O. R. Scott, was for many years prior to his death a 
citizen of Fairmount.) 


I have been reading "The Making of a Township" and have been 
quite interested in many of the letters and notes, as they bring to my 
mind many circumstances which I well remember, and others which I 
have heard older persons relate. 

I remember the house raisings, the log rollings, the quiltings, the 
wool pickings, when we spun, colored and wove much of the cloth for 
our clothing, when most of the cooking was done by the fireplace, with 
which all the houses were provided (many families not owning a cook- 
stove) , when we dropped all our corn by hand and covered it with the 
hoe, when the grain was cut with scythe and cradle and bound by 
hand, and many other customs of early days. 

Many things were not convenient, but in looking back upon those 
times I always think of them as the good old days when neighbors 
were much more congenial and helpful to each other than at the pres- 
ent time. One of the undesirable things was the bad roads. 

I remember well the corduroy bridges, which consisted of small 
logs laid across the road as close together as possible in the worst 
places, sometimes lasting for quite a distance, making very rough trav- 
eling, but beat being stuck in the mud. 

Another thing wlas the ague, as I have good reason to remember, 
being a victim myself, missing the chill only a few weeks in more than 
a year. Then there were the swarms of mosquitoes that infested this 
country in those days, when some of the ponds of water never dried 
up. We had to make smoke at the doors of our homes summer eve- 

398 The Making of a Township. 

nings to keep the mosquitoes out of the house, screens being unheard of 
at that time ; but all these, like the log cabins, are things of the past. 

Well do I remember the stirring events at the beginning of the 
Civil AA'ar, when many of our bravest and best young men responded 
to the call of Uncle Sam, going away, many to return no more ; of 
how we anxiously awaited the coming of the old stage coach, bringing 
the mail in those days, and how later on its coming- brought to some of 
our hearts the greatest sorrow we had ever known. 

I knew Rev. Isaac Meek well for years. Have heard him preach 
many a sermon at H'pwell's school house and other places. I think 
he was a pioneer. T have been told that he wlas a friend of the Indians, 
hunted with them, could speak their language, and they said he was 
the only wdiite man they ever knew who always told the truth. 

I remember hearing an Indian minister preach at Wesleyan Back 
Creek, Rev. jMeek interpreting the sermon. That has been more than 
forty years ago. Later Meek moved to Iowa, with his good wife, Ruth, 
where he passed to the better land several years ago. 

Catharine Buller. 

FainiiDiiJii. Indiana. March 5, 1917. 

CHOLERA IN 1 849. 

Charles Baldwin sat head of Ilack Creek meeting for a short time 
about eighty-four years ago. He also taught school at Back Creek in 
1833. Grandfather Baldwin moved from New Garden, Wayne County, 
this State, and settled on the Crabb farm, later known as the John 
Himelick farm. op])osite the McCormick graveyard, where he lived 
one year. 

The McCormick gravcxard is where people were buried who died of 
the cholera in 1849. David Weesner, who was the father of Mrs. 
Lacy Ann Knight, Mrs. Seth Thomas and Micajah, Elihu and David 
Weesner, died of this disease. Alex Dolman was another man who died 
of this disease. Altogether a dozen died of cholera and everybody in 
the settlement was alarmed and ]ianic-stricken for fear of the spread 
of the epidemic, which might take everybody before it. 

David Weesner ran a tanyard at the time of his death above Jones- 
boro, on the river, at what was known ;is Weesner's ford. 

A\^n.i.i.\M Baldwin. 
Marion, Indiana. 

Personal Recollections. 399 


I now remember that J. P. Winslow had a son, Tom, who went 
away with me when I went to the army. He was too young- to be 
enHsted, but he wient with our company till we reached Murfreesboro, 
Tennessee, where we were surrounded by Forrest's Cavalry and were 
under fire for several days. On the first day that firing- began, Tom 
left us and said he was going to make his way back to Nashville. I 
understand he has never been heard from since. I am sure I have 
neither seen nor heard from him since, and have often wondered what 
became of him. J. 'M. Hundley. 

Suuimitville, Indiana. 


With many others, I am interested in the articles you are publish- 
ing about Fairmount and Fairmount Township and will add a mite 
to them. 

In the winter of 1855 and 1856, when I was barely in my 'teens, I 
visited an uncle and family who then lived near New Cumberland. 
While there I went with a cousin to mill at Jonesboro and passed the 
Robert McCormick place. I have always remembered it from the fact 
that across the road from the buildings— north — were traces of fenc- 
ing for a deer park. As I remember the fencing it was of stakes or 
light rails standing at an angle of about forty-five degrees. Whether 
it was built that way or leaned from decay I did not know. I also got 
the story some way that the east line of the enclosure was a steep creek 
bank, down which the deer could jump, but could not jump out — mak- 
ing a kind of deer trap. 

I also remember seeing a railroad bridge across a creek or ravine 
south of the road we traveled — I think in the McCormick neighbor- 
hood. It was for a proposed road from Cincinnati to Chicago, but 
never completed. The work on that line was, doubtless, the first rail- 
road work ever done in Fairmount Township. Probably some one can 
give further facts concerning it. 

Years later, while I was a resident of Marion, and Joseph W. 
Baldwin lived near, I heard him say that he had the honor of giving 
Fairmount its name. He was then living in the embryo town, and the 
question of a name came up. He had been reading of the Fairmount 
Water Works, at Philadelphia, and the word "Fairmount'' had struck 
his fancy and he suggested it as a name, and it wias adopted. 

400 The Making of a Township. 

Since writing the above paragraph, I thought there might be a 
mistake in it, and that Fairmount derived its name from the Township. 
I, therefore, got my Grant County maps and history, pubhshed in 1876. 
I found from them that the original plat of the town was filed on De- 
cember 28. 1850, and that it was then in Liberty Township ; and in the 
year 1855 the Township was formed by taking from Liberty the terri- 
tory east of the line between Ranges 7 and 8, and a small Township 
on the east called Union, and the new> Township was named Fairmount, 
and that the Township name was derived from the name of the town. 
I also notice that the naming of the town was credited to William Neal. 
Joseph W. Baldwin was then the only ''merchant prince" of the new 
town, and William Neal doubtless surveyed and made the plat, and 
doubtless both had a voice in giving the name. 

In looking up this matter, I was surprised at the number of changes 
made in township boundaries of the county before they settled down 
to present shape. I doubt if many people now living in Grant County 
know that once there were Townships known as Union. Madison, 
Grant and Knox. M. F. Tingley. 

W abash, Indiana, January 25, 191 7. 

(Editor's Note. — In September, 1867, Mr. Tingley purchased the 
only printing office then in Grant County and commenced the publi- 
cation of The Marion Chronicle. He was an active and resolute friend 
of public improvements. Not only with his pen, but with his means, 
he assisted in the good work. With but one exception he was an origi- 
nal stockholder in every gravel-road company organized in the county 
since he became a citizen of it. He was a persistent and indefatigable 
advocate of the movement to secure the Cincinnati, Wabash & Michi- 
gan and the Toledo, St. Louis & Western railroads. Under his editor- 
ship The Chronicle stood out boldly for honesty and efficiency in mu- 
nicipal and county government, the policy of the paper exerting a 
marked influence upon the wise and economical expenditure of public 
funds. Mr. Tingley disposed of his newspaper property in 1884.) 


T remember the hardships of my father and mother in Fairmount 
Township, when the woods were full of squirrels, deer and wild turkeys. 
Those dear old pioneers suffered much without a murmur. No sacri- 
fice was too great for those dear old people. 

Personal Recollections. 401 

I remember when nobody was rich and nobody was poor — every- 
body good and nobody bad. I do not now recall a single crime that was 
ever committed in the old neighborhood. 

I remember the first horse thief I ever heard of. He stole Uncle 
Iredell Rush's horse. But the horse thief did not live in Fairmount 
Township. The men of the neighborhood got their horses and started 
on the trail.. Some of them got as far as Anderson and others a little 
farther, then became discouraged and went back. -My father, Nixon 
Rush, St., and Micajah Wilson went to Noblesville, I think it was, and 
found the horse in a feed stable. Father told the sheriff about it and 
said : 

'T will go and call the horse by name, and if he nickers I shall claim 

the horse." 

So father called: "Tobe! Stand around!" 

And the horse jumped around and nickered. 

The horse knew father's voice. 

The sheriff then arrested the thief and they took him to Marion 
and put him in the lock-up. 

Robert and Ruth Brazelton wiere the first colored people I ever saw. 
Mv father had great respect for the colored people. One time we had 
a colored woman by the name of Celia Brown to work for us, and she 
would always eat at the table with us. One day we had company. The 
man was not fond of the negro. When dinner was ready father told 

all to come to dinner, but Mr. did not come. Father asked why. 

Mr. said : 

'T will not eat with that negro." 

Father said : 

"All right. Thee is worse than my hogs, for the white ones will eat 
with the black ones and will not growl. So thee just wait until we get 

Father made one of the first coffins, if not the very first one. ever 
made in Fairmount Township. It seemed to us children that everybody 
Avould die at night, for away in the night we would hear someone call : 

"Nixon ! Nixon ! We want thee to make a coffin" for so and so. 

They would bring a measuring stick in and set it up in the corner of 
the room where we children lay in our trundle-bends. Father would 
get u]) and go to work. He always prepared his own glue, planed and 
sandpapered the boards, stained them, and sometimes lined the coffin. 
(I well remember he lined Uncle Jonathan Jones's coffin.) Then he 
would take the coffin to the home and stay and help until after the 
burial, and never charge a cent. Those were days of long, long ago. 

402 The Makinj^' of a Tozvnship. 

The first frame house I ever saw. my father huilt it — the one at 
Rush Hill W'here Walter W. Rush now lives. He built several other 
frame houses in Fairmount Township. 

I was one of the crusaders. Well do I remember when we heard a 
saloon was to come to Fairmount. So, to give the alarm when the man 
was seen driving into town, the bells were to ring. The key of the 
Methodist Church was at m\- house, across the street from. the church, 
and some one came running- up and said : 

"The saloon is coming!" 

So I took the key, went to the church, and commenced to ring the 
bell. In a few minutes a dozen or more men and women were there to 
help me. Martin Crilley, I think, rang the Wesleyan Church bell. All 
the bells in town were soon ringing. There were only two church bells 
in town then. Walker Winslow and Jonathan P. Winslow rang their 
dinner bells. So the saloon did not get very far in town then. 

My first school teacher was William Neal. He used the whip most 
always on the boys. One day Millie Morris and I were getting our 
"heart lessons," as they were called in those days. We had to say 
them on Friday afternoons, each week. We w)ere saying ours out too 
loud, and William threw the ruler at us. He told me to put one end in 
my mouth and Millie to put the other end in her mouth, and we carried 
it up to him. He gave us a hit on the hands with it and told us to go 
sit down and not say our "heart lessons" and get our school lessons. 

]\Iargaret E. Raper. 

Indianapolis, Indiana, March 31, 191 7. 

(Editor's Xote. — This comnumication is interesting in that the 
writer refers to school management in the early days, and also reveals 
the strong sentiment existing from the very first against the liquor 


I recall incidents from hearing my father relate them. (This is his 
l)irthday anniversary. He was born the 30th of March. 1810, in South 
Carolina.) His father, Charles 15al(l\vin, moved to Xcw (larden. now 
Fountain City. Wayne County, Indiana, in 1814. My father, when a 
boy, learned the hatter's trade in Richmond. His father accumulated 
some cattle and other personal property, and on account of a shortage 
of feed, in the spring of 1830. he moved, with his large family, consist- 
ing of Susannah, who married Jesse Dillon: Thomas, my father: 

Personal Recollections. 403 

j\Iary, who married Lancaster Bell ; John ; Sarah, who became the wife 
of Vernon Stanfield ; Jane, who married a brother of Vernon Stanfield, 
I forget his name ; Lindsey ; Hyra ; Abigail, who married Nathan Mor- 
ris, and Quincy — ten in all. On the 30th day of March, 1830, the day 
my father was twenty years old, they struck camp on the shores of 
Lake Galatia to get feed for their cattle, as there was some prairie 
grass around the edge of the lake. 

As soon as he gained his majority father walked through the 
woods by aid of a compass and t.he numbers of Tow^nships and Sections 
blazed on the trees to Ft. Wayne, as that was the location of the LTnited 
States Land Office, and entered eighty acres of land, now known as 
the McDonald farm, south of Fairmount. He afterwards entered 
eighty acres just south of Fairmount, where John Rhoads lives. 

I remember when I was a small boy we lived in Jonesboro. I went 
up to visit my uncles. Henry and Phil Davis. I took my Sunday pants 
along. I was to start home in time to get there before night. I stopped 
in Fairmount to play with Micah Baldwin's boys. They were "wild and 
woolly and full of fleas and hard to curry below the knees" when it 
came to a rough-and-tumble play. I forgot it was getting late. It 
was sundown when I left the boys and started down the pike afoot, 
with my extra pants tied up with a strap swung over my back. 

I got along fine until I came to Back Creek graveyard, where now 
is the resting-place of my father and mother, grandparents on both 
sides, also of some of my sisters and brother, and many other relatives 
and friends. I saw the white tombstones loom up in the dark ; also a 
white cow lying down close to the fence. I shied over to the east side 
of the pike, keeping my eye on the white cow, but did not see a black 
cow lying on the east side, and ran up against her and fell over her, 
when she jumped up and bawled. I thought the devil had me sure. I 
threw away my pants and have not seen them to this day. If you know 
of anyone finding them please send them to me. as I am in need of a 
good pair of Sunday breeches. 

A. J. Baldwin. 

Salem, Oregon, March 30, 1917. 

(Editor's Note. — The writer of this communication is best known 
to the older residents of Fairmount and 'Marion as Anan or "Specs." 
Anan has always been known for his humorous bent of mind, and this 
letter will be recognized by his friends and relatives as very char- 
acteristic.) I 

404 The Making of a Township. 


Upon the earnest solicitation of her son, Dr. Calvin C. Rush, Mrs. 
Louisia (Winslow) Rush, in 1904, wrote for the benefit of her children 
and grandchildren brief reminiscences of her early life. A few extracts 
are here given : 

"My grandfather, Joseph Winslow, and family of eight children 
came to Fairmount Township in 1829 direct from Randolph County, 
North Carolina. They took farms along Back Creek, so named by 
them after their old stream at home in North Carolina. 

"The journey through the timber was very difficult. There were no 
roads and no bridges. 

"Reaching the Mississinewa, near its source, the party made a raft 
and came down the river as far as where Jonesboro now stands. Trav- 
eling south a short distance, they came to a cabin occupied by John 
Russell. Here they stopped for the night. 

"Living in the midst of relatives, and having no reason to rove, I 
Was never outside of Grant County until I was eighteen years old. 

"In my earliest recollection there were deer, wolves, bears, coons, 
wild cats, lynx, panthers, 'possums, groundhogs, squirrels, otters, beav- 
ers, muskrats and many other native animals. 

"On one occasion my grandmother, Peninah Winslow, was at the 
home of her daughter, Caroline Newby, to assist her during sickness. 
They lived only one hundred rods apart. About sundown grandmother 
started home. She got turned around and was lost. As the timber and 
underbrush were very thick, she knew that it was useless to go far- 
ther until it should get light again, so she climbed some bushes draped 
in grapevines, and there she lodged for the night. 

"No one was uneasy about her, for her folks at home supposed she 
had remained with her daughter, and her daughter supposed she was 
at home. So, amidst the l)iting of mosquitoes and the growling of 
wolves, she lodged, rather than slept, that night. The next morning 
the sun and the creek gave her an index to her home, where she arrived 
a little later. 

"( )iice my mother was riding horseback near the same place. Her 
horse became a little restless. Looking up, my mother saw a panther 
in a tree, eyeing her and the horse, just readv to spring. But it didn't 
attack them. 

"One night our young dog treed a panther resting on some low 
liushes a few rods from our house. As soon as it was light my father 
took a gun and shot the animal. 

Personal Recollections. 405 

"The next morning- my father, Daniel Winslow, went to the spring 
to wash, before breakfast. He had on neither hat nor coat and there 
was a httle snow on the ground. Seeing some wild turkeys in the trees, 
my father ran to get his gun. When the turkeys flew he chased them, 
and thus lost his bearings. By this time the snow was melting and he 
could not retrace his steps. So, in the immense forest, he took notice 
of the moss on the north side of the trees. Going in a northwest direc- 
tion about four miles, he came to the stream now known as Deer Creek. 
Naturally supposing that it would empty into the river, he followed it 
to its mouth, then w'ent up-strearn to where they had left the raft, and 
from there back to the cabin, reaching his destination at 2 o'clock in the 
afternoon, quite ready for his breakfast. The folks were just starting 
out to hunt him. 

"The woods furnished gooseberries, plums, wild onions, crabapples, 
nuts, as well as sassafras, for variety. Had it not been for climatic 
conditions, which caused ague and fever before the country was cleared 
and ditched, we would have had many blessings." 


Before 1841 wolves had been so bad farmers did not venture to 
keep sheep. Now they began to want them. Father was a lover of 
sheep and he bought a flock of about thirty. We had to corral them 
every night. I soon learned my business to go after them and put them 
in their pen, which was not large, but high, so a wolf could not climb 
over. One night they strayed out and wolves got among them, play- 
ing havoc. Six were killed outright, others crippled. Farmers organ- 
ized in companies and killed the wolves, and thrilling stories and won- 
derful adventures would be repeated over and over. About this time 
an old bear and cubs were discovered a few miles west. A company of 
men went to the Big Woods, and soon found it was not a joke. The 
bears had just left their dea in search of food. The two cubs were fat, 
yet outran the men, who shot as they ran, without effect — a flight of 
that kind for about eight miles, the old mother staying along with her 
cubs. At last they came to a large oak tree and the bears climbed to 
the top. About twenty-five men were now on hand, keeping reasonable 
distance. They began to shoot. Father, with his old flintlock, had a 
good aim. The cubs fell. The mother, in view of the situation, opened 
her mouth, gnarling her teeth and drawing herself in a bunch, fell to 

4o6 The Ma kin g of a Toii'nshil'. 

the ground. Then she sprang" to her feet with open mouth, and the men 
could hear gnashing of teeth and snarly growl as she came swift and 
fast in leaps. Just at the right time a Ixill ponerated her heart. The 
forest rang with yells. 

One day. when my father was returning from Jonesboro, he spied a 
large eagle on the old school house chimney. Quickly he got his gun, 
then as near as possible. I remember, though a very small boy. father's 
coming home, the great bird in hand. He measured seven feet from 
tip to tip. with big head and large eyes, his feet and legs full of porcu- 
pine quills, showing that some time or other he had tackled a big por- 

Hundreds of times have 1 listened to find a moment's interval that T 
could not hoar a bird sing. In the summer time the woods would 
chime with melody, not a moment but some little warbler would be 
happy. T took great comfort in listening. Bluebirds were very numer- 
ous, tomtit, pewee. catbird, robin, the jaybird in the top of the tree, a 
neighbor to the hawks and crow, not far off the owl's "who-who." I 
dill not like the woodpecker family — they were numerous, cruel and de- 
structive, though they coiul make a noise in their way. There was a 
very large kind of woodcock, now almost extinct, nearly as large as a 
prairie hen. that had a coarse voice. To me. the pheasant made a lone- 
some noise, sounding like distant thunder. \Mth the cooing of the dove 
a solemn feeling would pervade my tender heart. T remember I would 
think of Heaven. Above all. the pigeon took the lead in number. Mil- 
lions of them wouUl visit our country in the spring and fall. To me it 
was a halo of joy when the pigeons would come, drove after drove. At 
times the sun could not shine until they had passed. They would alight 
on trees, so many as to break off great limbs. We had our different 
kinds of traps. Great numbers would alight in our fields in search of 
food, then fly over each other, then alight, looking like a rolling, glis- 
tening, high-tide wave. Quail were very numerous. Their "Bob 
White" was to be heard from morning till night. In cutting' grass we 
one day found sixty eggs, another day ninety-six. 

Often a drove of pheasants would fly around and alight on the 
cherry trees near the house, and in the spring we heard the "gobble- 
gv>bble" of wild turkeys in the distance. Squirrels were to bo hoard 
almost constantly in the daytime. It was my lot to protect the corn 
from them and iho birds by going around the field before breakfast 
sountling the alarm, "llooppee. shoo ye, yo. show show shoe, ye yo!" 
with the rattletraji in hand. That was made with a big notched wheel 
fixeil in a frame, a board a foot ami a half long so placed that as I 

Personal Recollections. 407 

turned the wheel with a crank it made all the noise to my desire. After 
all this, the different kinds of hirds and squirrels would take every hill, 
so wo would have to replant three and four times to get a stand 
of corn. S(|uirrels had homes in larq"e trees in the fields, and there they 
would carry the corn. Late corn they did not trouble so much, for by 
that time they would s^o to the woods and i;ive us a little rest. 

To take the place of the first rude camp, my father built a ^qood, 
strt^n*;- house. The timber to the south was thick, tall, beautiful. I can 
remember when almost the entire count r\- was a wilderness of g'reat 
forest trees. It is like a dream to me when T think of those towering, 
majestic trees that had stood unmolested for ages, so thick and dense, 
defying the storms and the Indian's tomahawk. I have never visited a 
country, never heard of any land with such variety of large trees — tow- 
ering (lak. a few rods awa\- a fine, straight i)oplar ; close by a grand old 
sugar maple, a rugged elm ; a little lower down a few big walnut and 
sycamore : then again a cluster of oaks, with all kinds mixed in between, 
— till we had a mass of timber through which the sun's rays could hardly 
reach the grou.nd to make a shadow. 

The undergrowth was ironwood, beech trees, shellbark and hickory, 
cherry that grew very straight and slender, locust of the thorny kind, 
Init without many thorns, because in the shade the thorns could not 
grow well, a variet\ of "saplins" that wcndd run up straight and beau- 
tiful. Then, to make it more like a jungle, the spicebrush was very 
thick — a bush that would sprout up from the roots, six or eight feet 
high. I have seen the woods so dense a deer could hardly run through. 
It was interesting to see the large bucks, w^ith great heads of horns, run 
through the woods with their horns folded over their backs, their noses 
stuck right straight out, dodging things. 

Not all the woods were like this. There were places more open. 
Later, the big fires, the axe, the cattle browsing, filially thinned out the 
brush. While cutting his timber my father could kill game without 
hunting — the deer would come to browse, the turkeys w'ould pass in 
droves. They had plenty of the very best of food, though at first it 
was almost impossible to get corn and wdieat ground, and at times their 
bread was hominy. But few people know anything about pioneer life. 
It is one continual struggle, yet I sometimes think it is the happiest life, 
if one will only take it just as it comes. I often heard my parents say 
they -wiere the best days of their lives. 

Often there was scarcity of food for stock in winter and we had 
to resort to cutting down lin (linden) and elm for cattle and horses to 

4o8 Ihc Making of a Tozvnship. 

What has become of the milHons of pigeons that migrated in the 
spring and fall is a mystery. They were a slightly larger and longer 
bird than our tamer pigeon, and darker. 

Deer would visit the fields after night. I could hear them in the 
corn. My father and Uncle Seth Winslow were extra-good marksmen 
and often helped their neighbors to save crops. Wolves and panthers 
prowled around, raccoon, opossum, mink and weasel were all cunning 
and moved about in the dark. In the fall my father hunted bees and 
gathered much wild honey. 

I was about four years old when our big dog got his mouth full of 
porcupine quills while coon hunting. The dogs had caught a big por- 
cupine before the men could help and had their mouths full of quills. 
My dog's head was put between the rails of the high fence and men held 
his feet and head, then my father with the nippers pulled out the big 
quills one by one, the dog howling at a terrible rate. I thought my good 
old dog would die. 

Occasionally the Indians would come around, and they were great 
beggars. They made a wild appearance in our cabin, folding their old 
blankets around their dusky bodies, watching a chance to steal some- 
thing. Mother was a good hand to satisfy their wants. 

In the winter of 1848 James Cammack came to our home from 
Wayne County to locate a saw-mill in this country. Father went with 
him to look out a location. They finally settled near Back Creek, where 
Fairmount now stands. Soon, Joseph W. Baldwin started a very small 
store. The mill was a success. Logs were brought here from ten miles 
around to be sawed into planks. I well remember the building of the 
first house in Fairmount. 

My mother was an exhorter in the church, quoting Scripture readily, 
and dwelling much on the rich things in store for the righteous, she 
standing upright, very straight in a plain Friends costume of the old 
fashion, with a white shawl, and always a white cap with a modest plait 
or fold, which gave her a dignified appearance. 

( )ur good mothers and sisters s]nni with little wheels, my mother 
spinning till midnight. When but a little boy I could hear the "buzz" 
of the wjieel all times of the night — it was the way our shirts and little 
coats were made. 

— From flic Journal of Rev. Nixon Riisli. 



The first death occurring in the Township was that of a child 
of Charles Baldwin, of scarlet fever. 

Caroline, wife of Exum Newby, was the first person buried 
in old Back Creek Graveyard. Her death occurred on September 24, 

The first saloon I ever saw was in Fairmount, where Ab. Jones' 
residence now stands. The next saloon in Fairmount was started 
by Paul Williams in a little shanty which stood' where N. A. Wil- 
son's store now is. I remember how they got rid of it. My mother 
and some other ladies took their knitting and. a chair and sat in 
front by turns and knit him out. 

Ezra F. Vinson. 

Jonathan P. Winslow, my father, was Trustee when the two- 
story frame school house was built. Many thought it entirely too 
big, that there would never be children enough to fill it. But when 
William Pusey (who can tell who the other two teachers were?) 
Cal Thornburg and Mary Winslow Bogue started in there wasn't 
many vacant seats. Jesse E. AVilson and J. P. had quite a time 
running after Captain Wells to get him headed for Fairmount with 
the Cincinnati, Wabash & Michigan Railroad. They used to go to 
Goshen and Elkhart to attend railroad meetings. It took about 
three days to make the round trip. They would go to Harrisburg 
(Gas City), take the train for Logansport, and I don't know where 
from Logansport, but it took about twenty-four hours to get to 
Goshen or Elkhart from Fairmount. Father spent about $500 at- 
tending these meetings. 


Ontario, Oregon. March 27, 191 7. 

"It will be strange to the people of today to think that at one 
time here the squirrels were so bad that the people had to make 
shooting matches to get them out of the way," writes the late 
William G. Lewis, in his book of reminiscences. "Two men would 
choose the gunners and they Avould choose a driver. The driver 
was not supposed to carry a gun, but this rule was not always 
carried out. I chose for my driver old Uncle Lewis Harrison. He 


4IO The Making of a Township. 

was a soldier in the War of 1812, a good shot and used a flint-lock 
gun. The squirrel was very apt to drop ^Yhen he shot. Lewis 
Harrison was the father of Luther Harrison and Mrs. Henry 
Deshon. The first day we killed eighty-seven squirrels, crows, 
owls and hawks. A crow would count for five squirrels, an owl and 
hawk the same. The squirrels would work on the corn in the 
spring and in the fall. The fields were not large, and woods all 
around, so they had a good chance. My father was paid fifty cents 
a day and ammunition found for shooting squirrels around the 
fields of the Simonses and the Todds. They were all gray squirrels. 
The fox squirrels came in long afterwards. They were not so 
plentiful and they were more shy than the gray squirrels. The 
blackbirds were very numerous and destructive to grain, wheat 
and oats suffering most. The farmers used to make what they 
called a horse fiddle. It turned with a crank and made a noise 
that could be heard quite a distance. The noise did not frighten 
quite everything to death, but it would scare these pests away. We 
would take this rattle trap and go around the field several times a 
day in order to scare the intruders away. Wild turkeys were very 
plentiful, and bad on corn. The hunter would take his gun and 
slip around the field and many times get a turkey. And some- 
times they would build a pen and dig" a trench for them to go in. 
cover the top over, and when Mr. Turkey would go inside he did 
not know how to get out. A great many were caught in this way. 
I heard my father say he caught nine at one time." 

William C. Lewis. 

Fairmount in 1853. — As I remember it I settled here August 12, 
1853 (was a featherweight on tliat date, weighing only eight and 
one-half pounds), on the lot where Dale's Iiardware store now 
stands. My father, Nathan Vinson, was the first carpenter in 
Fairmount, and he was building the old barn on the Joseph Ratliff 
farm. I think Milton Winslow owned it then. The first old settlers 
I rememlier were "Dippy" Baldwin. Seaberry Lines, Mincher Cox 
and Micajah W'ilson. 

Ezra F. A^inson. 

From Iowa in Covered Wagon. — My name is David, or D. L. 
T am named for my grandfather. David Stanfield, and Lancaster 
Bell, an uncle. I was born in Linn County, Iowa, in 1854, and 
came to Marshall County in 1867, where I have resided most of the 
time since. WHien I was about five vears old our familv drove 

Fragments. 411 

to Indiana in a covered wagon, leaving- here in the fall and return- 
ing in the spring. The roads were very bad, and it was a long, hard 
journey. Grandfather was in poor health, which caused us to go. 
This is the only time I ever saw him or Indiana. He recovered from 
this sickness and lived a few years after. My father's name was 
Samuel Vernon Stanfield. My father had a brother, David, who, 
while in a row boat, went over the dam and was drowned at Union, 
Iowa, before the Civil War. I never knew very much about my 
Indiana relatives. My mother was a Baldwin. Both parents died 
at Clear Lake, Iowa. 

D. L. Stanfield. 
Union, Iowa. March 24. 1917. 

Jack Brunt was generally on the safe side of the guessing in his 
hog buying. His death a short time ago, leaving more than $1,- 
000,000, would indicate that his judgment in business affairs had 
generally redounded to his benefit. He gave $125,000 to the erec- 
tion of a Young Men's Christian Association building in Anderson. 
So, if he sometimes got the better of the pioneer in his guessing, 
he has returned to their posterit}" many fold blessings in the further- 
ing of a cause which will no doubt bless generations yet unborn. 
Jack, as he was called, while he was a quaint character and not 
always understood, wore the rough side out, and his work in buying 
and driving the hogs of your early pioneers to market was a blessing 
attended with many hardships on his part, and one which a man 
of less sturdy character would have hesitated to have undertaken. 

J. M. Hundley. 

David Smithson, one of the early pioneers, once related in my 
presence that when he was married his wife's people objected to 
David taking their daughter for a wife. The young folks were 
determined to marry. David said that inasmuch as Betsy was 
willing, there could be no harm in stealing her (eloping, as it is 
called nowadays). He told that about midnight he rode his horse 
to the home of Betsy's parents. She came out and got on the 
horse behind David and rode a number of miles, where they were 
married. I never knew how David squared himself with the 
church, as at that time it was against rules to marry outside of 
meeting. My mother had a birthright in the Friends Church, but 
was disowned when she married a Catholic. She later joined the 
Wesleyan Methodists and died in that faith. I am told that father 

412 The Making of a Tozvnship. 

was a member of the Friends Church at the time of his death. I 
only mention this to show what time has done. 

T. B. McDonald. 

Road Building. — Prior to 1854 there had been but little, if any, 
agitation for the improvement of roads. Such highways as had 
up to that year been opened for travel were built along the ridges, 
where the land was high and dry. This accounts, to a large extent, 
for the angling, crooked roads of the early days. It was not until 
several years after work was started on a more extensive scale 
that efforts were made to build roads on Range and Township 
lines, making travel easier and the highways straighter. The 
Jonesboro and Fairmount turnpike was projected in i860, being 
the first gravel road constructed. Jesse E. Wilson and Jonathan 
P. Winslow were among the promoters and organizers of the 
company which built this pike. In 1869 the Marion and Liberty 
gravel-road was constructed to Center school house in Liberty 
Tow^iship. The work progressed rapidly after these pikes were 
built, and has ever since occupied much of the attention of all 
classes of citizens. The Lil)erty and Fairmount pike was promoted 
in 1869 by William S. Elliott, Jesse E. Wilson and Elwood Arnett. 
These men sold $4,000 worth of stock, and the work proceeded. 
William S. Elliott served as Secretary and Treasurer of the 

Sarah Baldwin, in 1845, I'ode horseback from Fairmount to Rich- 
mond to attend Indiana Yearly Meeting of Friends. The route 
Avas south to Alexandria, then to Middletown and on through New. 
Castle. On this journey she was accompanied b}' her father, 
Nathan Morris, and Milton Winslow was along a part of the time. 
Winslow was on his way to Wayne County to see his best girl, 
Mary Roberts, who later became his wife and the mother of 
Thomas Winslow, now living on a farm two miles and a half 
northeast of Fairmount. 

Amaziah Beeson, in 1830, operated a copper distillery two miles 
east of Fairmount. He also built the first brick house ever erected 
in Fairmount Townshij:). Daniel Thomas built the second one. 
This house is now occupied by William A. Beasley and family. 
Beeson distilled sassafras, horehound, peppermint, golden rod and 
pennyroyal, the extract being used for medicines. Dennis ]\Iont- 
gomery was employed as Beeson's assistant. 

Fragments. 413 

Otho Selby built a frame school house about three miles north- 
east of Fairmoimt, in 1850, on land now owned by John Selby. This 
is where Otho Selby first taught school. It was sometimes re- 
ferred to as the Prairie Seminary. 

Jonathan Baldwin, in 1858, built the big" two-story frame house 
on the old Baldwin homestead. The original Baldwin cabin, which 
stood near the hackberry tree, was torn down and removed to 
the northeast corner of Second and Main Streets, which was 
afterwards used as the finishing room of the old tan-yard. In 
1883, Robert Bogue bought ten acres of the Baldwin homestead. 

The Wide-a- Wakes were active in 1836. Henry Clay made a 
speech at Marion in this year. Among those who went to hear 
him were Jonathan Baldwin and family and Mary Hall Hollings- 
worth. In 1856 William Hall lived on the Henley lot, on South 
Main Street. 

William Hall kept the first toll-gate about the year 1859. The 
gate was located just south of town, but was afterwards moved 
across the street, to the east side, where Solomon Thomas collected 
toll until his death, in 1873. 

There was a Methodist Episcopal Church at Bethel, many years 
ago. In the Bethel graveyard lie the remains of John Suduth, a 
soldier of the Revolutionary War. 

The Big Tree. — The big tree seems to loom up again. I had 
almost forgotten it until Jack Stivers mentioned the tree in his 
communication. I am equally at a loss to know Avhat tree Stivers 
alludes to, as Nixon Rush and I saw three large trees which were 
very nearly the same diameter. Two were oak and the one Seeley 
speaks of was black walnut. One of the oak trees stood not a 
great way from our homestead cabin in Kansas. It was an immense 
tree, not so tall as the walnut, but had a number of large limbs that 
came out a pretty regular distance that circled the body of the tree. 
By the aid of an Indian ladder one could reach the first big limb, 
then by a spiral climb around the body of the tree from limb to 
limb one could gradually ascend as high as one cared to. There 
was a large opening in the body of the tree about forty feet from 
the ground which we thought would be a good place to find a fat 
coon, as we were a little short of meat. So we arranged to go up. 
Mr. Coon was not in at that hour, although the evidence was good 

414 '^ /'<' •l/('/v'"/.i^ of a To7^'iiship. 

that he frequented the retreat. The other oak stood near a mile 
west of the Wesleyan Campgrounds, on the west end of the south 
eighty of the land that Tredell B. Rush owned a few years ago 
west of the Range line. It, too, was a coon den, but too tall to 
climb or too large to cut down. I think James Nixon managed to 
burn it down when he owned the place. Nixon Rush and I were 
often investigating something that was a little out of the ordinary. 

A. Henley. 
Mclhotinic. Florida, May 29. 1917. 

Fairmount Township has furnished several Grant County of- 
ficials. J. II. Parker served two terms as County Treasurer; 
Thomas Winslow served as County Assessor; William Hall, Samuel 

C. Wilson, J. J. McEvoy, AI. S. Friend and Oliver P. Buller have 
each served as Representatives in the State Legislature ; Charles C. 
Lyons was elected for a term of four years in the State Senate and 
Solomon Thomas, Edmund Duling, Jonathan P. Winslow, John 
Kelsay and T. J. Lucas have all at different periods represented 
Fairmount Township and the Third District on the County Board 
of C(jmmissioners. 

Fairmount in May, 1853. — I will just scribble down a few words 
of tilings as I remember them and as I saw them when I arrived 
in Fairmount in May, 1853. David Stanfield lived on his farm, just 
south of town. The first house north of the Stanfield home, close 
to what is now Dr. Glenn Henley's place, was occupied by ^^'illiam 
Hall, and he was then the Postmaster. I remember ]\Ir. and Mrs. 
Hall distinctly, as I used to have to pay twenty-five cents for every 
letter I got from home. Then there was a little reddish brown 
house just across the street. Solomon Parsons was living in it. 
1 think some of Conner Knight's were staying with him. Any- 
how, Knight's folks got me to bring a parcel from Maiden, Eng- 
land, and I delivered it to Mr. Parsons. He was mending some 
shoes when I took the parcel to the house. Joseph W. Baldwin 
had a little stc^re on the corner of the Seth Winslow lot, and Isaac 
Stanfield lived across the street where the Robert Bogue store was. 
The old Friends Meeting House was west and a little north. I 
settled wilh my brother, John Scale, on the farm west of Nathan 

D. A\'ilson"s and lived there seven years. I remember we had quite 
a time. If we needed a doctor we had to go to Jonesboro to get 
one. Dr. Home, Dr. Meek and old Dr. Johnson practiced then. 
They used to ride horseback all the time. Jonathan P.aldwin lived 

Fragiiients. 415 

north of town in 1853. Nathan Vinson was the main carpenter 
and Isaac Roberts used to work with Vinson. Roberts was a black- 
smith. I think Daniel Ridgeway started a tanyard in 1854, and 
James Cammack started a saw-mill. It was an up-and-down sash 

William P. Seale. 
JJliitticr. California, January 26, 1917. 

Exempt from Execution. — My friend. George Pence, former Au- 
ditor of Bartholomew County, was kind enough to draw my atten- 
tion to the following schedule of property which by law might 
escape seizure for debt in our great-grandfathers' day. I thought 
it might be of interest : 

An Act to Exempt Certain Property from Execution 

(Approved December 24. 18 18) 

One spinning wheel and reel, one Bible, one bed and the neces- 
sary bedding for one bed, six chairs, one dinner pot, one bake oven, 
one frying pan, one kitchen table with the necessary articles of 
table and cupboard and furniture to an amount not exceeding ten 
dollars, one cow and calf, one sow and pigs, six sheep with the wool 
growing thereon or the yarn and cloth made thereof, any amount 
of flax (being the growth of half an acre of ground in one year or 
the cloth and yarn made thereof), and breadstuff, meat and salt 
sufficient to supply the family three months, also their wearing 
apparel, one chopping axe, and one weeding hoe, provided the 
property exempted shall not exceed the value of $100. 

Thomas Dean Barr. 

Indianapolis. Indiana, Mav 9, 1917- 

Jack Brunt bought hogs in the south part of Fairmount Town- 
ship from 1858 to 1868 and how much longer I do not know. He 
often received hogs at my father's farm during this time. A few^ 
farmers wanted to know how much their hogs weighed. They 
realized that the buyer was a better judge of the weight and had 
the advantage in guessing the weight. The means of weighing 
were very crude at that time. Father purchased a 600 pound beam. 
A box Avas made which would hold two hogs (if they were not too 
large). The beam was fastened to a pole, which was fastened to 
a tripod. The leverage was so arranged that one man could easily 
suspend the box so that the weight could be ascertained. This was 

4i6 . The Makiuf; of a Toivnship. 

slow work but it satisfied the people who desired to know the 
correct weig^ht. Often it would require two or three days to re- 
ceive the hogs contracted for. They were driven to Anderson to 
be shipped. Jack Brunt told the writer that the Irishman and his 
Quaker neighbors always had good hogs. 

T. B. McDonald. 

A great many who were not pioneer inhabitants of the Town- 
ship were directly connected with its interests and made frequent 
visits to Fairmount, social, religious and for business, my fatlier 
often for all three — usually accompanied by my mother, who had 
near relatives in Fairmount, among them Amy Scale, who was a 
first cousin. My uncle, Joshua Freeman, grandfather of Arthur 
Brewer, was said by Nixon Rush to have killed the last bear known 
in that region. Uncle Joshua was a typical pioneer hunter, trapper 
and fisher, and was with that company away out on the Santa Fe 
trail along with Nixon Rush. Dr. A. Henley, and others. Uncle 
Joshua went to the Civil War and came home to die. in 1862. His 
widow married I^indsey Buller. His old log cabin used to be 
standing out Little Ridge way when I first came to Fairmount, but 
is now torn down, I believe. But that is in Liberty, not in Fair- 
mount Township. Last fall a covered one-horse wagon pulled by 
a gray mare and bearing the sign, "Stove repairs," stopped at our 
place. Needing some repairs on our kitchen range we gave the 
man a job and asked him to dinner. In the course of the conversa- 
tion I remarked that I was from Indiana. He was a talkative man. 
"I used to live in Indiana," he remarked. I told him I was from 
Fairmount, near Marion. He said, "Well ! I lived near Marion 
when a boy. I was a desperate young scalawag whom no one 
thought could be managed, and so I was placed in the home of an 
old Quaker named Coggeshall. I guess they thought he could re- 
f(^rm me. He lived, as near as I can remember now, about six 
miles in a southerly direction from Marion." 

Ann.v Freem.\n Garretson. 

Friendszvood, Texas, April 15, 1917. 

It is not material whether young Puckett's name was John, 
Jonathan or Cyrus. The historical fact of importance to your 
story is that the drowning took place at some point in the Missis- 
sinnewa River, and that Calvin Bookout, a respected pioneer of 
your Township, gave his life in a heroic effort to save the young 
man. Had this event occurred in more recent years it would no 



doubt have been recognized by the Carnegie Hero Commission and 
Bookout would have been given a place in the records of this 
laudable undertaking. I am not of the opinion that it is material 
as to just where the plank road began or where it terminated. The 
historical fact which we have sought to point out was the short 
sightedness of the builders of this expensive and short-lived road, 






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An example of grit and perseverance. In the picture are shown Mr. and 
Mrs. Jones and their nine sons and daughters, namely: Hon. William M. 
Jones, of Liberty Township; Dr. Ben Jon;s, of LaPorte, Indiana; Rev. 
Thomas Elsa Jones, now a Friends missionary to Japan; Dr. Eli 
Jones, of Hammond, Indiana; Miss Ora Jones, teacher in High School, 
Liberty Center, Indiana; Miss Orpha Jones, student at Earlham College; 
Rene Jones, student at Colorado College, Colorado Springs, Colorado; 
Frances and Fred, at home. Mr. and Mrs. Jones have retired from the farm 
and now reside on Henley Avenue, Fairmount. 

when there was an abundance of gravel and other road building- 
materials close at hand. This lesson is especially important at this 
time, when the State and Nation are entering upon road building 
in a comprehensive and substantial way. I was much interested in 
Mrs. Buller's communication, and heartily agree with her that 
there was much more sociability and generosity displayed in these 

4i8 The Making of a Toivnship. 

days of long ago than in recent years. Yonr hardy pioneers lived 
close to nature and recognized the Fatherhood of God and the 
brotherhood of man. They were not then absorbed in money- 
getting, which is the present-day curse of our Nation and will ruin 
us as it has ruined all the Nations of the past who have forgotten 
God and worshipped only Mammon. I knew Anna Parsons, and 
was her schoolmate. Her father, Solomon Parsons, was killed on 
the railroad within twenty rods of where I now live. I have read 
with much interest the communications of Dr. A. Henley, and note 
that he says that those who put their lands into the railroad specu- 
lation about which I have before written lost them. I was not 
sure of this, and am glad that this fact is established. There were 
four of David Smithson's sons in the Union army, namely, Judiah, 
Jehu, Isaac and Seth. Jehu belonged to Company B, One Hundred 
and Thirtieth Indiana Infantry and died at Chattanooga, Tenn., 
May i8, 1864. Seth belonged to Company E, One Plundred and 
Fortieth Indiana Infantry, and died at Columbia. Tenn., January 9, 
1865. One of the primitive means of making meal was the grater, 
a contri^'ance made of a conical piece of tin. perforated with holes, 
over which the corn in the ear was drawn, the meal falling upon 
the board to which this was attached, and running thence down 
this l)oard into the vessel or container designed to hold the meal. 
I am pleased that some of my writing has provoked criticism, and 
am sure that it would hardly be expected that some difference of 
opinion would fail to arise. I once heard an old man say that if 
everybody was of the same opinion, all would want his wife, Betsy, 
but if all knew her as he did no one would want her. I am some- 
times inclined to the opinion that this may be true of my contribu- 
tions to "The Making of a Township." I hope that I may be of 
assistance in resurrecting some of the things of the i^iast which 
the present generation should know. If we cannot discover all of 
the truth we will do well to restore some of the things which are 
destined soon to be lost if not recorded now. as the generation 
having knowledge of your early settlers is rapidly passing to the 
Great Beyond. 

J. ]\I. I llNDLEV. 

The first picture gallery that we can call to mind was operated 
by L. D. Cossand. It was on wheels and stood south of where Dr. 
Glenn Henley's office now stands. At that time the photographs 
of today were not taken, so far as we know. The}- were called 

Fragments. 419 

Daguerreotypes, taken on copper plates. Cossand was an eccentric 
person and was a bachelor, very reserved, and seldom seen away 
from his car. The young" people loved to tease him, and they 
played all kinds of tricks on him. It took time to g-et a dozen 
pictures, as one had to sit for each picture separately, and the 
chances were that no two pictures would be exactly alike. In 
getting a picture you would have to sit perfectly quiet from two to 
five minutes. Now they get your picture on the run. This is a 
fair sample of how the times have changed. It has been said that 
one Thomas Barnhouse was the first person to take pictures in 
Fairmount. The only thing that we remember about Barnhouse 
was the house that he built just across the street from the present 
Interurl:»an station. What made us remember this particular build- 
ing was the ornamental cornice. It was different from the heavy 
cornice of that day, being light and of ornamental work. If there 
is anyone Avho remembers this house when it was new I wish they 
would describe it and give date of building. 

T. B. McDonald. 

Solomon Thomas served as Commissioner from the Third Dis- 
trict one term. 1832-1835; Edmund Duling was Commissioner from 
1864 to 1866, inclusive ; Jonathan P. Winslow served as Commis- 
sioner from 1873 to 1877; John Kelsay served from 1903 to 1907; 
Thomas J. Lucas served from 1907 to 1910, and was re-elected the 
second time for the term of 1913-1916. 

James Montgomery came in 1830 and entered land in 1837. He 
was a persistent hunter and trapper, and never failed to get his 
share of the game on his expeditions into the forest. In the 
winter of 1840, perhaps December of that year, Montgomery tracked 
a bear in the snow about two miles and a half south of Fairmount. 
He summoned John AVeston, Solomon Thomas and Jacob Davis, 
and they started in pursuit. The bear, which proved to be one of 
the biggest yet seen in this settlement, was overtaken and killed. 
The carcass was brought to James Montgomery's home, skinned and 
cut up into and divided among his neighbors. 

Lindsay BuUer, Francis Lytle, Henry Harvey, James Lytle, 
Lewis Jones and Thomas Winslow, while out hunting in 1840, killed 
a bear west of where the town of Summitville now stands. It was 
a ferocious female, and put up a terrific encounter. The brute was 
finallv subdued and killed. The carcass was brought late at night 

420 llic Making of a ToivnsJiip. 

to the cabin of Harvey Davis, where the bear was skinned and 
prepared for food. Mrs. Davis cooked a mess of bear meat for 
the hungry hunters which was for many years the talk of the entire 

The first marriage license issued in Grant County was granted to 
John Smith, son of Caleb Smith, and Mary Ann Thomas, daughter 
of Solomon Thomas. Caleb Smith, father of the groom, who had 
been elected Associate Judge of the Circuit Court August 8, walked 
from his home near Jonesboro to the Solomon Thomas cabin, on 
Lake Galatia farm, to perform the ceremony, which occurred Sep- 
tember 8, 1 83 1. 

The Union Grave-yard is located on land entered by Solomon 
Thomas, in 1835. the land now comprising a part of the farm at 
present owned by David L. Payne, situated three miles southeast 
of Fairmount. Among the early pioneers buried in this grave- 
yard are James Montgomery, Martha Creek and Anna Brewer, wife 
of Aaron Brewer, daughters of Solomon Thomas ; Isaiah Edgerton, 
Thomas Edgerton, William Edgerton, Elarmon Lytic and a small 
son, and Alvah Herrold. 

A headstone still stands in Union Grave-yard bearing the in- 
scription which follows: "Alvah, son of Elijah and Rachel Herrold, 
died May 25, 1844, aged two years, eight months and twenty-five 
days. This to wait is far from contention, where no soul can dream 
of dissension." The quotation is from an old hymn book that was 
in general use in tlie early day at church services. Solomon Thomas 
laid out this grave-yard, which comprises about half an acre of 
land, and donated the ground to Union U. B. Church. 

A mistake was made about a part of the grist mill boiler being 
found in my father's creek bottom ; it was my Uncle Nathan's farm, 
which was between the mill and father's farm. But the weight off 
the safety valve was in the creek bottom on the south side of the 
road. I do not know whether the land was Daniel Thomas's or 
the Stanfield's. I think the miller's name was McNeir, or something 
like that. My father's first grandson by the name of Wilson is our 
son, Raymond, of Lcadville, Col. 

J. A. Wilson. 

Logansport, Indiana, February 15, 1917. 

Fragments. 421 

I am proud of my heritage, and it is a source of great pride to 
me to know that my grandparents were identified with and had 
a part in the building' up of Grant County. I believe my mother 
once told me that at one time her father, Samuel Dillon, was Trustee 
of Fairmount Township. I remember well many of these grand 
and venerable folks of whom you write, and the recollection of their 
cheery and helpful dispositions shall always be a source of inspira- 
tion to me. 

H. L. Carey. 

MarshaHtoziii, Iowa. April 9, 1917. 

Blowing Chaff. — They did not wait for the wind, but two of 
them held a sheet, or piece of canvas at either end, and kept it 
moving- in such a way as to make a good stiff breeze and a third 
man poured the wheat and chaff in front of this contrivance in 
such a way as to have it blow the chaff away and let the wheat 
fall to the ground, or floor, as the case may be. I wonder if the 
reader ever saw a chaff piler thresher operating" with a tread-mill 
horse power? That was the first kind of horse power machine I 
ever saw. and it was a barbarous affair — a regular horse killer. I 
think I will refer your readers to an encyclopedia for a description 
of this wonderful machine. Or perhaps some of your school boys 
who stud}' mechanics can tell you about this contrivance. 

J. M. Hundley. 

Dentists. — I am interested in getting a complete list of dentistb 
that have practiced in Fairmount. I can remember Drs. Jay, Dale, 
N. S. Cox, C. M. Wilson, W. N. Ratliff, M. E. Ratliff, O. D. Cart- 
wright, J. A. Pearcy .and S. T. Rigsbee. Speaking of Fowlerton, 
my brother Ancil and I surveyed and platted the first addition to 
the town. I was also head chain man in the surveying gang that 
run the prospective line for the C. I. & E. Railroad under the 
engineer, Sam Houston. One branch we surveyed from Matthews 
to Red Key, and the other to Muncie from Matthews, or rather 
the old town of New Cumberland, as it was then. I don't feel old, 
but when I look back and think of the many changes that have 
taken place since my boyhood days around Fairmount, I begin 
to realize that the years are passing away. 

M. E. Ratliff. 

Cassopolis, Michigan, March 17, 1917. 

I can remember one teacher whose name I have not seen on the 
list, Elijah Elliott, who taught at Wesleyan Back Creek. I also 

422 The Making of a To:ciiship. 

remember my first and last teachers, who live in Fairmoimt. They 
are Angelina (Harvey) Pearson, 1863, and Sallie (Ilollingsworth) 
Kelsay, 1876. T remember Isaac Meek. He used to come to our 
house and bring" an Indian with him, I think it was Me-shin-g"o- 
me-sia. He would preach and then Brother Meek would interpret 
it. He livf^d in the house that William Dillon built. It stands on 
the alley east of the N. A. Wilson Block, or, as was known then, 
the George Eckfelt property. It was Cy Puckett instead of Jonathan 
Puckett who was drowned in the river south of tlie tin plate factory 
at Gas City. There were six persons drowned at the same place. 
I can not recall but one name of the other four. This name was 
McKinney, west of town. In 1888 Ed Cassell was drowned in Lake 
Galatia. Zack Little. Dan McPherson and myself recovered the 

Sylnester Smithsox. 
Fairninitiit. Indiana. March 17, 1917. 

Some Corrections. — Robert Brazelton and family of five children 
lived on the place now owned by John Flanagan, at the cross roads 
west of the ^^ esleyan Campgrounds, as early as 1850, and possibly 
some earlier. Nelse Brazelton was the eldest son. He went to 
school where I did, at the first district school house built in the 
Township. Bob, as we always called him. and his wife, Ruth, 
were slaves in the South. Ruth was a smart darkey and a favorite 
with her master, a Mr. Hill, who gave her her freedom. He also 
aided her in buying Bob, her husband, who was held by a neighbor- 
ing planter, the price being $200. 1 think they had no children at 
the time they left the South or they might not have gotten off so 
easily. Nelse was a proud, gay, young Negro, liked fine clothes, 
was a good worker, and I think learned the barber trade. He drifted 
into Michigan. James Redding, the colored man that Hundley 
speaks of as liaving a wagon shop at Jesse Winslow's, was from 
North Carolina. Redding was a very clean, decent, honest Negro. 
Every one spoke well (if Jim Redding and liked liim. Jim knew 
his place and was not above his color. Jesse A\'insl(n\- was one of 
those positive, impartial, unprejudiced characters who had the 
courage of his convictions. He had but little use for pro-slavery 
principles. A\Miile Redding was living with Jesse there came a 
\-oung man. a rebel sympathizer, from the South, and wanted work. 
I think Jesse gave him a contract, and when meal time came round 
Redding ate his meals with the famih-. When this fellow saw 

Fragments. 4^3 


the colored face would be at the table, he made objections, saying 
he was not going- to eat with a Negro. "Very well," said Jesse, 
• thee can sit in the parlor, and when Jim has done his meal thee 
can eat." The fellow took in the situation and sat down with 
the family. The projected plank road from Jonesboro to Marion, 
at south end, commenced at the top of Deer Creek Hill, on north 
side, or near the top, and ran north to some point near the Pan 
Handle Railroad crossing of the State road, or it might have been 
the south corporate line of Marion at that date. The enterprise 
was not a success and was abandoned as a failure. David Stanfield's 
oriainal farm joined the Nixon Winslow farm on the east until the 
Cincinnati, Wabash and Michigan Railroad was built, which divided 
the two farms. David sold twenty acres in the northeast corner 
to Jonathan P. ^^'inslow. What I have written in this communica- 
tion, I think, is correct, but if others think different all right. 

A. Henley. 
Mclhounic. Florida, March 13, 1017. 

Solomon Thomas, who appears to have been a leading figure 
in the pioneer days of the settlement, owned a half section of land 
southeast of Fairmount. Thomas planted eleven acres in orchard. 
About forty acres were dammed for a fish pond. Neighbors per- 
sistently protested against this pond, claiming it was insanitary 
■and not good for the health of the locality. In course of time 
Thomas yielded to the representations and importunities of his 
neighbors and permitted it to be drained. The Thomas land, of 
which the farm now owned by David L. Payne forms a part, was 
entered on November 5, 1835. 

Elijah Ward, in 1836, entered the land where the Ward cabin, 
which he built, now stands. 

David Lewis was a relative of Davy Crockett. His wife, Nancy 
(George) Lewis, was related to Daniel Boone. 

Frederick Ice refused to sell corn to people who had the money 
to pav for it, but held his grain for neighbors less fortunate, who 
had neither food nor the money with which to buy. This trait of 
character and consideration for his people shows a custom which 
l)revailed in the pioneer day, but not now so prevalent. Frederick 
Ice was well-to-do. He owned 1,700 acres of land in the edge of 
Delaware and Madison counties, just across the Grant County line. 

424 The Making of a Tozvnship. 

William G. Lewis was a courageous man in his day, and while 
ruffians might seek troul)lc with others, they rarely ever piir- 
poselv jirovoked him. 

David Lewis donated the land on which Sugar Grove Church 
was located, on the county line road, on the farm now OAvned hy 
Daniel Johnson. 

Union Church was built in 1843 or 1844. 

A custom had been handed down to make the teacher treat on 
Christmas day. We laid our plans in advance. The bigger boys 
would take the lead, and would be at the school house in good 
time on Christmas morning, make a fire and wait. Then you could 
see the teacher come sauntering along, of course expecting trouble. 
From ten to twenty boys and girls would be inside, a big boy at 
the door to make the demand, "treat or be ducked," then all the 
boys and girls would rush out around the teacher, who would 
sometimes quietly submit and buy candy or a bushel of apples — 
generally . ^oles if they were very good and scarce. One of onr 
teachers turix^ 'lund and went home. All hands took after him. 
He outran and as ne ran dismissed the school, saying: "I will be 
back tomorrow. 1 claim pay for my day's work." One teacher re- 
fused to treat The boys gathered him up, took him to the creek 
and cut a hole in the ice, but he begged and exclaimed, "I will 
treat." On one occasion the master came late with a bushel of 
apples and threw them on the snow — then the scrambling fcr 
apples ! We respected the master that w^^uld treat. Before a\c 
had steel pens we had to write with goose quills. The master had 
to make our pens. It was his Inisiness to know how to make a 
good pen. and he took i)vi(le in it. I remember watching tlie 
teacher with a dozen quills and line pen knitc at work. How 
carefully he would scrape the (piill, cut in tlie right shape, tlivn 
split as he would place the (|uill on his thumb nail. When the 
quill would have to be rei^aired, get dull or we bore down too hard, 
then we would go to the master, hand him the (piill — he knew just 
what to do and how to please. Tt was common for the teacher to 
carry his rule during school hours, ^^'hy he did so T can't tell. 
One thing children had to do — that was to go to meeting to 
worship. If we did not like to go, that made no difference. Back 
Creek Meeting House was om- place to go. Father and mother 
would ride horseback, one would ride behind mother and some- 
times two behind father. Nixon Rush, ]r. 


(By Mrs. Myra Rush Baldwin) 

THERE'S some flour or something- on the back of your cap," 
said the Better Half as we trudged along the tarvia road north- 
ward Sunday morning. 

"Well, your fuzzy, wuzzy cap is in the same shape," was the 

So, we each took off our caps and there, sure enough, was a 
fluffy white coating sticking to the wool and the fur of our headgear. 

It was frost, or frozen moisture, from the fog that seemed to be 
hovering over the whole world. 

In fact, that fog was so heavy that you could taste it and even 
smell it. 

Wonder if a London fog can be tasted and smelled? 

It was such a frosty morning, too, and every little twig of tree 
and blade of grass fairly trembled under loads of dainty, white flakes 
of rime. 

We stopped at old Back Creek graveyard to get some dates from 
inscriptions on the headstones. 

We started in at the very oldest part, away over in the south- 
west corner. It was here that we found this inscription : 

"Caroline, wife of Exum Newby, daughter of Joseph .and Penina 
Winslow, died the twenty-fourth day of the ninth month, 183 1, aged 
twenty-one years, nine months and twenty-nine days." 

"Bu^ that doesn't tell us anything," you say. 

Oh, yes, but it does. 

It tells the story of the first tragedy that happened in the little 
settlement in the wilderness. 

Can you not visualize it all — the lonely little mound on the hill- 
side, overlooking the creek, with the unbroken forest all around and 
the September wind whispering in the tall trees above? 

Only one grave, for it was the first in the burying- ground, and 
a young mother slept there alone, with the autumn leaves falling 
gently all about her. 

Through the forest to the north, in a little clearing, on what is 
now the Ancil Winslow farm, stood the cabin of Caroline's father, 
Joseph Winslow — the "Uncle Josie" Winslow, who came from 


426 The Making of a To-iCnsJiif^. 

North Carolina in a four-horse wagon, bringing" with him $2,600 
with which he entered land from the Government at $1.25 an acre 
for himself and for his seven sons and daughters, away back in 1829. 

Aside from Robert McCormick, over on the river, "Uncle Josie" 
and his family were the very first of the early pioneers to settle 
in Fairmount Towaiship. 

To the south, on what is now the Fankboner farm, stood an- 
other cabin, Caroline's own home, on the land given her by her 
father, the same "Josie" Winslow. 

Then, farther to the south, through the big woods, was the home 
of her brother, Seth Winslow. 

Another brother, Matthew Winslow, and two sisters, Mrs. Aaron 
Mill and Mrs. Solomon Knight, lived farther to the north and east, 
while still farther down the creek lived Daniel Winslow and at 
home with "Uncle Josie" was Henry, and these were also brothers. 

So, you can see. that for the first interment in old Back Creek 
graveyard, there were only relatives in the funeral part}-, with the 
exception of a very few neighbors, who had arrived in the new set- 
tlement in 1830 and 183 1, previous to the young wife's death. 

The little log church nearby was built that same year of 183 1. 
Soon other graves were made near the lonel)' one mi tlic bluff and 
a four-rail fence was built around the little plot. As the numbers 
increased the rail fence had to be moved over time and time again, 
imtil the graveyard attained to its present size. 

Ah ! Caroline, you were left alone on the hillside that September 
day, eighty-five years ago. with the birds and the little, wild animals 
of the forest as your companions. But, today, near you and all 
about vou are the graves of your father and mother, your husl:»and, 
l)r()thers and sisters, tlicir cliildrcn and their children's children, 
many of them, and you are no longer alone. 

In the same old jiarl of tlie burying groimd. on llie edge of the 
bluff, we also found the grave of Thomas ^^'ilson, a Quaker boy, 
son of Jesse and Hannah Wilson. lie died (»f fever contracted 
wlTile serving with the Xortliern arm\' in the Soutli during the Civil 
W ar. Separated from him by only a grave or two. lies his sweet- 
heart of long ago, who died two years after he ])assed away — of a 
broken heart, 'tis said. 

Another st(jne marks the grave of one of the earliest of the 
pioneers, snatched away in the prime of life, his untimely death 
being caused by a mistake a clerk made when he filled a prescrip- 
tion with the wrong kind of medicine. 

Rambles Over the Toz^mship. 427 

It is not particularly beautiful, this old graveyard of ours, but 
it is s,acred ground to all descendants of the pioneers. 

"For beneath these stones are resting, 
Folded in their last long sleep, 
Men who toiled that we might prosper. 
Men who sowed that we might reap." 

It was awfully cold standing out there in the frosty grass, Sun- 
day morning, so the writer ran in to the home of Isaiah Thomas, 
nearby, to warm her feet by a good gas fire for a minute. It gave 
her a chance, anyway, to have a nice visit with Aunt Carrie 
Thomas and Mrs. Hattie Atkinson. 

Then we journeyed onward and soon turned east toward the 
Lin ^^'ilson home. 

We were so attracted by the appearance of the handsome bunga- 
low which John Devine has made out of the old house on his farm 
that we could not resist the temptation to stop and investigate a 
little. The house is almost completed and it certainly is beautiful 
and convenient 

AYe lived a lot in the past last Sunday, but if you could have 
seen us, along about one o'clock, sitting with the Lin Wilson family, 
around the dining room table, from which good, country "eats" 
were fast disappearing, you would have thought rightly that we 
were existing very much in the present, also. 

With "Uncle Sammy" Wilson we could easily live over the years 
of the early history of Grant County, for, with possibly one excep- 
tion, Emeline Lewis, Mr. Wilson has resided in Fairmount Town- 
ship longer than any other person now living. He is in his eighty- 
third vear and his memory is excellent. 

After the happy time in the hospitable Wilson home we turned 
our steps homeward, using the Interurban track for a thorough- 
fare, as the sun had come out and the roads were muddy. 

However, at the next crossing we deviated a little in order to 
make a visit at the home of Mr. and Mrs. Will Kirkpatrick, which 
is also the home of Mr. and Mrs. Robert Wilson. 

There we found Mrs. Eunice Wilson, once President of the In- 
diana Woman's Christian Temperance Union, still unable to leave 
a sickbed which she has occupied for several months. She is cheer- 
ful and happy, in spite of it all, with her spirit still undaunted and 
her intellect still bright and untarnished. "Of such is the king- 
dom of Heaven." 

428 TJic Mak'uii!^ of a Tcnciiship. 

Another stop was made at the Mrs. Angelina Pearson home 
where reminiscences were again indulged in and a quiet hour en- 

To round out a happy and never-to-be forgotten day we wended 
our way, after reaching home, to the Wesleyan Church to hear that 
'Veteran of the Cross," Aaron Worth, preach. . 

Did you ever see a "splatter-work" motto like Jacob Adell used 
to make? You, can see one hanging over the organ, back of the 
pulpit, in the new Wesleyan Church. 

\\ hen we entered the door Rev. Worth was standing in the 
pulpit, shading his eyes with one hand and looking out o^'er the con- 
gregation towards the entrance. 

No doubt he was watching the people as they came in, but to 
the writer, who has a fanciful imagination, it seemed that Mr. Worth 
was standing near the brink of eternity, looking across into the 
celestial city "Avhose builder and maker is God." 

M. B. 

February i. 1917. 

"Starting out on a hike, are you?" asked George Cleveland Sun- 
day afternoon as we, dressed in our oldest "duds," passed him on 
our way to Fowlerton. 

"Yep," was the answer. "We'd ride in automobiles if they 
weren't so slow." Mr. Cleveland was just entering his automobile. 

Our way led us east on Washington Street. It used to be called 
]\Iain Cross street or something like that in the old days. Before 
it was paved East Washington ^Street was the muddiest street in 
all the world. 

Sometimes, in her dreams, M. B. lives over tlie old school days 
and she can just see Walk Winslow's horses and his cab floundering 
through the mud in front of Ryland Ratliff's house, the horses 
sinkinsf in the mire to their knees and the wheels of the cab to the 
hubs, and often the old plank walk comes back in memory — the 
rickety plank walk leading to the school house and sometimes over- 
flowing with water from Puddin' Creek. Then the stretches of 
open country that lay between the main part of town and Jonathan 
Winslow's home, too, appear in the dreams and we school children 
are once more afraid of falling off the board walk into the swirling 
waters of Puddin' Creek. 

Sundav we noticed a few changes on the road between Fair- 

Rambles Over the Tozvnship. 429 

mount and Fowlerton. John Fox and family have moved to the 
N. A. Wilson farm, Mr. and Mrs. Miles Rush having left the place 
and moved to town. The farm is now gay with the laughter of 
children, for Mr. and Mrs. Fox have a large family. 

Across the road, in the big, new barn belonging to Dr. C. N. 
Brown and Ed Brown, there were other merry doings, for several 
other children were playing and romping and havinggood times as 
only children in the country can have. 

Off to the south we could see the old Monahan home and the 
residence of James Blair. 

A field belonging to Dr. Brown and his brother was alive with 
young Durocs. You could almost see the pile of dollars the young 
porkers represented. 

We noticed that Joe Holloway has a new cement garage, built 
where it is the handiest, right near the road. 

Coming to East Branch school house we decided to rest a min- 
ute. The door was unlocked and we walked in. 

We were on historic ground there, for nearby was the old An- 
thony Wayne trail, so well known in pioneer days. 

A cyclone, too, visited the neighborhood once and demolished 
the McCoy home, the wreck attracting much attention at the time. 

Another change noted on the way was the dismantled condition 
of the old East pumping station. The buildings are in ruins now. 

The writer half closed her eyes and tried to imagine that she 
was passing the ruins of an old German castle, the pools of water 
all about representing the moat. 

It was a fine afternoon for walking. Overhead the deep blue 
of the sky, the fluffy, feathery, white clouds and the bright sunshine 
seemed to say, "Summer," but the crisp air, the thin ice on the pools 
of water, the browns and grays of the landscape and the bare 
branches of the trees all whispered, "It is winter still." 

M. B. 

January 8, 191 7. 

We traveled "The Friendly Road" last Sunday — not "The 
Friendly Road" of which David Grayson writes in such an enter- 
taining manner, but the dear, old Fairmount-Jonesboro pike. 

And such a friendly road it is ! 

Beside it live many of our friends and relatives and often, from 

430 The Makhii^ of a Township. 

passing automobiles and buggies, there come to us cheery greetings 
and the si^ht of waving handkerchiefs as we walk along. 

Besides being friendly the road is enchanting — it is not exact and 
straight with the world, but it curves and angles and meanders at will, 
following the old trail made through the forest by the early pioneers. 
To straighten that old road would be nothing short of desecration. 

And, then, think of the memories that cluster around this old 
thoroughfare, built at such cost of labor by our grandfathers and 
great-grandfathers ! 

It was along this road that we used to go to June Quarterly 
meeting. What memories that suggests ! 

It has always l)een a favorite driveway for lads and lassies in 
their courtship days. Buggies were used in llie old days. l)ut now 
it's automobiles. 

Some of us have traveled this road to our own weddings or to 
witness the marriage of our friends. More often have we formed a 
part of sad processions that wended their way to the two burying 
grounds that border it on the west. 

Ah. yes, it is a friendly road and a sacred one to many of us. 

The weather man tried to make the road unfriendly to us last 
Sunday, l>ut without success, for we enjoyed the walk in spite of 
tlie blizzard which raged and roared all about us. 

We were dressed for cold weather and as we started early in 
tlie morning and boarded an Interurban car near the TJn A\'ilson 
home, we escaped the worst of the storm. 

There is something exhilarating about facing the elements which 
never fails to bring a feeling of elation and joy to one's heart. 

From -the lime we left our own door until we arrived at the 
crossing near the Wilson home we saw only two people, a boy in a 
lot in the north end qf town, where two queer-looking crosses sug- 
gested Calvary's liill near Jerusalem. 

The other jierson was Richard Dillon, who was on his way to 
feed the stock at the old Allen Dillon homestead. 

For once 'i'he News hikers had the whole road to themselves 
and seemingly the whole w^orld for a time, for cverA-one seemed to 
be shut in their own homes. 

Arriving in Marion we found llie County seat fairly storm-bound. 

One fellow on the street car said "The old gr(Mui(l hog surely 
saw his shadder this time." *A\ ell. if he didn't he was blind," was 
the answer made by a dirt^-faccd Irishman, wlio was hugging the 
stove, trying to keep warm. 

Rambles Over the Totimship. 431 

Another man said, "Fm mighty glad I wore my cap." 

"But it isn't doing you any good, for you haven't it down over 
your ears," said his female companion. 

"If I were bare-headed you'd see whether it was doing me any 
good or not," was the rather illogical answer. 

In due course of time we arrived at the home of Mr. and Mrs. 
William Baldwin, where we spent the day. 

Mr. and Mrs. Baldwin live in a brick cottage at the very be- 
ginning or else the very ending of Branson Street in South Marion. 

The house was built long ago by Jesse Small, father of C. R. 
Small, and contains much walnut timber and fine old-fashioned 

Mr. Baldwin once had a nursery there and all about are several 
cedar and pine trees, even in the yards of adjoining residence 

We heard many stories of pioneer times that day, for Mr. Bald- 
win "grew up with the country." 

He can tell about the tragedies and the work and the fun of the 
early days and of the pranks he and his brother "Lank" used to 

We were greatly interested in Mr. Baldwin's stories of the "Un- 
derground Railway." for his grandfather, Charles Baldwin, and his 
father, Lindsey Baldwin, were friends of the slaves. 

Once upon a time two runaway slaves were hidden in the attic 
of Lindsey Baldwin's home when three men, disguised as peddlers, 
arrived from three different directions. 

After hanging around aAvhile and being assured that no slaves 
were hidden in the house the three men departed. 

When the slaves were told of the visit one of them exclaimed, 
"Yes, sah. one of dem was my massa, too." for he, listening beneath 
the rafters, had recognized the voice of his master. M. B. 

February 8, 1917. 

The new tarvia road stretched before us, white and shining in 
the moonlight. 

And such moonlight ! 

Even Orion and the Dipper looked dim in tlie light of the 
glorious queen of the night. 

But Jupiter, floating along by the side of the queen, refused to 
be outshone. He seemed to be defiantly saying, "You 'dassent' 
make me look dim and insignificant. I'm Jupiter, I am." 

432 The Makiu!^ of a Toivnship. 

■ And the wind ! It kept up a continual music in our ears as we 
swung- along northward. The wind loves to play on the telephone 
wires — a singing, musical song, near each pole where wide arms 
stretch forth seemingly to catch the sounds. 

But dearer to the wind even than the telephone wires are the 
pines and the cedars. How it sings through the waving branches, 
sometimes mournful and sad and sometimes with a sound like 
falling water ! 

On our moonlight walk to Jonesboro, Tuesday evening, the 
wind in the telephone wires made ringing, singing music for us 
all the way. At the old homesteads the cedars, grouped on the 
lawns, sang us songs suggestive of the far distant seashore and of 
glittering, gleaming waterfalls in far-away canyons and glens. 

Tt is impossible for The News hikers to walk along the Fair- 
mount-Jonesboro pike without recalling the past. The road, once 
only a trail through the mighty forest, connecting the pioneer set- 
tlements, has ever been closely identified with the making of Grant 

Along it. in the early days, the pioneer's horse waded knee-deep 
in mud as the Southern Grant County resident wended his way to 
the gristmill at Jonesboro, or journeyed to Marion to pay his taxes. 

Then, as times improved, the road was graveled and tollgates 
were established. Trying to evade a few cents of toll by going 
the mud roads or by rushing past the tollgates were common oc- 
currences in those days. 

It was along tliis road that the children of the pioneers were 
taken in big wagons to Harrisburg, now Gas City, to get their first 
glimpse of a railroad engine and train. How ferocious and fierce 
the old engine looked as it puffed and screeched its way up to the 
Pan Handle station ! That was long before Fairmount had a 

As we passed the old Joel Wright place, now the LaRuc farm, 
where Ed Stout lives, old Quarterly meeting days came back and 
the yard s'^emed full of visiting Friends gathered at the hospitable 
home for dinner. We could almost see diminutive Aunt Adeline 
Wright bustling around in the kitchen preparing the feast for the 
hungry visitors. 

Once, when a "general" meeting was held at old Back Creek, the 
neighboring homes were simply packed with guests. The writer 
remembers that one night thirty visiting Friends were entertained 

Rambles Orcr the Touiiship. 433 

at "Rush Hill " They naturally overflowed all the beds and many 
slept on pallets on the floor. 

But those days are forever gone and the sturdy pioneers have 
departed with them. 

"We shall never see their like again; those sturdy, honest, 
economical, God-fearing pioneers are of the past!" said the Better 
Half as we left old Back Creek graveyard behind, its stones gleam- 
ing white in the moonlight. 

M. B. 

December 7, 1916. 

"Are vou folks hunting up names of soldiers to enlist?" was 
asked of us Sunday afternoon as we were snooping around away 
over on the Muncie pike. 

We had to acknowledge our non-belligerent mission. People 
just cannot understand why any one can enjoy the mere act of 
walkino- along the countrv roads or across fields. 

We covered so much territory and had such varied experiences 
Sunday that it is a difficult matter to know just what to write and 
what to leave unwritten. 

In a little corner of Fairmount Township which juts out toward 
the river beyond the Muncie pike, a pioneer burying ground lies 
on the edge of a deep ravine. This is old Bethel graveyard — not 
more than a mile from the Fankboner burial place — one of the 
oldest in the Township. 

Unlike the latter graveyard it is readily accessible and is easily 
seen from the road. It is also less neglected, being enclosed with 
a fence, and interments are still occasionally made there. 

The headstones are tall and flat and old-fashioned and some- 
times the carving on them is odd and queer. 

"Isaac Sudduth. old Revolutioner, died November 27, 1854, aged 
ninety-nine years," is the inscription we noticed on one headstone. 

W^e had heard, an hour or two previously, from the lips of Mr. 
Sudduth's great-granddaughter. Mrs. F. M. Haynes. a bit of his 
life's story and so we know that the words, "Old Revolutioner," 
meant that he had served in the Revolutionary War. 

Mrs. Haynes could, as a little girl, remember her great-grand- 
father, who lacked only a few months of living to be one hundred 
vears old. 

434 The Making of a Tozvnship. 

"He would sit by the fire," she said, "and when grandmother 
would ask him how he felt he would say, 'I'm all right, only I'm 
just waiting.' One morning he sat down to his breakfast as usual. 
He had his knife in one hand and his fork in the other. Suddenly 
the knife and fork dropped to the floor, his head fell forward and 
the 'Old Revolutioner's' time of waiting was over. 

Mr. and Mrs. Haynes told us many things as we sat in their 
low-ceiled, walnut-finished sitting room while the cpiiet Sabbath 
afternoon hours slipped swiftly away. 

And Mr. Haynes played some tunes on his fiddle — he doesn't 
call it a violin. He plays by note and he likes to use an old-time 
hymn book in which the notes are the old-fashioned kind. 

Many people know where the old Daniel Coleman homestead 
stands, back a short distance from the Muncie pike. This is where 
Mrs. Haynes was born and, with the exception of about two years, 
it has always been her home. It is there that she will jirobabl}' 
end her days. 

Over in Bethel graveyard, which was originally a part of the 
farm of her father, Daniel Coleman, who deeded the ground to the 
community for a burial place, lies her great-grandfather, Isaac 
Sudduth, both her grandfathers, Thomas Coleman and Gabriel 
Johnson, and many others of her kindred. 

In a far corner of the graveyard, where an evergreen tree droops 
over the headstones and where the weeds are kept cut and every 
thing is in order, lie many members of one of the oldest of the 
Townshij) families — the Dulings. 

Many other pioneer families are rejiresented. including tlie 
Selbys, the Masons and the \\'eesners. 

At the corner, where the little, short road leads off from the 
Muncie pike toward the old cemetery, C. A. Buffington and his 
family reside. By-the-way, the farm once belonged to Nathan 
Beals, a former Fairmount man, and he and his wife li\ed there for 
many years. 

In a barnlot on the Bullingtcn farm stands just alx)Ul the most 
interesting relic in the Township. That is nothing more nor less 
than a part of tlie old McCormick la\ern, celebrated in local his- 
tory as the first hostelry in Southern (Irant C(»unl\. There is no 
doubt about its identity, for a number of the older residents of the 
Township remember when the building was moved from tlio Mc- 
Cormick farm, now owned ])\ F.ugene \A'ils(in, to its present site. 
The old logs of which it is constructed certainly show that the}- have 

Rambles Over the Tozciiship. 


been visited by the storms of many winters, so weather-beaten are 

Before we reached the Bethel graveyard, we cHml)cd some 
fences, crossed a stream, clambered np a bluff, skirted a plowed 
field and finally landed in the old Fankboner burying- ground — our 
second visit to this historic place. 

We found that, since our last visit, the uru which adorned the 


(Olive Rush and Mrs. Myra Baldwin at Rush Hill.) 

top of the Robert McCormick monument has been broken off and 
is now lying- on the ground. Otherwise there had been no changes 
and the place was as quiet as ever, only the singing of the birds 
and the noise of automobiles, passing on roads beyond the trees, 
breaking the stillness. Below the bluff the little stream wends its 
way through the ravine and the wind-flowers nod in the afternoon 
breeze just as they have done for centuries. 

436 The Maki)!^ of a Toi^')isliip. 

ll was a "glorious day for a walk and w^e enjoyed every minute 
of it, from the time we left the Pennsyhania station at Fowkrton 
initil we readied home Ion"- after darkness had fallen. 

It was "some" walk, too, as you will realize when we tell you 
that it included the distance from- Fowlerton to the Robert Reeder 
home, back to Fowlerton again, north to East Bethel church, east 
to the Lake school house, north to the two old graveyards men- 
tioned above and the Haynes residence, then back home, past East 
Bethel, then along the angling road that finally merges into the 
Heavilin highw^ay that extends from Eighth Street eastward. 

On the angling road — a new one for us — we passed the Johnnie 
Flanagan and the Hiram Gardner homes, where the peace of a 
Sabbath twilight hovered. Mr. Gardner has a new^ automobile and 
the family, no doubt, had not returned from a ride, for a dozen calves 
in the barnyard told us, by their actions, that they thought it was 
just about supper time for them. 

Two or three clean, handsome buggies in front of tjie Flanagan 
residence looked as though they might tell a story to us, too, if 
they only dared. But we didn't ask any questions. 

Once, earl\- in the afternoon, we stood on a slightly elevated 
place where we could see the depressions — the sites of the bogs of 
the early days. 

Half closing our eyes we could almost see the split-board sun- 
bonnets of the pioneer w'omen as they gathered cranberries in the 
marshes. Over in the vicinity of Lake Galatia we used to gather 
bushels and bushels of the best hazel nuts, too. Gone are the cran- 
berry marshes and the hazel nut bushes and the bogs, never to re- 

Going still farlluT back in time, as we gazed over the little 
valley on the old Gift farm, through \vhich r>arrcn Creek flows, 
we could almost see immense animals — the mammoth, the mastodon 
and the giant beaver — floundering around in the mud and finall>' 
sinking to their death in the mire. Their bones, in some cases, re- 
mained throughout the centuries. 

Many of these old-time bogs have been recently plow^ed and so 
black is the soil, that, at a distance, it has almost a blue tinge. 

One of the unusual features of the hike Sunday was the fact 
that an invitation to join us was actually accepted for once. Mrs. 
John Belong, whose home we passed on the road north of the T^ake 
school house, joined us in our visit to the old Fankboner graveyard. 

Rambles Oi'cr the Toivnship. 437 

By-the-way, a boy over near the school house knew where the 
"'Boner" graveyard was but he couldn't tell the location of the Fank- 
boner burying ground. 

Mrs. Delcng is a niece of Aunt Gabrilla Havens and she has 
two aunts buried in the old cemetery whose tragic history she 
told us. 

One named Ursula Clark, aged fifteen, and the other, Polly 
Clark, aged twenty, came to the new country with their parents, 
J. H. and S. B. Clark. They took cold on the trip through the for- 
ests, hasty consumption set in and one died in June, 1838, and the 
other in September of the same year. 

This is only one short story of the hardships of the early pioneer 

All along the way, Sunda}', whenever we passed a bit of wo(^d- 
land, wild flowers gladdened our eyes and the odor of blossoming or- 
chards clustered about the farm houses, caused us to inhale deeply. 

With hands full of red-bud blossoms, bluebells, crow's-foot, 
lamb's-tongue, wood-anemone, violets and spring-beauties, we 
thought how glorious it is to be alive in the spring-time ! 

M. B. 

May 17, 1917. 

In the course of our journeyings last Sunday — ^^we were in an 
automobile — we came across the home of a hermit. 

It is a tiny house facing a graveyard. 

The neighbor women all say that the hermit is a splendid house- 
keeper and that tlie washings he puts out are really quite wonderful. 

After hearing the stor}^ regarding the inmate M. B. looked at the 
tiny house with almost an overpowering sense of curiosity. 

A jaunt across the woods after some glorious branches of red- 
bud in bloom brought us close to the house but we caught no 
glimpse of its solitary occupant. 

A saucy mountain "boomer," perched upon the top rail of a 
ladder leaning against the rear of the house chattered, daring us to 
come closer. 

Perhaps it was the spirit of the hermit embodied for a time in 
the squirrel daring us to come closer. 

Mischievous boys sometimes, it is said, tease the man, where- 
upon he rushes out of the tiny house while the boys run for their 
very lives. 

43^ The Makinv^ of a Toi^'iishif^. 

^^'ilIl the licadstones of the pioneers of the community ^^uarding 
liis front door and with the trees of the forest primeval shadowing 
the house in the rear the hermit lives all alone with his thoughts. 

Before reaching the tiny house by the graveyard we journeyed 
over a new road for us — the one that passes Lake Galatia on the 

We left the car on the roadside and, traversing a ploughed field, 
we reached tlie lake — the former "Pool of Siloam," so called by 
the Spiritualists. 

Looking across the lake toward the west the view was rather 
attractive, with the rays of the afternoon sun glistening on the 

All about us, though, as we looked at the shore line at our feet, 
were deep holes in the boggy ground where a false step might 
prove disastrous. The soil was shaky and we knew that we were 
standing on a thin covering of decayed vegetation. 

Time was when it was really dangerous to fool around in the 
vicinity of Lake Galatia, so treacherous were the boggy shores. 
More than one fellow has been pulled out of the muck as he grad- 
ually sank to his doom. And there are stories gatore of horses 
and cattle sinking in the boggy ground. 

The pioneers really thought that the lake had no bottom. 

However, after one or two people had been drowned there and 
their bodies had been recovered the old superstitious idea that the 
lake was bottomless was finally dispelled. 

Once the lake covered much more ground than it does now and 
at one time a project for making a summer resort of the place 
was undertaken by some Marion men. 

Like the building of a great Spiritualistic city on its shore, un- 
dertaken in tlie early history of the Township, it, too, fell through 
with and the hope of future greatness for Lake Galatia vanished. 

In spite of the work done by drainage, in spite of the well-de- 
veloped farms and good homes in the vicinity, a spirit of loneliness 
broods over Lake Galatia. It is something almost tangible and 
it grips the visitor with imaginary talons and sometimes makes 
you want to run from the place. M. B. 

May 24, K)!/. 

We snooped around in tlic cast end of the Township again last 

We left town b} the Eighth Street road and walked to Fowler- 

Rambles Over the Township. . 439 

ton by easy stages, returning- in the afternoon by the same road, 
an unusual thing for us to do. It was a ten-mile walk altogether — ■ 
a fairly long walk for muscles grown rather soft from lack of sys- 
tematic hiking these days. 

Away over by the Solomon Duling homestead two freckled 
faced boys were fishing under the bridge which spans the Duling 
branch just before it empties into Barren Creek. They were catch- 
ing pretty good sized fish, too. 

The young fishermen, the playful lambs, the wild flowers and 
the birds all said that spring has come, in spite of the fact that 
farmers are behind with their work and many fields remain un- 

We had a nice walk and learned many things. 

The most scientific of the modern scientific ways of raising baby 
chicks was one of the interesting things we learned on the trip. 

In Mrs. Lowry Glass' poultry yard we learned that to be ab- 
solutely up-to-date in chicken-raising you must feed the little chicks 
as scientifically and with as much system as a modern mother cares 
for her baby. 

The baby chicks must have certain kinds of food — balanced ra- 
tions, if you please — administered to them at stated intervals and 
in stated amounts. Moreover, the temperature of their brooders 
must be kept just so-so. 

Mrs. Glass' father, Thomas Duling, seeing the new-fangled 
drinking fountain empty, started to fill it from the pump at the 
splendid drilled well on the place. 

He was stopped v/ith a "No, no! the water has to be 'doped' be- 
fore it is put in the fountain," from his daughter. 

And, truly, Mrs. Glass has as fine a lot of baby chicks as any one 
need care to see — little Plymouth Rocks and Rhode Island Reds — 
as contented and happy and healthy, the three hundred of them, as 
though they had a score of scratching, fluffed-up, real, live mothers. 

Mr. and Mrs. Glass are raising a lamb by hand and it, too, is fed 
scientifically, at certain hours of the day. 

The hens on the farm are quite orderly, for they lay their eggs 
in the nests made for them and not all over creation as hens used 
to do when we had to hunt eggs in the old days. 

Mrs. Glass is partial to the incubator way of hatching eggs and 
the brooder v/ay of raising chickens, for the results are so much 
more satisfactory, she says. 

The newest fad in brooders is a hard coal heater with a drum or 

440 TJ\c Mak'uii^ of a Toivnship. 

reflector, or whatever they call it, which throws the heat to the 
gTound and under which the baby chicks hover. 

Sunday we all w^ondered how Arthur Brewer was getting along 
with his hundreds of hatching eggs and baby chicks. 

We had such a fine time at the Duling home. Mr. and Mrs. 
Glass and Mr. Duling all have the same home, and a lovely home 
it is, too, with a wonderful, beautiful, grassy lawn and well kept 

There is one other daughter, Mrs. Milton Rich, in the family, 
and she and her husband, who live in the neighborhood, were also 
Sunday afternoon callers. 

On the way to Fowlerton, in the morning, Ave passed the J. O. 
Duling farm and saw the brick and stone which mark the place 
where the old Duling home once stood. 

When the house burned last winter one of the loveliest old 
landmarks in the entire Township was destroyed, for the interior 
finish of the building, woodwork, presses, closets and the fine old 
stairway were of solid walnut, almost worth its weight in gold 
these days. 

For almost a mile we followed the Chesapeake c'v Ohio Railroad 
as it cuts cat-a-cornered across the fields. 

Looking at the fine land enclosed in the right-of-way of the rail- 
road we thought of the wastefulness of the American people. 

Some day it will be different and the land along the railroads 
will 1)6 cultivated as it is in Germany and other countries in Europe. 

Why, there Avas enough coal — good, big chunks — scattered along 
I hat railroad Avithin the space of a fcAV miles to keep a family Avarm 
an entire year. 

We Americans don't know what it is to economize. 

A\^e had dinner Sunday in Fowlerton at the restaurant kept by 
Mrs. Schmidt, the French woman who has a German name. 

On the trip over we stopped for a short time at the Thomas 
WinsloAv home and on the return trip Ave had a little A'isit Avith Mr. 
and Mrs. Wayne Heavilin and the latter's mother, Mrs. Newt Wells, 
whose girlhood home, the old Managan farm, nOAv OAvned by Charles 
Child, adjoins the Heavilin i)lace. John Heavilin and his son, 
Wayne, have leveled and graded the roadside along their farm and 
have soAved it in clover and grass, making it like a laAvn. They Avill 
keep it moAved and incidentally get the hay for their pains — a fine 
plan for others to folloAv. 

Rambles Over the Township. 441 

Wayne Heavilin has come to it. After holding" out for three 
or four years against an automobile because he likes a driving 
horse so well he has at last succumbed and a green automobile 
takes the family for an airing now and then. 

"It's a new kind — a metallic Elizabeth," says Mr. Heavilin, "but 
it gets over the ground all right." 

The walk home in the evening was especially enjoyable. 

Violets and spring beauties blooming, meadow larks singing and 
robins trying to sing, a tinge of green appearing on the forest 
trees, a southwest wind blowing and perfect roads — these and 
other glorious accessories made the walk a pleasant one. 

We faced a sunset sky. Swinging above the purple and rose 
and pink of the horizon there shone the narrowest, silver crescent 
you ever saw. It looked like a curved eye-lash. 

And the Better Half said, "The moon is hanging on by an eye- 
lash." M. B.^ 

April 26, 191 7. 

One ambition of our lives has been realized. We've been en- 
tertained in a real-for-sure log-house — not the fancy kind like we've 
lodged in at the Glacier National Park and the Grand Canyon of 
the Colorado, but one built more than sixty years ago for a real 
family home. 

It was at Chap Duling's and the visit happened unexpectedly to 
us last Sunday. 

We went to Fowlerton on the 9 o'clock train Sunda}- morning. 
A certain old, red sweater — the finest thing to walk in }'ou ever 
saw — and an old, blue overcoat are surely getting to be quite fa- 
miliar to the people of Fowlerton by this time. 

After a short visit with S. D. Key at his store we wandered into 
the Methodist Protestant Sunday School and remained for the 
church service. 

There we saAv many familiar faces and were greeted by mem- 
bers of such well-known families as the following: Partridge, Not- 
tingham, Duling, Glass, Compton, Simons, Corn, Smith, Scotten, 
Brown and others. All gave us such a cordial welcome that it was 
indeed a pleasure to meet with such whole-hearted and wholesome 

D. C. (Chap) Duling is the efficient superintendent of the Sun- 
day School and Rev. A. E. Scotten is the pastor of the church. 

442 The Making of a Township. 

There was an attendance of 134 at the Sunday School and about 
the same number heard Rev. A. E. Scotten deliver a good sermon 
at the morning service. 

The key-note of the discourse was the thought that "mountain- 
top experiences" should prepare the Christian for service to man- 
kind in the valley below. 

A very good choir furnished the singing with John King at 
the piano. 

\Xq especially liked Mr. King's work as an accompanist. While 
he works hard during the week on the farm he has time to keep 
uj) his music and is always at his place at the piano when the hour 
comes for Sunday morning service. 

A\'e liked tlie interior of the church, the plain, tinted walls being 
especially restful. 

Preaching services are held every other Sunday morning, alter- 
nating with Pleasant Grove Church in the country southwest. 
However, evening services are conducted every Sunday at Fowler- 
ton, with the pastor in charge. 

Having received a cordial dinner ilivitation from Mr. and Mrs. 
Chap Duling we departed from our usual custom and accepted. A 
short walk took us to the home — one of the most interesting we 
have yet visited. And the dinner — well, the ambrosia and the 
nectar of the gods could not have been more delicious and, doubt- 
less, were far less satisfying. Real country ham, chicken and every- 
thing — but we desist from further description. 

Aside from the old house, made of huge logs, the lawn is the 
most attractive feature of the place, although the grounds all about 
are well-kept. 

Mr. Duling has had an immense pile of old rails and scattered 
timber sawed for fuel, so that the high price of coal has less terror 
for him than for many other people. We noticed other large piles 
of wood at other homes along the way, many of them the result of 
the big sleet storm of March 13. 

From the Chap Duling home we hiked to the William Duling 
residence, about three-quarters of a mile east on the same road. 
There we had a good visit with Mr. and Mrs. Duling and their 
children, Mrs. Charles Hobbs, of Upland; Mrs. Wright, of Wash- 
ington, D. C, and Mr. and Mrs. Glenn Duling. 

William Duling will soon celebrate his eightieth birthday. He 
owns several hundred acres of fine land and is one of the oldest re- 

Rambles Over the Toumship. 443 

maining members of a family, highly esteemed since the early 
settling of the east end of the Township. 

We found that we were not the only hikers out Sunday for Mrs. 
Hobbs had walked from her residence in Upland in the morning to 
the home of her parents — a distance of six miles. 

After our visit at the Duling home we turned our steps toward 
the setting sun and hiked into Fairmount. 

The Dulings had not seen the last of us, however, for on the 
way homeward, we stopped at both the Soloman Duling and 
Thomas Duling residences. 

Everybody who is conversant with the neighborhood knows 
where Solomon Duling lives. It is a lovely place — set quite a dis- 
tance back from the road, with a beautiful, rolling, grassy meadow 
in front and a bubbling brook singing at the foot of a wooded hill. 
The house is finished on the inside with walnut and there are old- 
fashioned presses and round, home-made rugs to give the proper 
tone to the interior. 

Mr. a'nd Mrs. Duling have had with them, for several weeks, a 
little victim of the New Castle tornado, the son of an adopted 
daughter, whose home was partially demolished by the wind. 

May 3, 19 1 7. M. B. 

Just about the time man decides that he is the supreme lord 
of creation along comes Nature and the Power back of Nature 
and they give Mr. Man a slap in the face and tell him to "go 'way 
back and sit down." 

This thought was uppermost in our minds as we walked along 
the road Sunday evening, our eyes opening wider and wider as 
fresh evidences of the devastation wrought by the sleet storm of 
the thirteenth kept presenting themselves. 

And the thought of the New Castle and the New Albany tor- 
nadoes strengthened our belief in the theory of man's helplessness 
in the face of the fury of the elements. 

Scores of telephone poles lying prostrate on the ground or 
snapped off by the weight of the sleet, and great trees, broken 
and maimed by the storm, silently told us of Nature's power when 
she "gets her back up." 

The woods along the way reminded us of pictures we had seen 
of the famous forests of France after the Germans had raided por- 
tions of that country early in the present war. 

444 The Making of a Tozvnship. 

Indeed, in their helpless, forlorn, mangled condition the trees 
somewhat resembled the maimed soldiers returning home from the 

Twilight had come on as we passed between the woods on the 
old Seth Winslow farm and the woods on the Fankboner place. 

We tried our best to find the trail through the trees where a 
beautiful road used to wind in and out on the Seth Winslow farm, 
and because all traces seemed to be entirely obliterated our hearts 
grew heavy. 

In the half-darkness under the trees we could almost see a 
wagon coming behind two fat horses, along that winding road. 

In the wagon, on the spring seat, sat a father and mother, while 
behind, their little legs cramped by sitting on the floor, a group 
of children peered over the sides, their faces all aglow with wonder 
at the bigness of the world. 

And that's the wav we used to go to Back Creek Ouarterlv 

Another scene visualized itself Sunday evening, and that was 
a long string of vehicles, many of them big farm wagons, making 
a procession more than a mile in length. 

That was Grandmother Jay's funeral procession on its \\ay to 
Back Creek. 

People do not attend funerals like they used to. 

It is change, change, everywhere, and all the time. 

The swish of the south wind in the bare branches of the trees, 
the distant barking of a dog, the croaking of a frog heightened the 
lonesomeness that crept over us at the thought of change — never- 
ceasing change. 

Then wc glanced above where myriads of stars greeted our 
vision and there gleamed Orion and the Pleiades just like they 
used to sliine in the old da}"s. The stars seem ne\'er to change. And 
there, also, was the briglit crescent of the new moon, shining as 
of yore. 

And although wc saw her over our left shoulder — an ill omen — 
she gave us courage, even in a world so full of change. 

Preceding our walk we sat for an hour or two on a log in the 
Rush Hill woods. 

Here, in the l)right sunshine of a glorious day, with the hope 
of spring in the south wind's whisper, we held sweet communion 
with Nature 

Rambles Over the Toztmship. 445 

Incidentally, we acquired a few rheumatic pains because of the 
dampness emanating- from that old, rotten log. 

M. B. 

March 29, 191 7. 

A\'e journeyed Sunday afternoon only so far as the John Pea- 
cock residence, for the wind blew bitterly cold from the northwest 
and all the earth was tightly grasped in Father Winter's frosty 


John Peacock is a farmer who knows how to farm and his home 
and all its surroundings tell of comfort and of prosperity. 

With two immense up-to-date barns and with a large house, 
filled with all the modern conveniences, truly here are found "all 
the comforts of home." 

As Mrs Elizabeth Peacock told us of her early life in the wilder- 
ness, for she came to Grant County from England when she was 
a little girl, we could not refrain from contrasting the conditions 
of those early pioneer days and of her life at the present time. 

One phase of pioneer life was significantly brought out in the 
conversation, Sunday, and that was the homesickness, to say noth- 
ins- of the loneliness, with which the women of those days had to 

Looking out upon a little patch of ground, where the "stick- 
tig-hts" ai'ew waist high, with the forest all around the clearing, 
Mrs. Samuel Radley, mother of Mrs. Peacock, must have oftfn 
longed for the well-kept gardens and the green lanes of old England. 
When she looked about the little log hut in which she lived, her 
thoughts must often have wandered to the beautiful, stately brick 
house near London, which .was her home before she came to 

Mrs. Peacock has a photograph of this lovely old house. 
When Mrs. Radley left England she brought with her some 
prettv white bed spreads to beautify her new home in America. 

It was truly discouraging— this trying to beautify a home in 
the wilderness — for every time it rained the water soaked through 
the mud daubing between the logs of the cabin and stained the 
bed spreads. 

To add to the homesickness, it took a long time for a letter to 
come from England, often as long as three months. Moreover, it 
cost twenty-five cents to buy postage for each letter in those days. 

446 The Making of a Toivnsliip. 

and twenty-five cent pieces weren't found growing- on bushes then 
any more than they are now. 

This phase of pioneer Hfe was again referred to by Mrs. Jane 
Hobbs, a little later in the afternoon, when we stopped at her cot- 
tage on North Main Street after our pleasant call at the Peacock 

"1 just can't make you understand how it was," said jMrs. 
Hobbs. "Why, just to think, between here and Carter Hasting's, 
south of town, except for a very short time in the middle of the 
summer, the ground was covered with mud and water in which the 
wagons sank to their hubs." 

As the houses were few and far between companionship be- 
tween neighbors and friends was limited. That is why the pioneers 
used to hitch the horses to the wagon and "piling the children in," 
would go to a neighbor's house and stay all day. Hence, also, 
came the custom of Sunday visiting on a large scale. 

When Mrs. Hobbs, as .a little girl, moved with her mother from 
Morgan County, their relatives in that county tried to dissuade 
them from leaving a civilized county for a place so "backwoodsy" 
as Grant County. 

"Now," Mrs. Hobbs says, "Morgan County is farther behind 
Grant County in every respect than she was ahead of her in those 

One of the interesting incidents of the early days was the coming 
of John Bull to Indiana. 

Tn Eneland. where Mr. Bull resided (from liis name vou'd 
naturally guess where he lived), stories of vast wealth to be ob- 
tained in the new world were prevalent. Influenced by these Mr. 
Bull came to Indiana and bought up vast tracts of land, some of it 
in Grant County. 

If he were alive today — we saw his tombstone in the old Back 
Creek graveyard the other Sunday — he could tell us whether he 
ever felt disappointed or not. 

It is safe to say. however, that if he were alive today and had 
all that land in his possession his fondest dreams would have come 


lohn Bull brought his family with him across the seas. In 
that family was a young lady, who, when she left England, left 
a lover behind. The lover followed her to Grant County, and that 
is why John Scale. Sr., who died a few years ago in Whittier, Cal.. 
ever came to Indiana. M. B. 

February 15, 1917. 

Rambles Over the Tozvnship. 447 

Forty years ago or a little more, possibly forty-two years ago, 
a bevy of Southern Grant County girls joined a parade which went 
to a political rally in Marion. It was a Presidential election and 
a rally in those days was a wonderful event. Parades were formed 
of which big floats and gaily decorated wagons were principal 

At this particular time the girls dressed themselves in the gay- 
est of colors, possibly the colors of the American flag. They 
crowded into a big float and gaily started off in the parade for the 
county seat. 

. All went well until the ravine just on the southern edge of 
Jonesboro was reached when the horses, becoming frightened, gave 
a lunge which sent the huge wagon with its load of girls, their 
laughter turned to cries of fright, down the side of the steep grade 
to the bottom of the ravine. Many of the girls were injured and 
some of them never fully recovered from the effects of the accident. 

The memory of this incident was renewed in our minds on last 
Sunday's walk, which was made from Fairmount to Jonesboro late 
in the afternoon. 

The ravine, wooded on one side of the road, with Back Creek 
at the bottom of the grade, is a beauty spot, but we never pass that 
way without thinking of the tragedy of those early days. 

Most of the girls started on the trip under protest from their 
mothers and this tragedy was often used as a warning- to all of us 
who were younger not to disobey our parents for fear some dreadful 
thing would happen to us. 

Half the distance last Sunday was made after dark, but this 
did not lessen the pleasure of the trip. Reflections on the clouds 
from the lights in Marion and Jonesboro looked like an aurora 
borealis. The reflections and the snow made a half light out of 
which trees and buildings emerged almost ghost-like. The lights 
of a through freight and several Interurban cars, passing on our 
right, glided past like long, glowing serpents. 

As we passed old Back Creek graveyard and looked over toward 
the headstones the Better Half said : "What would those earliest 
pioneers think if they could come suddenly to life and see the trains 
and Interurban cars, the automobiles, electric lights and all the 
other wonders of modern life?" 

When you stop to listen you will notice that night sounds differ 
from day sounds. From a tree near the Ancil Winslow farm a 
screech owl answered its mate away over in the Aaron Newby 

448 The Makini^ of a Township. 

woods. A boy's whistle pierced the air and the throu.^h freight 
almost made the earth tremble w ith its rumbling- noise. 

On the south edge of Jonesboro, just after you pass the ravine 
of tragedy, you come to one of the landmarks on the Fairmount- 
Jonesboro pike. This is the Joe Hill homestead, set far back in 
a grove of evergreen trees. East and a little to the south of this 
fine, old place there was once a cemetery, every vestige of which 
seems to have disappeared. 

As we reached Main Street in Jonesboro church l^ells were call- 
ing people to the evening services. Otherwise a Sabbath quiet 
brooded over the little town. M. B. 

January 7, 1915. 

"You go out on this road, but there's no way of getting there 
except by livery," answered the man at Lafontaintf when we stepped 
off the Interurban car at 7 o'clock Sunday morning and incpiired the 
wa}- to Jalapa. 

W'e did not take tlie trouble to tell tlie man that we had in 
mind a twenty-five mile walk for tliat daw l:>ut ni(^ved on in the 
direction he indicated. 

As we proceeded cmi our way we followed the crooked road, 
winding in and out, up and down, through the picturesque country. 
A\'e enjoyed the scenery and the happy warbling of the birds as 
we journeyed along. Tlie land was carpeted with the green of 
a luxuriant growth and everywhere there was a promise, this early 
May morning, of a bountiful harvest for both man and beast. 

Here and there, as we trudged along, we caught a glimpse of 
far-away hills. The distances were blue and dim and misty. The 
unimproved road which we followed, a part of the way to the Indian 
burying-grouiid. was narrow and winding" and enchanting, with 
wild strawl:»erries, wind-flowers, white violets and sweet williams 
l^looming along the fences. 

A bright-faced boy of fourteen, riding in a storm buggy, for it 
had the appearance of rain, stoi:)ped long enough on liis way to La- 
fontaine, to give us directions and to init us on the right track. 

After leaving Lafontaine we had been tra\ eling south and west, 
l)ut in order to reach the old Iildian burying-ground we turned to- 
ward the east. A few minutes' walk brought us to a gently sloping 
hill at the top of which stands a weather-beaten frame church and 

Rambles Over the Tozvnship. 449 

in the rear gleam the white monuments and headstones of the wire- 
fenced graveyard. Nearby is a brick school house. 

As we sat resting on the stone steps of the old Indian church 
we half closed our eyes and imagined we could see the Indians 
stalking" through the ravines and gliding in and out among the 
trees. How they must have loved this beautiful country with 
its hills and little valleys and the river flowing gently between 
the tree-lined bluffs ! 

And where are they now? A few of the last of the Miamis lie 
in the burying-ground in the rear of the little church, their souls 
far away in the "happy hunting-grounds." A cocoon on the twig 
of a bush, emblematic of a future life and the inscriptions on the 
tombstones within the rough enclosure, brought to our minds 
sweet thoughts of immortality. 

A tall monolith marks the spot where Meshingomesia, the last 
chief of the Miamis, lies buried. The inscription on the stone, 
neatly chiseled in plain letters, reads: 


Died December 16, 1879 

Aged about ninety-eight years 

He united with the Baptist Church and was baptized the second 
Sunday in June, 1861, and lived a consistent Christian until he was 
taken from the church militant to the church triumphant in 

The acorn-like ornament which adorned the top of the monu- 
ment, as is the case with several others nearby, has fallen to the 
ground. The vandal fingers of souvenir hunters have also left their 
depredating marks on the stone which stands at the head of the 
final resting place of this kindly old man. 

By the side of the old chief lies buried his wife, Ta-ke-e-quah, 
who died September 15, 1879, aged about ninety-four years. Other 
names noted on the headstones of this quaint spot were C. Peconga, 
Ka-ge-to-no-quah, Coon Bundy, Chapendoceah, Shapadosia, Shap 
and Dosia. We wondered if the last two were not contractions of 
Chapendoceah. Then there were Aw-taw-waw-taw and Ta-wa-ta. 

We were told that only two families of Indians now reside in 
the country which was once their reservation and they are not full- 
blooded, by any means. 

Mrs. James Lugar, a half-breed who married a white man, told 
us that her own family and a family by the name of Walters are 

450 TJic Makiiii^ of a To-a'iisliip. 

the only representatives of her people in the neighborhood. 'Jhe 
Walters family, we were told, were more French than Indian. 

Mrs. Lugar has the reputation in her neighborhood of being an 
extra fine cook. Several little grandchildren in the Lugar family 
show the Indian strain in their jet-black eyes, straight hair and 
swarthy complexions. 

Not far from the Indian burying-ground is the old Mississinewa 
batttlefield. A little ravine leads from the field down into the 
river. We were told by Earl Renbarger, who received the infor- 
mation from his grandfather, that down this ravine the Indians 
were pursued into the river after the battle, which took place in 
the winter of 1812. 

The battlefield is located on the farm owned by William R. 
Brock, whose residence stands near the river, in an ideally beautiful 
spot, across from Conner's mill. A fine grove is situated near the 
mill on the opposite bank of the river and the grassy slope be- 
neath the trees makes a fine camping place. 

Just over the hill lies Jalapa which we reached in time to attend 
morning services at the Methodist Episcopal Church. We thought 
that surely for once we would be in a place where no one knew us. 
but we had scarcely gotten outside the door after services before 
Frank Ferguson came uj) and spoke to us. Mr. Ferguson and his 
family have just returned from a four-years' residence in Dinuba, 
Cal., glad to be back on Indiana soil once more. They live on a 
farm near Jalapa. 

We visited Bausel Nichols, aged eighty-two, who has lived in 
Jalapa for more than forty years. He. knew Meshingomesia well 
and spoke highly of the old chief's character. He said that Me- 
shingomesia was a kind old man and that he was heavy-set. The 
old Indian remembered the Mississinewa battle and told Mr. 
Nichols that his mother and himself hid under a l)rush heap dur- 
ing the fighting. 

Mr. Nichols was a blacksmith for many years and he used to 
shoe the ponies of the Indians who lived on the reservation. He 
said that some of the Indians drank heavily, which made them 
very mean and hard to get along with. 

Mr. Nichols could remember nothing about Joachin Miller, tlic 
poet of the Sierras, who once lived in Jalapa. 

After the nice little visit with Mr. Nichols we proceeded home- 
ward. "It was a long, long way," and we went southeast, south 
and tlicn east, then south and east again, making turn after turn 

Rambles Over the Tozvnship. 451 

on the trip homeward. We ate our noon-time lunch as we walked 
along the road. 

There are many Renbargers in the Jalapa neighborhood, but 
we saw no familiar faces on the way until we had almost reached 
Oak Ridge. 

We passed "Hardscrabble Ranch" and came within sight of 
Marion, which lay to the east. As we proceeded, to our right we 
could see the Studebaker elevator and the church at Roseburg, 
with the fine old Samuel Burrier homestead nearby. The Sidney 
Harvey farm is near Roseburg and we passed the beautiful home 
of their son, Ross Harvey, near the road. 

We made a little stop at the home of Henry Shockey. Mr. and 
Mrs. Shockey were very kind, but they, like many other people, 
could not see any fun in walking. 

Not far from the Shockey home is the O. M. Bish bungalow. 

Further back we had passed the Mount Olive Church and 
school house and, after passing the Roseburg neighborhood, we 
came to the West Branch Church and school house Number 10. In 
this neighborhood we saw the beautiful homes of Con Shugart, 
Nelia Ratliff, Harvey Ratliff, Bert Malott and others. 

After we passed the E. Harris farm we turned east again and 
crossed the Liberty pike and turned south once more, passing the 
Bethel or District No. i school house. To the west we recognized 
Bethel Church. 

Near the bridge which spans Deer Creek on this road stands 
the ruins of an old-time residence. In the twilight it looked gaunt 
and gloomy and a fit place for ghosts. 

On the way we passed the C. H. Jay, the A. Ferree, the E. 
Goodykoontz. the F. E. Haisley, the Samuel Hipes, the Louisa 
Haisley and the Ves Benbow farms and reached Oak Ridge school 
house just about dark. Samuel Hipes owns the farm which once 
belonged to the late Elwood Haisley. 

We had met Mrs. Mary Gibson, her son and his family in an 
automobile on the road before we reached Bethel school house. 
To her question of how far we had walked we answered, "We are 
almost afraid to tell you for fear you'll not believe us." 

Not far from Oak Ridge Glenn Collett passed in a buggy. His 
kind invitation to ride into town w^as declined. It must be ad- 
mitted, however, that the invitation was a great temptation and 
the declining thereof was the result of a grim determination to 
make the walk the record-breaking one of the series. 

452 TJie Making of a Township. 

Amusing incidents always occur on a trip like that of Sunday. 
While we were traversing the road which runs cat-a-cornered from 
Jalapa to Marion, at one of the Renbarger homes, a woman told 
us that she thought we'd better hire someone to take us into Fair- 
mount and that we would change our minds about walking the 
entire distance long before w^e reached our destination. 

Once when we stopped to rest, the Better Half stretched him- 
self on a jiile of rails with his feet elevated towards the road. A 
horse driven by a young lady in a buggy, became so frightened 
at the sight that it ran away, the incident almost ending in a 

Just before Oak Ridge was reached we sat down on a bridge to 
rest. Some young fellow, paraphrasing Longfellow's "The Bridge" 
yelled out, "We sat on the bridge at midnight." He evidently 
thought we were a couple of sweethearts, making love in the 

After leaving Oak Ridge the remaining four miles back home 
were traveled in the darkness. The first glimpse of Fairmount's 
street lights was a truly welcome sight. M. B. 

May 13, 191 5. 

P-r-o-s-p-e-r-i-t-y is written all over Fairmount and Liberty 
Townships. You can see it in the rich soil, in the big gray and 
white and red barns, in the spacious homes, in the well-improved 
roads, in the rushing automobiles, in the sleek, fat, blooded stock 
and in the happy faces of the hospitable people who inhabit this 
garden-spot of Indiana. 

The objective point of the hike on Sunday, March 14, was the 
country home of B. F. Dickey, five miles west and one mile south 
of Fairmount, with Little Ridge Church as an interesting and 
])r()fitable stopping-place on the way. 

Leaving The News office and going west on Washington Street 
the first thing to attract our attention was Andy Horine, in a big 
apron, assisting in the morning housework at liis home, fc^r which 
we gave him due praise. 

L. E. Nolder's chickens, alfalfa patch, fat pig and pretty home 
were next noted and then we glanced northward to the former 
homes of Jesse and Nathan Wilson. Of the pioneer homes, stand- 
ing almost in one straight line, north and south, redeemed from 
the wilderness by Iredell Rush, Jesse Wilson, Nathan Wilson and 

Rambles Over the Township. 453 

Daniel Thomas, only one, Rush Hill, is owned and occupied by 
descendants of the original owners of the respective farms. 

Continuing- the journey we passed the E. J. Scale bungalow, off 
to the north, the Perry Seale home to the west and the Joshua 
Hollingsworth residence, the latter notable for its fine view of 

Near the Perry Seale residence there once stood a little school 
house in the woods where M. B., her sister, Alary Wilson and 
Hannah Wilson, learned their first reading lesson under the tutor- 
ing of Myra Dillon Charles. The three whose names are mentioned 
long ago ceased to learn lessons in earthly lore and for them no 
longer do the leaves rustle nor the birds sing as they did on those 
spring mornings in the forest where the school house stood. 

A little stop was made at the Daniel Thomas farm now owned 
by W. A. Beasley. Not far from the home once stood one of the 
school houses of the early pioneer period where our forefathers 
learned their A, B, C's. About the old brick residence on tlie farm 
linger many memories of stories full of the element of human 

The sun shone brightly and the robins, song sparrows and 
meadow larks filled the air with their music as we continued west- 
ward past the William G. Moon place, the James Bell, the Milton 
T. Cox and the John Cox farms. In the grove on the latter farm 
several buckets were catching the precious sugar water for maple 
syrup. John, Milton and Vollie Cox, three brothers, live in the 
same neighborhood in a sort of clan fellowship which we noted 
several times during the day in other communities among other 

^^'here the road juts a little to the south there stands a log house 
and there is also one on the Mort Buller farm, the histories of 
which we did not learn. 

Mort Buller not only has a splendid home on his farm but he 
has prepared an unusually good cottage and barn for his tenant. 
Mr. Buller's farm, "Oakwood," formerly owned by "J^^ie" Rich, 
is a good one, and he has added improvement after improvement 
to the house and barn until there isn't much lacking now. 

Turning south after leaving the Buller farm we passed the 
"Doc" Buller home and the tile mill. The little cluster of houses 
around the mill reminded us of settlements in the mining districts 
of Pennsylvania. 

At the corner, where we turned to the west, is the Little Ridge 

454 ^ ^'^ Makiuii of a Toiciisliip. 

scIkhi] hiiuse. with the Jcilin (Jambriel farm to the soiitli. I'.efore 
reachiiii;- Little Ividi^c C Imrch we passed the beautiful homes of 
Joseph \\'hitel\- and Ancil E. RatHff. With all the modern con- 
veniences in the way (tf heat, li^ht, baths, sleeping porches, tele- 
phones and hard wood floors, city residences have little that these 
homes do not possess. 

Little Ridge Church stands in a pretty grove with a little gra\e- 
\ ard nearby. .As at Deer Creek and Uack Creek we found gra\es 
of relatives, this time a great-grandfather \vho was l)nried in this 
quiet s])ot in 1859 — a man who bra\ed the hardshii)s of ])ionecr 
life in the forests and swamps of Liberty Township. Wright and 
Har\ey are the names most frequently repeated on the stones ot 
tliis little graveyard and a tangle of myrtle covers the mounds 
under the old cedar trees. 

Mart Trader met the pedestrians near the cemeter}' gate at the 
close of Sunday school and his cordial welcome was seconded by 
a number c^f others as we entered the door of the church. The 
Little Kidge ])eople form one big family; they ha\e nexer had a 
neighborhood feud and they are thoroughh' democratic. These 
features were all in evidence at the Sunda}' services when many 
of the members of the congregation had a voice in the proceedings. 
\o more hospitable a people can be found anywhere and the 
cheery greetings, urgent dinner invitations and the spirit of friend- 
liness shown us sent a glow to our hearts. 

After the services, continuing our course westward, we ])assed 
the homes of Clayton Wright. Arthur L)rewer and Denny Winslow, 
while off to the left we saw the farms of Will Harvey. Iliram 
Harvey and Mrs. Etta Doherty. The latter lives on the farm once 
owned by her great-grandfather, Azel Rush, through the edge of 
wdiich ran the eastern boundary line of the old Miami Indian 

Walter Corwin lives on the (]aunt farm. The Cauni family 
was once a factor in the neig'hborhood and, later, in the county, but 
the meinbers have now all moved awa\'. 

The .same is true of the Wells family, for wlKun the Wells school 
house, situated just south of the (iaunt farm, was named. ( )id\ 
I.,lin CaldwelTs family represents tlie Wells' in the community at 
the ])resent time. 

"This is surely where P.en Dickey lives," we said, as we reached 
a farm where the golden corn was fairly bursting its bins, where 
the Dnroc shoats were so fat and sleek they glistened in the sun- 

Rambles Over the Township. 455 

shine and where the backs of the high-grade cattle were as straight 
as boards. And such it proved to be. Set far back from the road, 
in a beautiful grove, the house has an ideal location. Here we met 
with a warm welcome. Surrounded by his family, Mr. Dickey 
was quietly celebrating his seventy-fourth birthday anniversary 
on the farm which has been his home for forty-four years. Besides 
the home place he has two or three other farms. 

Continuing westward for a quarter of a mile we came to the 
road leading north toward Hackleman. Off to the south we could 
see the Chris Behymer home as we made the turn. 

We then reached one of the most picturesque homes in Grant 
county — the John Dickey farm, now the property of \\\\\ Lindsey. 
Set back from the road, in a grove of wonderful trees, adjoining a 
bit of the forest primeval, the place reminded us of pictures we 
had seen of old English estates. The large brick house is ap- 
proached by a graveled driveway, and around the orchard to the 
south is set a little row of cedar trees, the whole making as beau- 
tiful a picture as anyone would care to see. 

As we approached Hackleman we could see the modern resi- 
dences on the Sam Leer and the \\^illiam Miller farms, the one 
on the latter occupied by O. E. Curless and family. The store at 
Hackleman is owned by Ol Banister, a brother of George Banister, 
of this cit}'. 

Alfred Kemmer's new home, built in bungalow style, with 
evervthing strictly up-to-date and of the best, is located a short 
distance east of Hackleman. It was near this point that an auto- 
mobile passed us and a voice, wdiich we recognized as that of Nick 
Brookshire, called out, "It's a long, long way from Tipperary." 
Several kind invitations to ride were extended during the trip but 
all were declined. 

lust before reaching Center school house and church, which 
are admirably located, we arrived at the comfortable home of J. 
X. Gibson and family. A half-hour was pleasantly spent here in 
conversation and in listening to music furnished by Misses Alma 
and Pauline Gibson. 

A stretch of tarvia begins at Center and continues east to the 
Ranee Line road. Tarvia roads are fine for automobiles, but when 
it comes to hiking give us the good, old country roads every time. 
AVe passed the homes of George Yale and Ralph Rybolt, the latter 
having recently moved to the Noble farm. The brick house, which 
is the home of Robert Moon and familv, is nicelv located and Jack 

456 The Making of a Tonmship. 

McCombs has a fine home a Httle farther down the road. The 
homes of Ehner Comer, Charles CoUins, who hves on the Seale 
farm, and the farm of Allie Rich were also passed. George Jones 
owns a good farm, known to the older residents as the Elvvood 
Arnett place. His mother, Mrs. Mariah Jones, lives on the farm 
farther to the east which she has owned for many years. 

Aha jolnison is the owner of more than two hundred acres 
of the finest kind of Liberty Township land. The home, of Mrs. 
Susannah Scott is in this neighborhood. W'c came to a little 
\\']iyl)rew settlement when we passed the Mort Whybrew and the 
Mrs. Will Whybrew farms. 

Where the Hackleman road intersects the Range Line road there 
once stood a school house. In this school house one of the hikers 
learned early lessons iu lu's boyhood. The roof of this old building, 
scarred and crumpled by the passing of the }-ears, is still in existence 
and is used as a covering for a shed. 

I>y the way, this road which leads past the Academy and on 
west through Hackleman. follows a direct line into Lafayette. 

In this cursory write-u]) of a day's journey many adjectives are 
used, but it is almost impossible to describe anything iu I'airmount 
and Liberty Tow-nships without the use of superlatives. AL B. 

March 18. 1915. 

The country east of h^airmoimt in the early days was knt)wn 
as "the i)rairie country east of town." To our childish imagination 
it was a land of enchantment, for there were cranberry marshes, 
hazel thickets, the lake and the river, all of them objective points 
for many merry picnic jiarties. I'arren Creek — "I'arn" Creek, we 
used to say — meandered ihrougli the i)rairie, too. Oiu- last "hike" 
took us through this enchanted land, ])ut how changed it is from 
the old days! Never a cranberry is foimd now, and the marshes 
where they grew were drained long ago. In the old days a person 
could stand on the edge of the boggy marsh, jump up and down 
and shake the ground for yards around. 

'I'he tangle of hazel bushes where we once found delicious lia/el 
nuts can be seen no more, and as for the prairie it looks much like 
the rest oi the country now; but in the i^ioneer days the wonderful 
big trees did not cover the ground there as they did in west of tcnvn 
and Liberty Township. The lake, too, has been drained and is 
only about half its original size, and the ground is not so l)Oggy 

Rambles Over the Township. 457 

as it once was. Ugh ! how we used to shiver with tlie fear of ^oing 
down in that mud and never getting out again ! Only the river 
is left as in the old days, and even it is changed — the water is not 
as clear as in pioneer days. There are too many factories along 
its course. 

The objective point of Sunday's walk was Matthews, with 
Fowlerton as a good stopping point for church services and frjr 

Leaving home at 7 :20 in the morning we went north on Main 
street. The first thing that particularly attracted our attention 
was the new garage Charlie Thomas is building at his home. We 
turned east on Eighth, going past the pile of melted glass and 
brick which marks the site of the old Wilson and McCullough 
glass factory. We saw four or five such heaps at different places 
during the day — silent reminders of the old boom days. 

We passed the Angelina Pearson home, the little thirty-acre 
patch of ground owned by Charles T. Parker, where Frank Parker 
lives and the Horace Reeve home. It was early morning and Mr. 
Reeve was doing his chores about the barn, as was also John Pea- 
cock at his farm a little farther east. Mr. Peacock had just hitched 
his horse to the carriage for Sunday school. The animal had gone 
through the same performance so many years that she knew every 
turn to be made, so that driving was unnecessary, only a word 
now and then being required. Joseph Ratliff raised his family of 
boys on the next farm, where his step-son, Xathan Thomas, now 

John Heavilin lives on the old Daniel Whybrew farm of one 
hundred acres which he owns. Nearby is the pretty cottage of his 
son Wayne, who is associated with him. They raise much stock, 
hogs and cattle especially. The original log cabin of the Whybrew 
family is back of the barn, being now used as an out-building. 

Milt Nicholson lives on the Charles Child place, which is situ- 
ated at the cross roads. The road here, running north and south, 
was once the worst old corduroy imaginable. 

A little stop was made at the Thomas Winslow home, south 
of the road. With Mr. Winslow's assistance we were able to locate 
the beautiful homes of Thomas Duling, J. B. Compton and Henry 
Morrish on our left. Proceeding eastward we came to a rolling 
stretch of country and passed the homes of Will Monahan and 
Burr Leach. Off to the north on a little hill we saw the home of 
Fred Briggs, the "onion" man. In the bottom land, which once 

458 Tlic Making of a Toivnship. 

was so swampy that it was considered worthless, Mr. Briggs raises 
the finest kind of onions for the Snider people. The ground is 
fine for tomatoes, too, and corn as well. 

Crossing Barren Creek and coming to an ideal location for 
a residence, we recognized the old Julmnnd Duling place, the 
present home of Solomon Duling. Stopping for a little chat we 
were informed by Mr. Duling that he was born sixty-four years 
ago in a log cabin which stood to the south of the present building. 
He also told us that the old cranberry marshes used to be north 
and a little to the east of the Duling farm, on the Major Norton 
farm and near Lake Galatia. 

Mr. Duling li\es in a regular Duling settlement. Cha]). Virgil, 
Thomas, William and others living in the neighl)orhood. Milton 
Rich has a fine home in this neighborhood, to the north of the road. 

Turning south, a walk of a few minutes brought us to Fowlerton. 
First we went in the Methodist Protestant Church. \\']iere a large 
and interesting Sunday school was in progress. John W. Himelick 
is superintendent of the school and seems to have affairs well in 
hand. The church, which has been nicely remodeled, holds a per- 
sonal interest for the pedestrians, for on a June morning several 
vears ago, a certain fair-haired boy here received his diploma 
from the township schools. 

It was Rev. Heitz's day at Grant and there were no services 
at the Fowlerton Church, so we wended our way over to the \\'es- 
leyan Church, where Mrs. Emma Payne is pastor. Here we found 
the same situation, as Mrs. Payne was preaching in Summitville 
that day, so we went to the only otlier cIhu'cIt in town — tlie United 

On the way we stopped at the store of Solomon D. Key for a 
few minutes. I\lr. T\e\- has his own religious ideas. While not a 
Seventh Day Adventist, nor a member of any other cliurch, he be- 
lieves in observing the seventh day as a day of rest, so lie kce])s his 
store closed on Saturdays and open on Sundays. During our half- 
hour's stay, Mr. Key made several sales, amounting in all to as 
much as $5 or $6. 

Rev. Carter is pastor of llie C i'. Church. It was (|uari,erly 
conference day. however, and the presiding elder of the district 
was in charge, 'i'he church had just experienced a revixal and a 
fervent testimony serxice formed a j^art of the morning's worsliip, 
w itli plenty of ".Amens" interspersed at inter\-als. 

Rambles Over the Tozvnsliip. 459 

Following- the services we had dinner at a little eating place 
kept by Air. and Mrs. Schmidt, natives of France, who came to 
Grant County in the boom days. Mrs. Schmidt speaks broken Eng- 
lish, but her husband understands very little of the language. An 
interesting hour was spent with them. The reason their name is 
of German origin lies in the fact that Mr. Schmidt came from 
Alsace, the much disputed country of northeast France or south- 
west Germany, as the case may be. 

The road from Fowlerton to Matthews lies for the most part 
through a gently rolling country, which becomes especially pic- 
turesque as the river is approached. After leaving Fowlerton we 
passed the Frank Kirkwood farm, where \\'alter Kirkwood lives, 
the Willard Dickerson and the John Dye homes. 

Then w^e saw a large, handsome house, recentl}- improved, with 
big porches and an out-doors sleeping room and we wondered 
whose it could be until we discovered the name, Ellis Wright, 
on the mail box. We passed a pleasant half-hour with Mr. Wright 
■and his family. Talk about your beautiful country homes ! Here is one 
that is not surpassed in miles and miles around. We were especially 
interested in the beautiful tinted walls, as the interior decorating 
Avas done entirely by Miss Myrl Wright, the work equaling that 
of any professional and the stenciling, the patterns for which she 
made herself, far excelling most professional work. Each room 
is different and each has a character all its own. 

To the northwest we could see, from the porch of the AA'right 
residence, the house on the Milton Wright farm, which is being- 
prepared for the home of Ovid Reeder and Miss Myrl Wright, who 
are soon to be married. From the Wright home we could also 
see the homes on the Wilson Simons and the Levi Simons farms. 
Harry Winans lives on the next farm east of the Ellis Wright place. 

Near where the road makes a little jut is a bit of forest where 
many of the giant trees lie or lean from their stumps just as they 
were twisted in a cyclone which struck the neighborhood a few 
} ears ago. 

A home that attracted our attention, because of its neatness and 
evidence of prosperity proved to be the home of Adrial Simons 
and family. Then we soon came to the John Sanders farm, another 
pretty home. Just before reaching Matthews we passed the farm 
of one hundred and thirty-five acres owned by T. J. Eucas. of 

460 I'lic Making of a Tozvnship. 

New Harmony Primitive I'.aptist Church is l)eaiuifully located 
near Matthews, close to a well kept cemetery overlooking- a deep 
ravine. On the headstones we found the names of many well known 
families, Richards, Dunn. Couch, Cory, Ilayden, Kibbey, Leach 
and others. 

Leaving- the cemetery we entered Alatlliews by a winding road 
which skirts a ravine and the ri\er. W'e passed the homes of T. 
Richards and J. Richards and then came to one of the most pic- 
turesque places of all, tlie residence of John Slater, with its pretty 
lawn and driveways and its outlook on the river. Mr. Slater's 
family is especially well known in Fairmount, his children. Mrs. 
Margaret Newberger, Miss Minda Slater and Joe Slater all h-aving 
graduated at the Academy. 

Matthews lias cement walks and brick streets and is a gocxl 
looking little town. 

After w^e boarded the Pennsylvania evening train for home we 
passed tlie site of Palmer U'inslow's glass factory, a pile of melted 
glass and l)rick showing its former location. We also saw llic 
little l)rick ottice which he once used, now fast going to ruin, and 
the house that was the former home of Da\'id A. Paldwin and his 

We had a little chat with A. E. Wilson, the genial conductor 
on the train. ]\lr. Wilson married Miss Mattie Wheeler, a former 
I*"airmount girl. They now live in Converse. 

'I'he hike was one long to be remembered. M. 13. 

March 25, 1915. 

"Over the liills to the poor house we wended our weary way'' 
last Sunday. If our readers could have seen us as we climbed the 
last hill l)efore we reached the main entrance to the grounds where 
the unfortunates of the county are kept they would wonder wliy 
we ever were ])erniitted to leave after we once got inside, for. as 
w-arni and dtisty as we were we certainly looked like fit subjects 
for permanent residence. 

After finding an attendant we were escorted up the broad steps 
to the main entrance of the building. On the portico above us, as 
we mounted the steps, stood a feeble minded man who }elled out, 
"Oh, you lazy bones!" W'e are still wondering whether the ai^pcl- 
lation was meant for us or for the attendant. 

Rambles Over the Tozvnship. 461 

Sunday is not visitors' day any more. So many people formed 
the habit of going on Sunday to visit the institution that the super- 
intendent and his family could get no rest, so an edict was posted 
that there would be no more Sunday visitors. 

However, we met Superintendent Bowles and Dr. Ross, of 
Gas City, the Infirmary physician. The latter told us that there 
are always several sick and many infirm people in the institution. 
We were also told by the superintendent that at least one-third 
of the inmates are feeble minded and irresponsible. 

The farm and the grounds are beautiful. The building is in 
excellent condition and everything is kept very clean. However, 
our hearts went out in sympathy for all connected with the place, 
including those in authority. 

As we turned from the gateway, in a backward glance, we saw, 
in an upper window, the white head of an old, old man buried in 
his arms as they rested upon the sill. He may have been asleep 
or he may have been only resting, but so pathetic was the attitude 
that to us the figure of the man seemed to embody the spirit of 
the place. Forsaken by relatives and friends he must pass the re- 
maining days of his life as a ward of the county. The picture 
remained with us all day and will continue to do so for many, many 
days to come. 

Another vivid incident preceded this one only a short time. Near 
the Infirmary flows Walnut Creek, which is spanned by a pretty 
bridge. As we sat near the creek resting by the roadside, an auto- 
mobile filled with men rushed by and came to a sudden halt in the 
middle of the bridge. Evidently a visit had been made to Gas City^ 
for beer bottles were drawn thick and fast from the bottom of the 
automobile and, after being drained of their contents, were hurled 
over the bridge into the creek, striking the water with a great 

The men evidently thought we were thirsty, too, for they of- 
fered the "better half" a bottle, but did not seem to be offended 
at the refusal to accept. In commenting upon the incident later in 
the day, the "better half" said, "Those young fellows are paving 
the way to the County Infirmary or some such institution unless 
they mend their ways." Worst of all, they had a child — a little 
boy — with them. 

Ap7'il 29, 19 1 5. 


How Public Lands Were Surveyed. 

(From Nilcs' Register, April 12. 1817.) 

Captain Jared Mansfield, U. S. A., succeeded Rufus Putnam, the 
first Surveyor-General, in 1803. It was .necessary for him to survey 
the Vincennes Indian Grant of 1795, confirmed in 1803. But as the 
tract was surrounded by Indian lands, cut off from the other sur- 
veys and remote from the Ohio river, he was at a loss as to how to 
proceed. If he tried to survey the tract in conformance with the 
lines east of the Greenville Treaty line, he felt sure that when 
the lines were connected after the Indian title to the intervening- 
land was secured there would be great confusion, and if he merely 
surveyed the tract as a unit he would destroy any uniformity of 
surveys in the Indiana Territory. He therefore decided to base the 
surveys upon great lines which could control all future surveys in 
that region. To this end he ran the Second Principal Meridian 
through the northeast corner of the cession. For a base line he used 
a line running from the westernmost corner of Clark's grant on the 
Ohio — the nearest surveyed land. 

This was the beginning" of the combination of principal meridians 
and base lines which have l^een used in all later surveys. Both 
had been used before — Mansfield perfected the system and applied 
his brilliant talents to the astronomical location of the important 
points from which surrounding surveys could be made. The Second 
Principal Meridian governed the surveys in Indiana and those in 
Illinois to the western boundary of the fourteenth range. West 
from that line to the Mississippi and Illinois rivers the surveys 
have been based on the Third Principal Meridian, which runs from 
the mouth of the Ohio river. 

The north and south lines are run l)y the true meridian, and the 
east and west lines at right angles therefrom, as far as practicable, 
in closing. But as the east and west lines are made the closing 
lines of the sections or townships, they frequently vary a little from 
those points, being run from one section or township corner to 


464 The Making of a Township. 

another. 'I'lie lines are well marked In^- having- all those trees which 
fall in the line notched with two notches on each side where the 
line cuts, and all or most of the trees on each side of the line and 
near it l)lazed on two sides, diagonally- or quartering" towards the 

At the section corners thei'e are posts set, having' as many 
notches cut on two sides of them as they are miles distant from 
the township boundary, where the sectional lines commenced. At 
the township corners the posts have six notches made on each of 
the four sides facing the lines. Wherever a tree falls exactly in 
the corner, it supplies the place of a post, and is marked in the 
same manner. The places of the posts are perpetuated thus: At 
each corner the courses are taken to two trees in opposite direc- 
tions as nearly as may be, and their distance from the post meas- 
ured. These trees are called "bearing trees" (witness trees) and 
are blazed on the side next the post, and one notch made with an 
axe in the blaze. Ikit in prairies, or other places where there are 
no trees within a convenient distance for bearings, a mound of 
earth is raised at each corner, not less than two and a half feet high, 
nor less than that in diameter at the base, in which the mound- 
posts are placed. 

At the section corners the numbers of each section, together 
wMth the numbers of the township and range, are marked w'ith a 
marking iron (such as are used in mills and warehouses) on a 
l)earing or other trees standing within the section near to the corner, 
thus : A blaze large enough for the purpose is made on the tree, 
and on the blaze the letter R is made, with the number of the range 
annexed ; below this the letter T. with the number of the township; 
and under that the number of the section, without any letter to 
denote it. To the number of the township the letter N or S is 
added, according as the township lies north or south of the base- 
line; and to the number of the range the letter E or W as the range 
may be east or west of the i)rinci])al meridian. I'.y proper attention 
to these numbers and marks a purchaser is enabled to know the 
quarter and number of the section he wishes to enter, and the num- 
ber of the township and range in which it lies. 

The quarter-section corners are established iu the same manner 
that the section corners are. but no marks are made for the numbers 
of the secticm, townshi]) and range; "1-4 S" only is marked on the 

Appendix. 465 

The deputy surveyors are required to note particularly and to 
enter in their field books the courses and distances of all lines 
which they may run ; the names and estimated diameters of all 
corner or bearing trees, and all those trees which fall in the lines, 
called station or line trees, together with the courses or distances 
of the bearing trees from their respective corners, with the proper 
letters and numbers marked on them ; all rivers, creeks, springs 
and smaller streams of water, with their width and the course they 
run in crossing the line, and whether navigable, rapid, or otherwise ; 
also the face of the country, whether level, hilly or mountainous ; 
the kinds of timber and undergrowth with which the land may be 
covered, and the quality of the soil; all lakes, ponds, swamps, peat 
or turf grounds, coal beds, stone quarries ; uncommon, natural or 
artificial productions, such as remains of ancient fortifications, 
mounds, precipices, caves, etc., all rapids, cascades, or falls of wa- 
ter ; minerals, ores, fossils, etc. ; the true situation of all mines, salt 
licks, salt springs, and mill-sites which may come to their knowl- 
edge. From the returns of the surveys thus made a complete 
knowledge of the country may be obtained, and maps thereof drawn 
with the greatest accuracy. The field notes of the surveyors, to- 
gether with the plats and descriptions, made out therefrom, are 
filed in the office of the surveyor-general of the United States, or 
of the principal surveyors for the territories of Mississippi, Illinois, 
and Missouri. 

Some Old Recipes. 

(From The Medical Investigator^ i847-) 

For Cholera Infantum. 

Take a double handful of dewberry roots, a double handful of 
the root of cranesbill and two gallons of witchhazel leaves, boil 
these articles separately till the strength is all extracted; then 
strain, and pour the whole into one vessel, and boil down to a 
quart; add a pint of the best French brandy, and a pound of loaf 
sugar. Dose, from a tablespoonful to a wine glassful ; repeated 
according to circumstances, and continued until the action on 
the bowels is fully checked. 

466 llic Making of a Tozunship. 

Tincture of Lobelia. 

I'ill a jar with green herb, well l:)rui.secl and pressed, and for 
every quart which the jar will contain add three or four pods of 
common red pepper, then pour on good whiskey enough to cover 
the herb, and let it stand for use. The longer it stands the stronger 
it becomes. This forms an excellent remedy in phthisic, croup, 
whooping-cough, bad colds, and all catarrhal affections, and is ]^ev- 
fectly safe in its effects on all ages and conditions of persons. 

For Yellow Jaundice. 

Take a double handful of wild cherry tree bark, of the roots; 
the same quantity of yellow poplar bark, of the roots ; of sarsaparilla 
roots; of the bark of the red sumach roots; half the quantity of 
bitter root. Boil these ingredients in two gallons of water until it 
is reduced to half a gallon ; j^our off and strain the liquid. Then boil 
or simmer down to one pint; add this to one gallon of hard cider; 
shake it well ; then add two ounces of garden madder, or the madder 
of the shops. Commence with half a wine glassful three times a 
day, increasing the dose gradually to half a teacupful or even more 
in bad cases. When you have drunk half, add another half-gallon 
of cider. 

Opening of the Wabash and Erie Canal. 

( I-^-om the Indiana Journal, July 31, 1835.) 

Canal navigation in Indiana has now fairly commenced. Iliirty- 
two miles of the Wabash and Erie canal, extending from tlie dam 
across the Little vSt. Jose])h river to Huntington on the Wabash 
are now completed and boats are regularly running thereon, fliis 
interesting event was celebrated in a becoming manner on the 
4th inst. On the 2n(l ihree boats left this place for llunlington for 
the purpose of bringing \\\i such citizens ol the lower end ot tlie 
line as might wish to attend the celebration. Tlic arri\al of these 
boats in lluntington was liailed with the li\eliest demouslrations 
of joy. 

'Ilie next day the boats returned to l"t. \\'a\ne, and were met 
and saluted by a detachment ol militia, under the command ol (."apt. 
Rudisil; the salutes were returned by Capt. Fate's artillery, who 

Appendix. 467 

came from Huntington with the boats. On the morning of the 4th 
a procession was formed in front of the Washington Hall and pro- 
ceeded to the canal, where they embarked on the boats prepared 
for the occasion, and took a trip to the Feeder dam, seven miles 
distant. No less than 500 individuals, including a large portion of 
the fair sex, were present on the occasion. Among the guests were 
Gen. Tipton, of the U. S. Senate, and Col. Stansberry, of the U. S. 
Topographical Engineers, who was one of the party who first sur- 
veyed the route of the canal. Governor Noble was prevented by 
ill health from attending. Governor Lucas, of Ohio, was invited, 
but was prevented by the pressure of official business from being 

The company landed at the dam, where salutes were fired by 
the military and some toasts were given. On the health of the canal 
commissioners being drunk, D. Burr, Esq., returned thanks, and in 
a short but animated address depicted the difficulties Avhich our 
infant State had encountered in the commencement of a work of 
such magnitude as this canal, and the advantages that might rea- 
sonably be anticipated from its speedy completion. Gen. Tipton 
being called upon, delivered a short speech, in wihch he contrasted 
the present appearance of this section of country — where cultivated 
farms and cheerful villages meet the eye in every direction — with 
what it was at the time the canal was first contemplated, when the 
whole country from Lake Erie to the A\'"abash was one unbroken 

The company then returned to Ft. Wayne, where the Declara- 
tion of Independence was read by L. B. Wilson, and an oration de- 
livered by Hon. H. McCulloch. A large company afterwards par- 
took of a public dinner prepared for the occasion. The day was un- 
commonly fine, and nothing happened to disturb the harmony and 
good feeling which were manifested by all. 

The Irish were observed by the citizens to be in the habit of 
nightly assembling in the secluded places in the woods ; and all 
who could in any way procure arms were providing themselves 
with them. Three kegs of powder were forcibly taken from a 
wagon on the highway ; the houses of some of the citizens were 
entered .and the owners compelled to give up their guns ; and the 
lives of others were threatened who refused to give up their arms. 
Several outrages were committed by these deluded ruffians upon 
each other; and Mr. Brady, a canal contractor, was fired at, but 
fortunately without effect, by a wretch named Sullivan, who, we are 

468 The Making of a Toivnship. 

informed, took a prominent part in the disturbances in Maryland 
last year, and is also deepl}' implicated in the murders committed 
at Williamsburg-h, Pa., four years ago. 

The contest was intended to have taken place on the 12th inst., 
the anniversary of the battle of the Boync. On the loth the "Cork- 
onians" assembled at Lagro, to the number of about three hundred, 
most of whom were armed ; at the same time about two hundred 
and fifty armed "Fardowns" advanced to Wabash, seven miles from 
Lagro, on their way to attack their adversaries. D. Burr, Esq., 
canal commissioner, and some other citizens of the neighborhood, 
succeeded in inducing the two parties to suspend their intended 
fight for two days, in order to give them an opportunity of making- 
some amicable arrangement. Tn the meantime expresses were sent 
to Fort Wayne and Logansport, requesting assistance to suppress 
the disturbances and protect the citizens from the dangers to which 
they would be exposed if the two parties should come in contact. 

The express arrived here (Fort Wayne) on Saturday the nth, 
and the appeal was promptly responded to by our citizens. The 
drum beat to arms, and in two hours a company of sixty-three men, 
well armed and furnished with ammunition and provisions, were 
en their march for the scene of action. Col. J. Spencer was elected 
to command the expedition ; Adam Hull was elected first 
lieutenant, Samuel Edsell second lieutenant, and H. Rudisil 
ensign. The company embarked in a canal boat and arrived at 
Huntington about midnight; next morning they marched forward 
on their route, reinforced by a company from Htu